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Breast carcinoma

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
Synonym: Carcinoma of breast
SNOMED CT: CA - Carcinoma of breast (254838004); Carcinoma of breast (254838004)
 
HPO: HP:0003002
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004989

Definition

The presence of a carcinoma of the breast. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBreast carcinoma

Conditions with this feature

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
MedGen UID:
18404
Concept ID:
C0031269
Disease or Syndrome
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by the association of gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation, and cancer predisposition. PJS-type hamartomatous polyps are most common in the small intestine (in order of prevalence: jejunum, ileum, and duodenum) but can also occur in the stomach, large bowel, and extraintestinal sites including the renal pelvis, bronchus, gall bladder, nasal passages, urinary bladder, and ureters. GI polyps can result in chronic bleeding, anemia, and recurrent obstruction and intussusception requiring repeated laparotomy and bowel resection. Mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation presents in childhood as dark blue to dark brown macules around the mouth, eyes, and nostrils, in the perianal area, and on the buccal mucosa. Hyperpigmented macules on the fingers are common. The macules may fade in puberty and adulthood. Recognition of the distinctive skin manifestations is important especially in individuals who have PJS as the result of a de novo pathogenic variant as these skin findings often predate GI signs and symptoms. Individuals with PJS are at increased risk for a wide variety of epithelial malignancies (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancers). Females are at risk for sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT), a benign neoplasm of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix, a rare aggressive cancer. Males occasionally develop large calcifying Sertoli cell tumors of the testes, which secrete estrogen and can lead to gynecomastia, advanced skeletal age, and ultimately short stature, if untreated.
Saethre-Chotzen syndrome
MedGen UID:
64221
Concept ID:
C0175699
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is characterized by coronal synostosis (unilateral or bilateral), facial asymmetry (particularly in individuals with unicoronal synostosis), strabismus, ptosis, and characteristic appearance of the ear (small pinna with a prominent superior and/or inferior crus). Syndactyly of digits two and three of the hand is variably present. Cognitive development is usually normal, although those with a large genomic deletion are at an increased risk for intellectual challenges. Less common manifestations of SCS include other skeletal findings (parietal foramina, vertebral segmentation defects, radioulnar synostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, hallux valgus, duplicated or curved distal hallux), hypertelorism, palatal anomalies, obstructive sleep apnea, increased intracranial pressure, short stature, and congenital heart malformations.
Familial cancer of breast
MedGen UID:
87542
Concept ID:
C0346153
Neoplastic Process
BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (including fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The risk of developing an associated cancer varies depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.
Ovarian cancer
MedGen UID:
216027
Concept ID:
C1140680
Neoplastic Process
Ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, is characterized by advanced presentation with loco-regional dissemination in the peritoneal cavity and the rare incidence of visceral metastases (Chi et al., 2001). These typical features relate to the biology of the disease, which is a principal determinant of outcome (Auersperg et al., 2001). Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common form and encompasses 5 major histologic subtypes: papillary serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and transitional cell. Epithelial ovarian cancer arises as a result of genetic alterations sustained by the ovarian surface epithelium (Stany et al., 2008; Soslow, 2008).
Muir-Torré syndrome
MedGen UID:
231157
Concept ID:
C1321489
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with high risks for a diverse spectrum of childhood- and adult-onset malignancies. The lifetime risk of cancer in individuals with LFS is =70% for men and =90% for women. Five cancer types account for the majority of LFS tumors: adrenocortical carcinomas, breast cancer, central nervous system tumors, osteosarcomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas. LFS is associated with an increased risk of several additional cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of head and neck, kidney, larynx, lung, skin (e.g., melanoma), ovary, pancreas, prostate, testis, and thyroid. Individuals with LFS are at increased risk for cancer in childhood and young adulthood; survivors are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers.
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
324868
Concept ID:
C1837750
Neoplastic Process
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome is a rare, genetic, odontologic disease characterized by congenital absence of six or more permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) in association with an increased risk for malignancies, ranging from gastrointestinal polyposis to early-onset colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with sparse hair and/or eyebrows) may also be associated.
Desmoid disease, hereditary
MedGen UID:
338210
Concept ID:
C1851124
Disease or Syndrome
APC-associated polyposis conditions include (classic or attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). FAP is a colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndrome that can manifest in either classic or attenuated form. Classic FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps, beginning on average at age 16 years (range 7-36 years). For those with the classic form of FAP, 95% of individuals have polyps by age 35 years; CRC is inevitable without colectomy. The mean age of CRC diagnosis in untreated individuals is 39 years (range 34-43 years). The attenuated form is characterized by multiple colonic polyps (average of 30), more proximally located polyps, and a diagnosis of CRC at a later age than in classic FAP. For those with an attenuated form, there is a 70% lifetime risk of CRC and the mean age of diagnosis is 50-55 years. Extracolonic manifestations are variably present and include polyps of the stomach and duodenum, osteomas, dental abnormalities, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), benign cutaneous lesions, desmoid tumors, adrenal masses, and other associated cancers. GAPPS is characterized by proximal gastric polyposis, increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, and no duodenal or colonic involvement in most individuals reported.
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome with granular cell tumor
MedGen UID:
400984
Concept ID:
C1866376
Neoplastic Process
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
382625
Concept ID:
C2675520
Finding
BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (including fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The risk of developing an associated cancer varies depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
382914
Concept ID:
C2676676
Finding
BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (including fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The risk of developing an associated cancer varies depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial, susceptibility to, 3
MedGen UID:
462009
Concept ID:
C3150659
Finding
Any hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RAD51C gene.
Familial cutaneous telangiectasia and oropharyngeal predisposition cancer syndrome
MedGen UID:
482833
Concept ID:
C3281203
Neoplastic Process
Patients with familial cutaneous telangiectasia and cancer syndrome (FCTCS) develop cutaneous telangiectases in infancy with patchy alopecia over areas of affected skin, thinning of the lateral eyebrows, and mild dental and nail anomalies. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer, and other malignancies have been reported as well (Tanaka et al., 2012).
Cowden syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
767431
Concept ID:
C3554517
Disease or Syndrome
The features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.\n\n\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.
Cowden syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
767432
Concept ID:
C3554518
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency.
Cowden syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
767433
Concept ID:
C3554519
Disease or Syndrome
The features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.\n\n\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.
Familial adenomatous polyposis 3
MedGen UID:
902388
Concept ID:
C4225157
Disease or Syndrome
NTHL1 tumor syndrome is characterized by an increased lifetime risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, and colorectal polyposis. Colorectal polyps can be adenomatous, hyperplastic, and/or sessile serrated. Duodenal polyposis has also been reported. Additional cancers reported in individuals with NTHL1 tumor syndrome include endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, meningiomas, unspecified brain tumors, basal cell carcinomas, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, and hematologic malignancies. The cumulative lifetime risk of developing extracolonic cancer by age 60 years has been estimated at 35% to 78%.
Cowden syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
908796
Concept ID:
C4225179
Disease or Syndrome
Cowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\n\n\nThe features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
MedGen UID:
1632414
Concept ID:
C4554406
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial, susceptibility to, 5
MedGen UID:
1841251
Concept ID:
C5830615
Finding
Individuals with mutation in the PALB2 gene have an increased risk of developing breast or, to a lesser degree, ovarian cancer. In addition, PALB2 variants increase susceptibility to several other cancers, e.g., male breast cancer and pancreatic cancer (PNCA3; 613348) (Rahman et al., 2007; Norquist et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility, see BROVCA1 (604370). For general discussions of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, see 114480 and 167000, respectively. Reviews Hamdan and Nowak (2023) reviewed the structure and function of the PALB2 gene, and its role in disease, including Fanconi anemia (FANCN; 610832), pancreatic cancer (PNCA3; 613348), and breast and ovarian cancer.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1849727
Concept ID:
C5882668
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare disorder that greatly increases the risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly in children and young adults.\n\nThe cancers most often associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome include breast cancer, a form of bone cancer called osteosarcoma, and cancers of soft tissues (such as muscle) called soft tissue sarcomas. Other cancers commonly seen in this syndrome include brain tumors, cancers of blood-forming tissues (leukemias), and a cancer called adrenocortical carcinoma that affects the outer layer of the adrenal glands (small hormone-producing glands on top of each kidney). Several other types of cancer also occur more frequently in people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.\n\nA very similar condition called Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome shares many of the features of classic Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Both conditions significantly increase the chances of developing multiple cancers beginning in childhood; however, the pattern of specific cancers seen in affected family members is different.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Nandi D, Parida S, Sharma D
Gut Microbes 2023 Jan-Dec;15(1):2221452. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2023.2221452. PMID: 37305949Free PMC Article
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Beck AC, Fu SL, Liao J, Bashir A, Sugg SL, Erdahl LM, Weigel RJ, Lizarraga IM
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Surg Pathol Clin 2018 Mar;11(1):123-145. Epub 2017 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.path.2017.09.009. PMID: 29413653Free PMC Article

Therapy

Al-Mahmood S, Sapiezynski J, Garbuzenko OB, Minko T
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Prognosis

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Clinical prediction guides

Metovic J, Castellano I, Marinelli E, Osella-Abate S, Sapino A, Cassoni P, Papotti M
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Recent systematic reviews

Kern R, Panis C
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2021 Jun 20;69(1):16. doi: 10.1007/s00005-021-00618-5. PMID: 34148159
Vermeulen RFM, Beurden MV, Korse CM, Kenter GG
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Ruddy KJ, Winer EP
Ann Oncol 2013 Jun;24(6):1434-43. Epub 2013 Feb 20 doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdt025. PMID: 23425944

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