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Macrocephaly

MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding; Finding
Synonyms: large head; Macrocephalus
SNOMED CT: Macrocephaly (1145403003); Macrocephalus (1145403003)
 
HPO: HP:0000256

Definition

Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Achondroplasia
MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis.
Gorlin syndrome
MedGen UID:
2554
Concept ID:
C0004779
Neoplastic Process
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is characterized by the development of multiple jaw keratocysts, frequently beginning in the second decade of life, and/or basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) usually from the third decade onward. Approximately 60% of individuals have a recognizable appearance with macrocephaly, frontal bossing, coarse facial features, and facial milia. Most individuals have skeletal anomalies (e.g., bifid ribs, wedge-shaped vertebrae). Ectopic calcification, particularly in the falx, is present in more than 90% of affected individuals by age 20 years. Cardiac and ovarian fibromas occur in approximately 2% and 20% of individuals respectively. Approximately 5% of all children with NBCCS develop medulloblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor), generally the desmoplastic subtype. The risk of developing medulloblastoma is substantially higher in individuals with an SUFU pathogenic variant (33%) than in those with a PTCH1 pathogenic variant (<2%). Peak incidence is at age one to two years. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly different from average.
Fragile X syndrome
MedGen UID:
8912
Concept ID:
C0016667
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population.
Ito hypomelanosis
MedGen UID:
5920
Concept ID:
C0022283
Congenital Abnormality
A large brown, blue, or gray hamartoma of dermal melanocytes, usually on the shoulder and upper arm that is most commonly found in Asian populations and in females. It is sometimes associated with sensory changes in the involved skin area, but very rarely becomes cancerous.
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-II
MedGen UID:
7734
Concept ID:
C0026705
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; also known as Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked multisystem disorder characterized by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation. The vast majority of affected individuals are male; on rare occasion heterozygous females manifest findings. Age of onset, disease severity, and rate of progression vary significantly among affected males. In those with early progressive disease, CNS involvement (manifest primarily by progressive cognitive deterioration), progressive airway disease, and cardiac disease usually result in death in the first or second decade of life. In those with slowly progressive disease, the CNS is not (or is minimally) affected, although the effect of GAG accumulation on other organ systems may be early progressive to the same degree as in those who have progressive cognitive decline. Survival into the early adult years with normal intelligence is common in the slowly progressing form of the disease. Additional findings in both forms of MPS II include: short stature; macrocephaly with or without communicating hydrocephalus; macroglossia; hoarse voice; conductive and sensorineural hearing loss; hepatosplenomegaly; dysostosis multiplex; spinal stenosis; and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6
MedGen UID:
44514
Concept ID:
C0026709
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS6) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Clinical features and severity are variable, but usually include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism. Intelligence is usually normal (Azevedo et al., 2004).
Neurofibromatosis, type 1
MedGen UID:
18013
Concept ID:
C0027831
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder characterized by multiple café au lait macules, intertriginous freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and learning disability or behavior problems. About half of people with NF1 have plexiform neurofibromas, but most are internal and not suspected clinically. Plexiform neurofibromas can cause pain, neurologic deficits, and abnormalities of involved or adjacent structures. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, vasculopathy, and gastrointestinal, endocrine, or pulmonary disease.
Pelger-Huët anomaly
MedGen UID:
10617
Concept ID:
C0030779
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant inherited condition caused by mutations in the lamin B receptor gene. It is characterized by defects in the neutrophil lobulation, resulting in the presence of dumbbell-shaped neutrophils with bilobed nuclei in the peripheral blood smear.
Sandhoff disease
MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
Sandhoff disease comprises a phenotypic continuum encompassing acute infantile, subacute juvenile, and late-onset disease. Although classification into these phenotypes is somewhat arbitrary, it is helpful in understanding the variation observed in the timing of disease onset, presenting manifestations, rate of progression, and life span. Acute infantile Sandhoff disease (onset age <6 months). Infants are generally normal at birth followed by progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress, then developmental regression and severe neurologic impairment. Seizures are common. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years. Subacute juvenile Sandhoff disease (onset age 2-5 years). After attaining normal developmental milestones, developmental progress slows, followed by developmental regression and neurologic impairment (abnormal gait, dysarthria, and cognitive decline). Death (usually from aspiration) typically occurs in the early to late teens. Late-onset Sandhoff disease (onset older teen years or young adulthood). Nearly normal psychomotor development is followed by a range of neurologic findings (e.g., weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, and deficits in cerebellar function) and psychiatric findings (e.g., deficits in executive function and memory). Life expectancy is not necessarily decreased.
Sturge-Weber syndrome
MedGen UID:
21361
Concept ID:
C0038505
Disease or Syndrome
Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by an intracranial vascular anomaly, leptomeningeal angiomatosis, most often involving the occipital and posterior parietal lobes. The most common symptoms and signs are facial cutaneous vascular malformations (port-wine stains), seizures, and glaucoma. Stasis results in ischemia underlying the leptomeningeal angiomatosis, leading to calcification and laminar cortical necrosis. The clinical course is highly variable and some children experience intractable seizures, mental retardation, and recurrent stroke-like episodes (review by Thomas-Sohl et al., 2004).
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7
MedGen UID:
43108
Concept ID:
C0085132
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS7) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the inability to degrade glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from severe lethal hydrops fetalis to mild forms with survival into adulthood. Most patients with the intermediate phenotype show hepatomegaly, skeletal anomalies, coarse facies, and variable degrees of mental impairment (Shipley et al., 1993). MPS VII was the first autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis for which chromosomal assignment was achieved.
Proteus syndrome
MedGen UID:
39008
Concept ID:
C0085261
Neoplastic Process
Proteus syndrome is characterized by progressive segmental or patchy overgrowth most commonly affecting the skeleton, skin, adipose, and central nervous systems. In most individuals Proteus syndrome has modest or no manifestations at birth, develops and progresses rapidly beginning in the toddler period, and relentlessly progresses through childhood, causing severe overgrowth and disfigurement. It is associated with a range of tumors, pulmonary complications, and a striking predisposition to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D
MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Spongy degeneration of central nervous system
MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals.
Macrocephaly, benign familial
MedGen UID:
113101
Concept ID:
C0220690
Congenital Abnormality
A benign form of macrocephaly, sometimes identified with Sotos syndrome, with normal or near-normal birth weight and length with subsequent obesity, variable developmental delay, and typical square facies with frontal bossing, dished-out midface, biparietal narrowing, and long philtrum.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
X-linked hydrocephalus syndrome
MedGen UID:
75552
Concept ID:
C0265216
Disease or Syndrome
L1 syndrome involves a phenotypic spectrum ranging from severe to mild and includes three clinical phenotypes: X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (HSAS). MASA (mental retardation [intellectual disability], aphasia [delayed speech], spastic paraplegia [shuffling gait], adducted thumbs) syndrome including X-linked complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia type 1. X-linked complicated corpus callosum agenesis. Males with HSAS are born with severe hydrocephalus, adducted thumbs, and spasticity; intellectual disability is severe. In less severely affected males, hydrocephalus may be subclinically present and documented only because of developmental delay; intellectual disability ranges from mild (IQ: 50-70) to moderate (IQ: 30-50). It is important to note that all phenotypes can be observed in affected individuals within the same family.
Hecht syndrome
MedGen UID:
78540
Concept ID:
C0265226
Disease or Syndrome
The trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome is a distal arthrogryposis characterized by an inability to open the mouth fully (trismus) and pseudocamptodactyly in which wrist dorsiflexion, but not volar flexion, produces involuntary flexion contracture of distal and proximal interphalangeal joints. In these patients, trismus complicates dental care, feeding during infancy, and intubation for anesthesia, and the pseudocamptodactyly impairs manual dexterity, with consequent occupational and social disability (summary by Veugelers et al., 2004).
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
120531
Concept ID:
C0265306
Congenital Abnormality
Typical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by macrocephaly, widely spaced eyes associated with increased interpupillary distance, preaxial polydactyly with or without postaxial polydactyly, and cutaneous syndactyly. Developmental delay, intellectual disability, or seizures appear to be uncommon manifestations (~<10%) of GCPS and may be more common in individuals with large (>300-kb) deletions that encompass GLI3. Approximately 20% of individuals with GCPS have hypoplasia or agenesis of the corpus callosum.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Niemann-Pick disease, type A
MedGen UID:
78650
Concept ID:
C0268242
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotype of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) occurs along a continuum. Individuals with the severe early-onset form, infantile neurovisceral ASMD, were historically diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A). The later-onset, chronic visceral form of ASMD is also referred to as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). A phenotype with intermediate severity is also known as chronic neurovisceral ASMD (NPD-A/B). The most common presenting symptom in NPD-A is hepatosplenomegaly, usually detectable by age three months; over time the liver and spleen become massive in size. Psychomotor development progresses no further than the 12-month level, after which neurologic deterioration is relentless. Failure to thrive typically becomes evident by the second year of life. A classic cherry-red spot of the macula of the retina, which may not be present in the first few months, is eventually present in all affected children. Interstitial lung disease caused by storage of sphingomyelin in pulmonary macrophages results in frequent respiratory infections and often respiratory failure. Most children succumb before the third year of life. NPD-B generally presents later than NPD-A, and the manifestations are less severe. NPD-B is characterized by progressive hepatosplenomegaly, gradual deterioration in liver and pulmonary function, osteopenia, and atherogenic lipid profile. No central nervous system (CNS) manifestations occur. Individuals with NPD-A/B have symptoms that are intermediate between NPD-A and NPD-B. The presentation in individuals with NPD-A/B varies greatly, although all are characterized by the presence of some CNS manifestations. Survival to adulthood can occur in individuals with NPD-B and NPD-A/B.
Brittle cornea syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
78661
Concept ID:
C0268344
Disease or Syndrome
Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is characterized by blue sclerae, corneal rupture after minor trauma, keratoconus or keratoglobus, hyperelasticity of the skin, and hypermobility of the joints (Al-Hussain et al., 2004). It is classified as a form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Malfait et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brittle Cornea Syndrome Brittle cornea syndrome-2 (BCS2; 614170) is caused by mutation in the PRDM5 gene (614161) on chromosome 4q27.
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Glutaric aciduria, type 1
MedGen UID:
124337
Concept ID:
C0268595
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of untreated glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) ranges from the more common form (infantile-onset disease) to the less common form (later-onset disease – i.e., after age 6 years). Of note, the GA-1 phenotype can vary widely between untreated family members with the same genotype, primarily as a function of the age at which the first acute encephalopathic crisis occurred: three months to six years in infantile-onset GA-1 and after age six years in later-onset GA-1. Characteristically these crises result in acute bilateral striatal injury and subsequent complex movement disorders. In the era of newborn screening (NBS), the prompt initiation of treatment of asymptomatic infants detected by NBS means that most individuals who would have developed manifestations of either infantile-onset or later-onset GA-1 remain asymptomatic; however, they may be at increased risk for other manifestations (e.g., renal disease) that are becoming apparent as the understanding of the natural history of treated GA-1 continues to evolve.
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75696
Concept ID:
C0268596
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) represents a clinical spectrum in which presentations can be divided into type I (neonatal onset with congenital anomalies), type II (neonatal onset without congenital anomalies), and type III (late onset). Individuals with type I or II MADD typically become symptomatic in the neonatal period with severe metabolic acidosis, which may be accompanied by profound hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia. Many affected individuals die in the newborn period despite metabolic treatment. In those who survive the neonatal period, recurrent metabolic decompensation resembling Reye syndrome and the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can occur. Congenital anomalies may include dysmorphic facial features, large cystic kidneys, hypospadias and chordee in males, and neuronal migration defects (heterotopias) on brain MRI. Individuals with type III MADD, the most common presentation, can present from infancy to adulthood. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and/or muscle pain, although metabolic decompensation with episodes of rhabdomyolysis can also be seen. Rarely, individuals with late-onset MADD (type III) may develop severe sensory neuropathy in addition to proximal myopathy.
Hamartoma of hypothalamus
MedGen UID:
137970
Concept ID:
C0342418
Finding
Pallister-Hall-like syndrome (PHLS) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by phenotypic variability. Patients exhibit postaxial polydactyly as well as hypothalamic hamartoma, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Hirschsprung disease has also been observed (Rubino et al., 2018; Le et al., 2020). Pallister-Hall syndrome (146510) is an autosomal dominant disorder with features overlapping those of PHLS, caused by mutation in the GLI3 gene (165240).
Sialuria
MedGen UID:
137980
Concept ID:
C0342853
Disease or Syndrome
Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism in which excessive free sialic acid is synthesized. Clinical features include hepatosplenomegaly, coarse facial features, and varying degrees of developmental delay (summary by Enns et al., 2001).
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
X-linked myotubular myopathy (X-MTM), also known as myotubular myopathy (MTM), is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Approximately 80% of affected males present with severe (classic) X-MTM characterized by polyhydramnios, decreased fetal movement, and neonatal weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Motor milestones are significantly delayed and most individuals fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. It is estimated that at least 25% of boys with severe X-MTM die in the first year of life, and those who survive rarely live into adulthood. Males with mild or moderate X-MTM (~20%) achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; many ambulate independently, and may live into adulthood. Most require gastrostomy tubes and/or ventilator support. In all subtypes of X-MTM, the muscle disease is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of X-MTM are generally asymptomatic, although manifesting heterozygotes are increasingly being identified. In affected females, symptoms range from severe, generalized weakness presenting in childhood, with infantile onset similar to affected male patients, to mild (often asymmetric) weakness manifesting in adulthood. Affected adult females may experience progressive respiratory decline and ultimately require ventilatory support.
Hypochondroplasia
MedGen UID:
98376
Concept ID:
C0410529
Congenital Abnormality
Hypochondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature; stocky build; disproportionately short arms and legs; broad, short hands and feet; mild joint laxity; and macrocephaly. Radiologic features include shortening of long bones with mild metaphyseal flare; narrowing of the inferior lumbar interpedicular distances; short, broad femoral neck; and squared, shortened ilia. The skeletal features are very similar to those seen in achondroplasia but tend to be milder. Medical complications common to achondroplasia (e.g., spinal stenosis, tibial bowing, obstructive apnea) occur less frequently in hypochondroplasia but intellectual disability and epilepsy may be more prevalent. Children usually present as toddlers or at early school age with decreased growth velocity leading to short stature and limb disproportion. Other features also become more prominent over time.
Schneckenbecken dysplasia
MedGen UID:
98475
Concept ID:
C0432194
Disease or Syndrome
Schneckenbecken dysplasia (SHNKND) is a perinatally lethal skeletal dysplasia. The German term 'Schneckenbecken' refers to the distinctive, snail-like appearance of the ilia that results from a medial bone projection from the inner iliac margin. Other hallmarks of the disorder include thoracic hypoplasia, severe flattening of the vertebral bodies, and short, thick long bones (summary by Hiraoka et al., 2007).
Type IV short rib polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
96578
Concept ID:
C0432198
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beemer-Langer syndrome have been found to carry mutations in the IFT80 gene (611177); see SRTD2, 611263. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Opsismodysplasia
MedGen UID:
140927
Concept ID:
C0432219
Disease or Syndrome
Opsismodysplasia (OPSMD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia involving delayed bone maturation. Clinical signs observed at birth include short limbs, small hands and feet, relative macrocephaly with a large anterior fontanel, and characteristic craniofacial abnormalities including a prominent brow, depressed nasal bridge, a small anteverted nose, and a relatively long philtrum. Death in utero or secondary to respiratory failure during the first few years of life has been reported, but there can be long-term survival. Typical radiographic findings include shortened long bones with delayed epiphyseal ossification, severe platyspondyly, metaphyseal cupping, and characteristic abnormalities of the metacarpals and phalanges (summary by Below et al., 2013 and Fradet and Fitzgerald, 2017).
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant.
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
11q partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
162878
Concept ID:
C0795841
Disease or Syndrome
Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome with major clinical features of growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, trigonocephaly, divergent intermittent strabismus, epicanthus, telecanthus, broad nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nostrils, carp-shaped upper lip, retrognathia, low-set dysmorphic ears, bilateral camptodactyly, hammertoes, and isoimmune thrombocytopenia (Fryns et al., 1986, Epstein, 1986).
Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia Cantu type
MedGen UID:
208647
Concept ID:
C0795905
Disease or Syndrome
Cantú syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis; distinctive coarse facial features (including broad nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips and macroglossia); enlarged heart with enhanced systolic function or pericardial effusion and in many, a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring repair; and skeletal abnormalities (thickening of the calvaria, broad ribs, scoliosis, and flaring of the metaphyses). Other cardiovascular abnormalities may include dilated aortic root and ascending aorta with rare aortic aneurysm, tortuous vascularity involving brain and retinal vasculature, and pulmonary arteriovenous communications. Generalized edema (which may be present at birth) spontaneously resolves; peripheral edema of the lower extremities (and sometimes arms and hands) may develop at adolescence. Developmental delays are common, but intellect is typically normal; behavioral problems can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression.
Pseudoaminopterin syndrome
MedGen UID:
163196
Concept ID:
C0795939
Disease or Syndrome
The pseudoaminopterin syndrome (aminopterin syndrome sine aminopterin; ASSA) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by ossification defects of the skull, dysmorphic facial features, delayed development, and variable limb defects. The clinical features resemble the embryopathy caused by maternal treatment with the folic acid antagonist aminopterin, which has been recognized since 1952 (Thiersch, 1952) when aminopterin was used as an abortifacient. The characteristic phenotype of the children who survived infancy after having been exposed to aminopterin or its methyl derivative, methotrexate, in early pregnancy included a very unusual facies, skull anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Fraser et al., 1987).
MASA syndrome
MedGen UID:
162894
Concept ID:
C0795953
Disease or Syndrome
L1 syndrome involves a phenotypic spectrum ranging from severe to mild and includes three clinical phenotypes: X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (HSAS). MASA (mental retardation [intellectual disability], aphasia [delayed speech], spastic paraplegia [shuffling gait], adducted thumbs) syndrome including X-linked complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia type 1. X-linked complicated corpus callosum agenesis. Males with HSAS are born with severe hydrocephalus, adducted thumbs, and spasticity; intellectual disability is severe. In less severely affected males, hydrocephalus may be subclinically present and documented only because of developmental delay; intellectual disability ranges from mild (IQ: 50-70) to moderate (IQ: 30-50). It is important to note that all phenotypes can be observed in affected individuals within the same family.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
X-linked intellectual disability with marfanoid habitus
MedGen UID:
167096
Concept ID:
C0796022
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Megalocornea-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
162904
Concept ID:
C0796086
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal findings of Neuhauser syndrome, also known as MMR syndrome, are impaired intellectual development or developmental delay, megalocornea, hypotonia, prominent forehead, micrognathia, prominent nasal bridge, and thin upper lip or carp-like mouth (Naritomi et al., 1997). Reviews Gutierrez-Amavizca et al. (2013) reviewed published reports and tabulated the clinical features of 35 patients with Neuhauser syndrome. Primary megalocornea and psychomotor delay were present in all patients. Characteristics observed in more than half of patients included hypotonia, growth retardation, abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) and/or seizures, micro- or macrocephaly, brain malformations such as cerebral atrophy and hypoplastic corpus callosum, craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, osteoarticular abnormalities, and refractive errors. Additional features found at low frequency included primary hypothyroidism, recurrent infections, feeding difficulties, cerebral hypomyelination, dyslipidemia, sensorineural deafness, laryngomalacia, large fleshy and cup-shaped ears, obesity, and cryptorchidism. The authors stated that the classification suggested by Verloes et al. (1993) did not seem to be applicable, and proposed that the diagnosis of Neuhauser syndrome should be made in the presence of intellectual disability and megalocornea in the absence of elevated intraocular pressure, with at least 1 minor feature from among those observed in more than half of patients.
Primrose syndrome
MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI.
Acrocallosal syndrome
MedGen UID:
162915
Concept ID:
C0796147
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
Early-onset parkinsonism-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
208674
Concept ID:
C0796195
Disease or Syndrome
Waisman syndrome (WSMN) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, and early-onset Parkinson disease (summary by Wilson et al., 2014).
Chromosome Xp11.22 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
208679
Concept ID:
C0796238
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic mental retardation with delayed speech development and occasional strabismus and single palmar creases.
Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Lethal short-limb skeletal dysplasia, Al Gazali type
MedGen UID:
330467
Concept ID:
C1832435
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis 4
MedGen UID:
322167
Concept ID:
C1833340
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4) includes lambdoid, sagittal, metopic, coronal, and multisuture forms. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
MOMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype.
Platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type
MedGen UID:
331974
Concept ID:
C1835437
Disease or Syndrome
The Torrance type of platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia (PLSDT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by varying platyspondyly, short ribs with anterior cupping, hypoplasia of the lower ilia with broad ischial and pubic bones, and shortening of the tubular bones with splayed and cupped metaphyses. Histology of the growth plate typically shows focal hypercellularity with slightly enlarged chondrocytes in the resting cartilage and relatively well-preserved columnar formation and ossification at the chondroosseous junction. Though generally lethal in the perinatal period, longer survival has been reported (summary by Zankl et al., 2005).
Holoprosencephaly 7
MedGen UID:
372134
Concept ID:
C1835820
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most commonly occurring congenital structural forebrain anomaly in humans. HPE is associated with mental retardation and craniofacial malformations. Considerable heterogeneity in the genetic causes of HPE has been demonstrated (Ming et al., 2002). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Larsen-like osseous dysplasia-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
325280
Concept ID:
C1837884
Disease or Syndrome
Larsen-like osseous dysplasia-short stature syndrome is a rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by a Larsen-like phenotype including multiple, congenital, large joint dislocations, craniofacial abnormalities (i.e. macrocephaly, flat occiput, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, low-set, malformed ears, flat nose, cleft palate), spinal abnormalities, cylindrical fingers, and talipes equinovarus, as well as growth retardation (resulting in short stature) and delayed bone age. Other reported clinical manifestations include severe developmental delay, hypotonia, clinodactyly, congenital heart defect and renal dysplasia.
Toriello-Lacassie-Droste syndrome
MedGen UID:
333068
Concept ID:
C1838329
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoectodermal syndrome (OES) is characterized by the association of epibulbar dermoids and aplasia cutis congenita. Affected individuals exhibit congenital scalp lesions which are atrophic, nonscarring, hairless regions that are often multiple and asymmetric in distribution, and may have associated hamartomas. Ectodermal changes include linear hyperpigmentation that may follow the lines of Blaschko and, rarely, epidermal nevus-like lesions. Epibulbar dermoids may be uni- or bilateral. Additional ocular anomalies such as skin tags of the upper eyelid and rarely optic nerve or retinal changes or microphthalmia can be present. Phenotypic expression is highly variable, and various other abnormalities have occasionally been reported, including growth failure, lymphedema, and cardiovascular defects, as well as neurodevelopmental symptoms such as developmental delay, epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. Benign tumor-like lesions such as nonossifying fibromas of the long bones and giant cell granulomas of the jaws have repeatedly been observed and appear to be age-dependent, becoming a common manifestation in individuals aged 5 years or older (summary by Boppudi et al., 2016).
Joubert syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334114
Concept ID:
C1842577
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Claes-Jensen type
MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
Claes-Jensen type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSCJ) is characterized by impaired intellectual development with substantial clinical heterogeneity in affected males. However, males are usually reported to have short stature, microcephaly, hyperreflexia, and aggressive behavior. In rare cases, female carriers exhibit mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties (summary by Guerra et al., 2020).
X-linked intellectual disability-cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
336920
Concept ID:
C1845366
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual deficit-cerebellar hypoplasia, also known as OPHN1 syndrome, is a rare syndromic form of cerebellar dysgenesis characterized by moderate to severe intellectual deficit and cerebellar abnormalities.
Corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability-coloboma-micrognathia syndrome
MedGen UID:
335185
Concept ID:
C1845446
Disease or Syndrome
Corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability-coloboma-micrognathia syndrome is a developmental anomalies syndrome characterized by coloboma of the iris and optic nerve, facial dysmorphism (high forehead, microretrognathia, low-set ears), intellectual deficit, agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal anomalies and short stature.
IMAGe syndrome
MedGen UID:
337364
Concept ID:
C1846009
Disease or Syndrome
IMAGe syndrome is an acronym for the major findings of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary abnormalities (in males). Findings reported in individuals with a clinical and/or molecular diagnosis include: IUGR; Some type of skeletal abnormality (most commonly delayed bone age and short stature, and occasionally, metaphyseal and epiphyseal dysplasia of varying severity); Adrenal insufficiency often presenting in the first month of life as an adrenal crisis or (rarely) later in childhood with failure to thrive and recurrent vomiting; Genital abnormalities in males (cryptorchidism, micropenis, and hypospadias) but not in females. Hypotonia and developmental delay are reported in some individuals; cognitive outcome appears to be normal in the majority of individuals.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 72
MedGen UID:
375793
Concept ID:
C1846038
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type
MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
337527
Concept ID:
C1846175
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2) is an X-linked recessive disorder in which affected males have severely impaired intellectual development, ciliary dyskinesia, and macrocephaly (summary by Budny et al., 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, see 312870.
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, Al-Gazali type
MedGen UID:
335505
Concept ID:
C1846722
Disease or Syndrome
Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndrome (AGBK) is characterized by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, macrocephaly, and distinctive facial features including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, flat malar regions, low-set ears, and short neck. Other features include pectus excavatum, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly, prominent joints, and genu valgum (summary by Ali et al., 2012).
Intellectual disability-obesity-prognathism-eye and skin anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
376145
Concept ID:
C1847522
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability disorder with characteristics of mild to profound intellectual disability, delayed speech, obesity, ocular anomalies (blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, hyperopic astigmatism, decreased visual acuity, strabismus, abducens nerve palsy, and/or accommodative esotropia), and dermal manifestations, such as chronic atopic dermatitis. Associated craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, maxillary hypoplasia, mandibular prognathism and crowding of teeth.
Radioulnar synostosis-developmental delay-hypotonia syndrome
MedGen UID:
341460
Concept ID:
C1849470
Disease or Syndrome
Radioulnar synostosis-developmental delay-hypotonia syndrome, also known as Der Kaloustian-McIntosh-Silver syndrome, is an extremely rare syndrome with synostosis described in about 4 patients to date with clinical manifestations including congenital unilateral radioulnar synostosis, generalized hypotonia, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features (long face, prominent nose and ears).
Pelviscapular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
376708
Concept ID:
C1850127
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Giant axonal neuropathy 1
MedGen UID:
376775
Concept ID:
C1850386
Disease or Syndrome
GAN-related neurodegeneration comprises a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe (sometimes called classic giant axonal neuropathy) to milder pure early-onset peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The classic giant axonal neuropathy phenotype typically manifests as an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder, starting as a severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy and evolving into central nervous system impairment (intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar signs, and pyramidal tract signs). Most affected individuals become wheelchair dependent in the second decade of life and eventually bedridden with severe polyneuropathy, ataxia, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade. At the milder end of the spectrum are predominantly motor and sensory neuropathies (with little to no CNS involvement) that overlap with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies.
Keipert syndrome
MedGen UID:
338088
Concept ID:
C1850627
Disease or Syndrome
Keipert syndrome (KPTS) is characterized by craniofacial and digital abnormalities and variable learning difficulties. The distinctive facial appearance includes broad forehead, hypertelorism, prominent nose, wide mouth, and prominent upper lip with cupid bow configuration. Digital anomalies are also distinctive, with widening of all distal phalanges, particularly of the thumbs and great toes (Amor et al., 2019).
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
338945
Concept ID:
C1852502
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia (designated AD-CMD in this review) is characterized by progressive diffuse hyperostosis of cranial bones evident clinically as wide nasal bridge, paranasal bossing, widely spaced eyes with an increase in bizygomatic width, and prominent mandible. Development of dentition may be delayed and teeth may fail to erupt as a result of hyperostosis and sclerosis of alveolar bone. Progressive thickening of craniofacial bones continues throughout life, often resulting in narrowing of the cranial foramina, including the foramen magnum. If untreated, compression of cranial nerves can lead to disabling conditions such as facial palsy, blindness, or deafness (conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss). In individuals with typical uncomplicated AD-CMD life expectancy is normal; in those with severe AD-CMD life expectancy can be reduced as a result of compression of the foramen magnum.
Noonan syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
339908
Concept ID:
C1853120
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Cerebrooculonasal syndrome
MedGen UID:
340138
Concept ID:
C1854108
Disease or Syndrome
A multisystem malformation syndrome that has been reported in about 10 patients. The clinical features include bilateral anophthalmia, abnormal nares, central nervous system anomalies, and neurodevelopmental delay. Additional features include brachycephaly and other facial anomalies. Non-facial anomalies have also been reported: postaxial polydactyly, genital hypoplasia. All cases reported so far have been sporadic, suggesting that the syndrome may be due to a new dominant mutation.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A
MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B
MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
381579
Concept ID:
C1855188
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly-short stature-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by mild to severe short stature, brachydactyly, and retinal degeneration (usually retinitis pigmentosa), associated with variable intellectual disability, developmental delays, and craniofacial anomalies.
Bartter disease type 2
MedGen UID:
343428
Concept ID:
C1855849
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Donnai-Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanelle, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Dandy-Walker malformation-postaxial polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
341751
Concept ID:
C1857351
Disease or Syndrome
A syndromic disorder with the association between Dandy-Walker malformation and postaxial polydactyly as a major feature. The Dandy-Walker malformation has a variable expression and characteristics of a posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle, the partial or complete absence of the cerebellar vermis, and facultative hydrocephalus. Postaxial polydactyly includes tetramelic postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet with possible enlargement of the fifth metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as bifid fifth metacarpals.
7q11.23 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
347562
Concept ID:
C1857844
Disease or Syndrome
7q11.23 duplication syndrome is characterized by delayed motor, speech, and social skills in early childhood; neurologic abnormalities (hypotonia, adventitious movements, and abnormal gait and station); speech sound disorders including motor speech disorders (childhood apraxia of speech and/or dysarthria) and phonologic disorders; behavior problems including anxiety disorders (especially social anxiety disorder [social phobia]), selective mutism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional disorders, physical aggression, and autism spectrum disorder; and intellectual disability in some individuals. Distinctive facial features are common. Cardiovascular disease includes dilatation of the ascending aorta. Approximately 30% of individuals have one or more congenital anomalies.
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with partially absent eye muscles, distinctive face, hydrocephaly, and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
349489
Concept ID:
C1862373
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome
MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination.
Desmosterolosis
MedGen UID:
400801
Concept ID:
C1865596
Disease or Syndrome
Desmosterolosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor desmosterol in plasma, tissue, and cultured cells (summary by Waterham et al., 2001).
Acroosteolysis-keloid-like lesions-premature aging syndrome
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome (PENTT) is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia
MedGen UID:
401479
Concept ID:
C1868597
Disease or Syndrome
Enlarged parietal foramina are characteristic symmetric, paired radiolucencies of the parietal bones, located close to the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, caused by deficient ossification around the parietal notch, which is normally obliterated by the fifth month of fetal development. Enlarged parietal foramina are usually asymptomatic. Meningeal, cortical, and vascular malformations of the posterior fossa occasionally accompany the bone defects and may predispose to epilepsy. In a minority of individuals, headaches, vomiting, or intense local pain are sometimes associated with the defects, especially on application of mild pressure to the unprotected cerebral cortex.
Parietal foramina 1
MedGen UID:
401480
Concept ID:
C1868599
Congenital Abnormality
Enlarged parietal foramina are characteristic symmetric, paired radiolucencies of the parietal bones, located close to the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, caused by deficient ossification around the parietal notch, which is normally obliterated by the fifth month of fetal development. Enlarged parietal foramina are usually asymptomatic. Meningeal, cortical, and vascular malformations of the posterior fossa occasionally accompany the bone defects and may predispose to epilepsy. In a minority of individuals, headaches, vomiting, or intense local pain are sometimes associated with the defects, especially on application of mild pressure to the unprotected cerebral cortex.
Thanatophoric dysplasia type 1
MedGen UID:
358383
Concept ID:
C1868678
Disease or Syndrome
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a short-limb skeletal dysplasia that is usually lethal in the perinatal period. TD is divided into subtypes: TD type I is characterized by micromelia with bowed femurs and, uncommonly, the presence of craniosynostosis of varying severity. TD type II is characterized by micromelia with straight femurs and uniform presence of moderate-to-severe craniosynostosis with cloverleaf skull deformity. Other features common to type I and type II include: short ribs, narrow thorax, relative macrocephaly, distinctive facial features, brachydactyly, hypotonia, and redundant skin folds along the limbs. Most affected infants die of respiratory insufficiency shortly after birth. Rare long-term survivors have been reported.
Plasminogen deficiency, type I
MedGen UID:
369859
Concept ID:
C1968804
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions consisting of subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation is ligneous ('wood-like') conjunctivitis, a redness and subsequent formation of pseudomembranes mostly on the palpebral surfaces of the eye that progress to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa. The lesions may be triggered by local injury and/or infection and often recur after local excision. Pseudomembranous lesions of other mucous membranes often occur in the mouth, nasopharynx, trachea, and female genital tract. Some affected children also have congenital occlusive hydrocephalus. A slightly increased female:male ratio has been observed (1.4:1 to 2:1) (Schuster and Seregard, 2003; Tefs et al., 2006). Type I plasminogen deficiency is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity, decreased plasminogen antigen levels, and clinical symptoms, whereas type II plasminogen deficiency, also known as 'dysplasminogenemia,' is characterized by decreased plasminogen activity with normal or slightly reduced antigen levels. Patients with type II deficiency are usually asymptomatic. Ligneous conjunctivitis and pseudomembranous formation has only been associated with type I plasminogen deficiency. Presumably, normal amounts of plasminogen antigen with decreased activity, as seen in type II, is sufficient for normal wound healing (Schuster and Seregard, 2003).
Noonan syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
370589
Concept ID:
C1969057
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Legius syndrome
MedGen UID:
370709
Concept ID:
C1969623
Disease or Syndrome
Legius syndrome is characterized by multiple café au lait macules without neurofibromas or other tumor manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Additional clinical manifestations reported commonly include intertriginous freckling, lipomas, macrocephaly, and learning disabilities / attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) / developmental delays. Current knowledge of the natural history of Legius syndrome is based on the clinical manifestations of fewer than 300 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis; better delineation of the clinical manifestations and natural history of Legius syndrome will likely occur as more affected individuals are identified.
Polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy
MedGen UID:
370203
Concept ID:
C1970203
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, severe intractable epilepsy presenting in infancy, severe hypotonia, decreased muscle mass, global developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphism (long face, large forehead, peaked eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, hypertelorism, large mouth with thick lips), and macrocephaly due to megalencephaly and hydrocephalus in most patients. Additional features that have been reported include cardiac anomalies like atrial septal defects, diabetes insipidus and nephrocalcinosis among others.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 14
MedGen UID:
372646
Concept ID:
C1970822
Disease or Syndrome
Any X-linked syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UPF3B gene.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 93
MedGen UID:
410164
Concept ID:
C1970841
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BRWD3 gene.
Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008).
Chromosome 6pter-p24 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393396
Concept ID:
C2675486
Disease or Syndrome
Distal monosomy 6p is responsible for a distinct chromosome deletion syndrome with a recognizable clinical picture including intellectual deficit, ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, and facial dysmorphism.
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
382678
Concept ID:
C2675746
Disease or Syndrome
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD) is a severe bone dysplasia characterized by massive generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis, especially involving the skull and facial bones. Progressive bony encroachment upon cranial foramina leads to severe neurologic impairment in childhood (summary by Brueton and Winter, 1990). The sclerosis is so severe that the resulting facial distortion is referred to as 'leontiasis ossea' (leonine facies), and the bone deposition results in progressive stenosis of craniofacial foramina (summary by Kim et al., 2011).
Chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
382715
Concept ID:
C2675891
Disease or Syndrome
1q21.1 microduplication is a chromosomal change in which a small amount of genetic material on chromosome 1 is abnormally copied (duplicated). The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a location designated q21.1.\n\nSome people with a 1q21.1 microduplication have developmental delay and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Individuals with this condition can also have features of autism spectrum disorder. These disorders are characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills, as well as delayed development of speech and language. Expressive language skills (vocabulary and the production of speech) tend to be more impaired than receptive language skills (the ability to understand speech) in affected individuals. In childhood, 1q21.1 microduplications may also be associated with an increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other behavioral problems. Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or mood disorders such as anxiety or depression occur in some affected individuals, usually during adulthood. Rarely, recurrent seizures (epilepsy) occur in people with a 1q21.1 microduplication.\n\nSome individuals with a 1q21.1 microduplication are born with malformations of the heart, including a particular combination of heart defects known as tetralogy of Fallot. Less commonly, other physical malformations such as the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias) in males, inward- and upward-turning feet (clubfeet), or misalignment of the hip joint (hip dysplasia) are present at birth. Individuals with a 1q21.1 microduplication may also have a larger than average head size or taller than average adult stature. Some have slightly unusual facial features such as wide-set eyes or low-set ears. As adults, individuals with a 1q21.1 microduplication may be prone to develop cysts, swollen and knotted (varicose) veins, or carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hands and fingers. However, there is no particular pattern of physical abnormalities that characterizes 1q21.1 microduplications. Signs and symptoms related to the chromosomal change vary even among affected members of the same family. Some people with the duplication have no identified physical, intellectual, or behavioral abnormalities.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5C, with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
436922
Concept ID:
C2677349
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5C with pyloric atresia (EBS5C) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by severe skin blistering at birth and congenital pyloric atresia. Death usually occurs in infancy. In reports of 2 consensus meetings for EB, Fine et al. (2000, 2008) considered EBSPA to be a 'basal' form of simplex EB because the electron microscopy shows that skin cleavage occurs in the lower basal level of the keratinocyte, just above the hemidesmosome. There is often decreased integration of keratin filaments with hemidesmosomes. See also forms of junctional EB with pyloric atresia, JEB5B (226730) and JEB6 (619817), caused by mutation in the ITGB4 (147557) and ITGA6 (147556) genes, respectively. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of EBS, see EBS1A (131760).
Hypophosphatemic rickets and hyperparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
383131
Concept ID:
C2677524
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 94
MedGen UID:
437111
Concept ID:
C2678051
Disease or Syndrome
A syndromic X-linked intellectual disability characterized by moderate intellectual disability with variable occurrence of asthenic body habitus, dysmorphic features, autistic features, macrocephaly, seizures, myoclonic jerks, and hyporeflexia that has material basis in mutation in the GRIA3 gene on chromosome Xq25.
Tremor, hereditary essential, and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
394839
Concept ID:
C2678494
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
440688
Concept ID:
C2749019
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
440897
Concept ID:
C2749873
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 microduplication syndrome (also known as 3q29 duplication syndrome) is a condition that results from the copying (duplication) of a small piece of chromosome 3 in each cell. The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q29.\n\nThe features associated with 3q29 microduplication syndrome vary widely. Some individuals with this chromosomal change have very mild or no related signs and symptoms, and the duplication is discovered because they undergo genetic testing only after a family member is diagnosed. Other people with a 3q29 microduplication have delayed development (particularly speech delay) and intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Although most affected individuals have no major birth defects, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and an unusually small head (microcephaly) can occur. 3q29 microduplication syndrome may increase the likelihood of being overweight or having obesity, although it is hard to determine whether these weight issues are caused by the duplication.
Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
412869
Concept ID:
C2750066
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature with a short and stiff neck and trunk; relatively long limbs that may show flexion contractures of the distal joints; delayed and impaired ossification of the vertebral bodies and the presence of large epiphyseal ossification centers and wide growth plates in the long tubular bones; and numerous pseudoepiphyses of the short tubular bones in hands and feet (summary by Hellemans et al., 2009).
Cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
413258
Concept ID:
C2750246
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome-1 (PTHSL1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment or regression, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have onset of seizures within the first years of life. Some patients may have cortical dysplasia on brain imaging (summary by Smogavec et al., 2016).
Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
RIN2 syndrome
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11.
MGAT2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Z (620201), and CDG2AA (620454) to CDG2BB (620546).
B4GALT1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419310
Concept ID:
C2931009
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders that are commonly associated with severe psychomotor and mental retardation. The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans (summary by Hansske et al., 2002). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Greenberg dysplasia
MedGen UID:
418969
Concept ID:
C2931048
Disease or Syndrome
Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD), also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten (HEM) skeletal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by gross fetal hydrops, severe shortening of all long bones with a moth-eaten radiographic appearance, platyspondyly, disorganization of chondroosseous calcification, and ectopic ossification centers. It is lethal in utero. Patient fibroblasts show increased levels of cholesta-8,14-dien-3-beta-ol, suggesting a defect of sterol metabolism (summary by Konstantinidou et al., 2008). Herman (2003) reviewed the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and 6 disorders involving enzyme defects in postsqualene cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; 270400), desmosterolosis (602398), X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; 302960), CHILD syndrome (308050), lathosterolosis (607330), and HEM skeletal dysplasia.
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
419753
Concept ID:
C2931244
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia is an osteochondrodysplasia characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones associated with abnormal modeling of the metaphyses. Sclerosis of the skull may lead to asymmetry of the mandible, as well as to cranial nerve compression, that may finally result in hearing loss and facial palsy (summary by Nurnberg et al., 1997). The delineation of separate autosomal dominant (CMDD; 123000) and autosomal recessive forms of CMD by Gorlin et al. (1969) was confirmed by reports that made it evident that the dominant form is relatively mild and comparatively common, whereas the recessive form is rare, severe, and possibly heterogeneous.
Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome
MedGen UID:
419089
Concept ID:
C2931482
Disease or Syndrome
A variant of neurofibromatosis type 1 characterized by the combination of features of neurofibromatosis type 1, such as café-au-lait spots, iris Lisch nodules, axillary and inguinal freckling, optic nerve glioma and multiple neurofibromas; and Noonan syndrome, with features such as short stature, typical facial features, congenital heart defects and unusual pectus deformity.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
422452
Concept ID:
C2936862
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS2 (615981) is caused by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation.
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Proximal 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461504
Concept ID:
C3150154
Disease or Syndrome
The 16p11.2 recurrent deletion phenotype is characterized by motor speech disorder, language disorder, motor coordination difficulties, psychiatric conditions, and autistic features. While most, if not all, individuals with the 16p11.2 recurrent deletion experience some degree of developmental delay, the severity varies significantly. Most affected individuals do not have intellectual disability (defined as an IQ of <70), but many have below average cognition and learning disabilities in both verbal and nonverbal domains. Obesity is a feature of this disorder and generally emerges in childhood; BMI in individuals with the 16p11.2 recurrent deletion is significantly higher than in the general population by age five years. Seizures are observed in approximately 25% of individuals with the recurrent deletion. Vertebral anomalies, hearing impairment, macrocephaly, and cardiovascular malformation have each been observed in some individuals. Clinical follow-up data from adults suggests that the greatest medical challenges are obesity and related comorbidities that can be exacerbated by medications used to treat behavioral and psychiatric problems.
Chromosome 4Q32.1-q32.2 triplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462207
Concept ID:
C3150857
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Chromosome 19p13.13 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462244
Concept ID:
C3150894
Disease or Syndrome
19p13.13 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 19 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the short (p) arm of the chromosome at a position designated p13.13.\n\nFeatures commonly associated with this chromosomal change include an unusually large head size (macrocephaly), tall stature, and intellectual disability that is usually moderate in severity. Many affected individuals have significantly delayed development, including speech, and children may speak few or no words. Weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and problems with coordinating muscle movement (ataxia) contribute to delays in gross motor skills (such as sitting and walking) and fine motor skills (such as holding a pencil).\n\nOther signs and symptoms that can occur with 19p13.13 deletion syndrome include seizures, abnormalities of brain structure, and mild differences in facial features (such as a prominent forehead). Many affected individuals have problems with feeding and digestion, including constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Eye problems that can impair vision are also common. These include eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus) and underdevelopment of the optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 19p13.13 deletion syndrome vary among affected individuals. In part, this variation occurs because the size of the deletion, and the number of genes it affects, varies from person to person.
Noonan syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
462320
Concept ID:
C3150970
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
LEOPARD syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
462321
Concept ID:
C3150971
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Chromosome 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462386
Concept ID:
C3151036
Disease or Syndrome
For the purposes of this chapter, NFIA-related disorder is defined as heterozygous inactivation or disruption of only NFIA without involvement of adjacent or surrounding genes. NFIA-related disorder comprises central nervous system abnormalities (most commonly abnormalities of the corpus callosum) with or without urinary tract defects, such as unilateral or bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and hydronephrosis. Additional features include macrocephaly, seizures, developmental delay and/or cognitive impairment, nonspecific dysmorphic features, ventriculomegaly, and hypotonia, which can exacerbate motor delay and feeding issues in infancy. Rarer features may include strabismus, cutis marmorata, or craniosynostosis of the metopic, lambdoid, or sagittal suture.
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 2A
MedGen UID:
462705
Concept ID:
C3151355
Disease or Syndrome
The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur.
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 2B, remitting, with or without intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
462706
Concept ID:
C3151356
Disease or Syndrome
The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur.
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 1
MedGen UID:
463405
Concept ID:
C3152055
Disease or Syndrome
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a neurometabolic disorder first described by Chalmers et al. (1980). Clinical symptoms include developmental delay, epilepsy, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Mild and severe phenotypes were characterized (van der Knaap et al., 1999). The severe phenotype is homogeneous and is characterized by early infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy and, often, cardiomyopathy. The mild phenotype has a more variable clinical presentation. Genetic Heterogeneity of D-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria-2 (D2HGA2; 613657) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 gene (IDH2; 147650) on chromosome 15q26.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Nascimento type
MedGen UID:
477095
Concept ID:
C3275464
Disease or Syndrome
The Nascimento type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSN) is characterized by dysmorphic features, including large head, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, large ears, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, abnormal hair whorls, micropenis, and onychodystrophy. Female carriers have normal cognition, but may show subtle facial features (summary by Budny et al., 2010).
X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia, Chassaing-Lacombe type
MedGen UID:
477107
Concept ID:
C3275476
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia Chassaing-Lacombe type is a rare genetic bone disorder characterized by chondrodysplasia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), hydrocephaly and facial dysmorphism in the affected males.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
481405
Concept ID:
C3279775
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome MCAHS2 (300868) is caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770) on chromosome Xp22, MCAHS3 (615398) is caused by mutation in the PIGT gene (610272) on chromosome 20q13, and MCAHS4 (618548) is caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754) on chromosome 16p13. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of MCAHS, noting that patients with mutations in the PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT genes have distinct patterns of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison. Some individuals with MCAHS may have variable increases in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between MCAHS and HPMRS1 (239300), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified together under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
481437
Concept ID:
C3279807
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Rafiq syndrome
MedGen UID:
481757
Concept ID:
C3280127
Disease or Syndrome
Rafiq syndrome (RAFQS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variably impaired intellectual and motor development, a characteristic facial dysmorphism, truncal obesity, and hypotonia. The facial dysmorphism comprises prominent eyebrows with lateral thinning, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, bulbous tip of the nose, large ears, and a thin upper lip. Behavioral problems, including overeating, verbal and physical aggression, have been reported in some cases. Serum transferrin isoelectric focusing shows a type 2 pattern (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2019).
Adams-Oliver syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481812
Concept ID:
C3280182
Disease or Syndrome
Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies.
Sclerosteosis 2
MedGen UID:
482032
Concept ID:
C3280402
Disease or Syndrome
Sclerosteosis is a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Syndactyly is a variable manifestation. The disorder is rare and the majority of affected individuals have been reported in the Afrikaner population of South Africa (summary by Brunkow et al., 2001). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sclerosteosis, see SOST1 (269500).
17q11.2 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
501218
Concept ID:
C3495679
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that has characteristics of dysmorphic features and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven patients within one family. 17q11.2 microduplication encompasses the NF1 region. The underlying mechanism may be non-allelic homologous recombination. The study of pedigree suggests that this microduplication segregates within the family for at least two generations. Two patients displayed a normal clinical presentation, suggesting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance.
Short stature-onychodysplasia-facial dysmorphism-hypotrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012).
X-linked intellectual disability-cardiomegaly-congestive heart failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
763827
Concept ID:
C3550913
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-cardiomegaly-congestive heart failure syndrome is a rare X-linked syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by profound intellectual disability, global developmental delay with absent speech, seizures, large joint contractures, abnormal position of thumbs and middle-age onset of cardiomegaly and atrioventricular valve abnormalities, resulting in subsequent congestive heart failure. Additional features include variable facial dysmorphism (notably large ears with overfolded helix) and large testes.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 7
MedGen UID:
766244
Concept ID:
C3553330
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Roscioli et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Deafness-encephaloneuropathy-obesity-valvulopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
766268
Concept ID:
C3553354
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766318
Concept ID:
C3553404
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND), also known as 'question-mark ear syndrome' or 'dysgnathia complex,' is a craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by highly variable mandibular anomalies, including mild to severe micrognathia, often with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a distinctive ear malformation that consists of separation of the lobule from the external ear, giving the appearance of a question mark. Other frequently described features include prominent cheeks, cupped and posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular tags, and microstomia (summary by Rieder et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Malan overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
766574
Concept ID:
C3553660
Disease or Syndrome
Malan syndrome (MALNS) is clinically characterized by overgrowth, advanced bone age, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Patients develop marfanoid habitus, with long and slender body, very low body mass, long narrow face, and arachnodactyly, with age. Impaired intellectual development and behavior anomalies are present (summary by Martinez et al., 2015).
Cerebellar dysfunction with variable cognitive and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
766575
Concept ID:
C3553661
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar dysfunction with variable cognitive and behavioral abnormalities (CECBA) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with significant phenotypic heterogeneity, even within families. The disorder is most often diagnosed through genetic analysis with retrospective clinical phenotyping. Symptom onset is usually in early childhood, although later onset, even in adulthood, has been reported. Most affected individuals show global developmental delay from early childhood, particularly of motor and language skills. Many have mild intellectual disability; behavioral and psychiatric abnormalities such as autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder are also often observed. The movement disorder is prominent and may include cerebellar signs such as ataxia, tremor, dysmetria, poor coordination, and dysarthria. Other abnormal movements including spasticity, myoclonus, and dystonia have been reported, thus widening the phenotypic spectrum. Brain imaging is usually normal, but may show cerebellar atrophy or nonspecific white matter lesions. Variable dysmorphic facial features may also be present (summary by Thevenon et al., 2012; Jacobs et al., 2021; Wijnen et al., 2020).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4B
MedGen UID:
766851
Concept ID:
C3553937
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder-4B (PBD4B) includes the overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), which represent milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX6 gene have cells of complementation group 4 (CG4, equivalent to CG6 and CGC). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Intellectual developmental disorder with autism and macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
767287
Concept ID:
C3554373
Disease or Syndrome
CHD8-related neurodevelopmental disorder with overgrowth (CHD8-NDD) is characterized by generalized overgrowth, developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neuropsychiatric issues, neurologic problems, sleep disturbance, and gastrointestinal issues The most common findings are the development of macrocephaly (most often during infancy) and tall stature (most typically during puberty), which is often accompanied by ASD and/or DD/ID. Most, if not all, affected individuals have some degree of DD, most commonly speech and motor delays. When present, ID is most often in the mild-to-moderate range. Sleep disturbance is characterized by difficulty with both initiation (delayed sleep onset) and maintenance (frequent night awakenings) of sleep. The most common gastrointestinal issue is constipation with or without periods of diarrhea. Less common features are hypotonia (about 30% of affected individuals), seizures (10%-15%), dystonia (rare), and Chiari I malformation (rare).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 8
MedGen UID:
767392
Concept ID:
C3554478
Disease or Syndrome
A sub-type of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis caused by mutation(s) in the SNX10 gene, encoding sorting nexin-10.
Cowden syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
767431
Concept ID:
C3554517
Disease or Syndrome
The features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.\n\n\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.
Cobblestone lissencephaly without muscular or ocular involvement
MedGen UID:
767571
Concept ID:
C3554657
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-5 (LIS5) is an autosomal recessive brain malformation characterized by cobblestone changes in the cortex, more severe in the posterior region, and subcortical band heterotopia. Affected individuals have hydrocephalus, seizures, and severely delayed psychomotor development (Radmanesh et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Hydrocephalus, nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
767605
Concept ID:
C3554691
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hydrocephalus-2 (HYC2) is a congenital disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals have hydrocephalus with variably dilated ventricles and variable neurologic sequelae. Some individuals have other brain abnormalities, including lissencephaly, thinning of the corpus callosum, and neuronal heterotopia. Most patients have delayed motor development and some have delayed intellectual development and/or seizures. Additional congenital features, including cardiac septal defects, iris coloboma, and nonspecific dysmorphic features, may be observed. Some patients die in utero, in infancy, or in early childhood, whereas others have long-term survival (summary by Shaheen et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital hydrocephalus, see 233600.
Megalencephaly, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
812057
Concept ID:
C3805727
Disease or Syndrome
Primary megalencephaly is defined as a head circumference about the 98th percentile that most likely is due to brain enlargement and is not secondary to disease (review by Petersson et al., 1999).
Macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
812742
Concept ID:
C3806412
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly refers to an abnormally enlarged head inclusive of the scalp, cranial bones, and intracranial contents. Macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (true enlargement of the brain parenchyma), and the 2 terms are often used interchangeably in the genetic literature (reviews by Olney, 2007 and Williams et al., 2008). Autosomal recessive macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome is characterized by an enlarged cranium apparent at birth or in early childhood. Affected individuals have intellectual disability and may have dysmorphic facial features resulting from the macrocephaly (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2014).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815686
Concept ID:
C3809356
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 8 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816021
Concept ID:
C3809691
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Macrocephaly-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
816555
Concept ID:
C3810225
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-41 (MRT41) is characterized by macrocephaly and global developmental delay. Some patients have seizures (Baple et al., 2014).
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
861164
Concept ID:
C4012727
Disease or Syndrome
MPPH (megalencephaly-postaxial polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by megalencephaly (brain overgrowth) with the cortical malformation bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP). At birth the occipital frontal circumference (OFC) ranges from normal to 6 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for age, sex, and gestational age; in older individuals the range is from 3 to 10 SD above the mean. A variable degree of ventriculomegaly is seen in almost all children with MPPH syndrome; nearly 50% of individuals have frank hydrocephalus. Neurologic problems associated with BPP include oromotor dysfunction (100%), epilepsy (50%), and mild-to-severe intellectual disability (100%). Postaxial hexadactyly occurs in 50% of individuals with MPPH syndrome.
Intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
862201
Concept ID:
C4013764
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment and with or without autistic features is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with moderate to severe speech delay that particularly affects expressive speech. Most patients have articulation defects, but frank verbal dyspraxia is not observed. Common dysmorphic features include broad forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, short nose with broad tip, relative macrocephaly, frontal hair upsweep, and prominent digit pads. Gross motor skills are also delayed. Some patients have autistic features and/or behavioral problems. All reported cases have occurred de novo (review by Le Fevre et al., 2013).
Colobomatous microphthalmia-rhizomelic dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
862977
Concept ID:
C4014540
Disease or Syndrome
Colobomatous microphthalmia-rhizomelic dysplasia syndrome is a rare, genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by a range of developmental eye anomalies (including anophthalmia, microphthalmia, colobomas, microcornea, corectopia, cataract) and symmetric limb rhizomelia with short stature and contractures of large joints. Intellectual disability with autistic features, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, urogenital anomalies (hypospadia, cryptorchidism), cutaneous syndactyly and precocious puberty may also be present.
Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
862982
Concept ID:
C4014545
Disease or Syndrome
Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth / intellectual disability syndrome characterized by length/height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean for age and sex, obesity / increased weight, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, behavioral/psychiatric issues, kyphoscoliosis, and seizures. Individuals with TBRS have subtle dysmorphic features, including a round face with coarse features, thick horizontal low-set eyebrows, narrow (as measured vertically) palpebral fissures, and prominent upper central incisors. The facial gestalt is most easily recognizable in the teenage years. TBRS may be associated with an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. There are less clear associations with aortic root dilatation and increased risk of other hematologic and solid tumors.
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
863175
Concept ID:
C4014738
Disease or Syndrome
MPPH (megalencephaly-postaxial polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by megalencephaly (brain overgrowth) with the cortical malformation bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP). At birth the occipital frontal circumference (OFC) ranges from normal to 6 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for age, sex, and gestational age; in older individuals the range is from 3 to 10 SD above the mean. A variable degree of ventriculomegaly is seen in almost all children with MPPH syndrome; nearly 50% of individuals have frank hydrocephalus. Neurologic problems associated with BPP include oromotor dysfunction (100%), epilepsy (50%), and mild-to-severe intellectual disability (100%). Postaxial hexadactyly occurs in 50% of individuals with MPPH syndrome.
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
863179
Concept ID:
C4014742
Disease or Syndrome
MPPH (megalencephaly-postaxial polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by megalencephaly (brain overgrowth) with the cortical malformation bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP). At birth the occipital frontal circumference (OFC) ranges from normal to 6 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for age, sex, and gestational age; in older individuals the range is from 3 to 10 SD above the mean. A variable degree of ventriculomegaly is seen in almost all children with MPPH syndrome; nearly 50% of individuals have frank hydrocephalus. Neurologic problems associated with BPP include oromotor dysfunction (100%), epilepsy (50%), and mild-to-severe intellectual disability (100%). Postaxial hexadactyly occurs in 50% of individuals with MPPH syndrome.
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
864123
Concept ID:
C4015686
Disease or Syndrome
Any lethal congenital contracture syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZBTB42 gene.
Tenorio syndrome
MedGen UID:
864147
Concept ID:
C4015710
Disease or Syndrome
Tenorio syndrome (TNORS) is characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, and impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjogren syndrome (270150) (summary by Tenorio et al., 2014).
Luscan-Lumish syndrome
MedGen UID:
898669
Concept ID:
C4085873
Disease or Syndrome
Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS) is characterized by macrocephaly, intellectual disability, speech delay, low sociability, and behavioral problems. More variable features include postnatal overgrowth, obesity, advanced carpal ossification, developmental delay, and seizures (Luscan et al., 2014; Lumish et al., 2015)
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
907878
Concept ID:
C4225164
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Cowden syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
908796
Concept ID:
C4225179
Disease or Syndrome
Cowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\n\n\nThe features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.
Palatal anomalies-widely spaced teeth-facial dysmorphism-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
895943
Concept ID:
C4225229
Disease or Syndrome
Palatal anomalies-widely spaced teeth-facial dysmorphism-developmental delay syndrome is a rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay, axial hypotonia, palate abnormalities (including cleft palate and/or high and narrow palate), dysmorphic facial features (including prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, wide nasal bridge, thin lips and widely spaced teeth), and short stature. Additional manifestations may include digital anomalies (such as brachydactyly, clinodactyly, and hypoplastic toenails), a single palmar crease, lower limb hypertonia, joint hypermobility, as well as ocular and urogenital anomalies.
Seizures-scoliosis-macrocephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
909039
Concept ID:
C4225248
Disease or Syndrome
Seizures, scoliosis, and macrocephaly/microcephaly syndrome (SSMS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early infancy, impaired intellectual development, behavioral problems, poor or absent speech, seizures, dysmorphic facial features with macro- or microcephaly, and skeletal abnormalities, including scoliosis and delayed bone age. Other features may include hypotonia, gastrointestinal problems, and exostoses (summary by Gentile et al., 2019).
Macrocephaly-intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder-small thorax syndrome
MedGen UID:
899689
Concept ID:
C4225259
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndromic intellectual disability syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, seizures, umbilical hernia, and facial dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, small chin, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip (Smith et al., 2013; Baynam et al., 2015).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A9
MedGen UID:
902513
Concept ID:
C4225291
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, and congenital muscular dystrophy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designation Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), which is associated with death in infancy. The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Geis et al., 2013 and Riemersma et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Acrofacial dysostosis Cincinnati type
MedGen UID:
903483
Concept ID:
C4225317
Disease or Syndrome
The Cincinnati type of acrofacial dysostosis is a ribosomopathy characterized by a spectrum of mandibulofacial dysostosis phenotypes, with or without extrafacial skeletal defects (Weaver et al., 2015). In addition, a significant number of neurologic abnormalities have been reported, ranging from mild delays to refractory epilepsy, as well as an increased incidence of congenital heart defects, primarily septal in nature (Smallwood et al., 2023).
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Cole-Carpenter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
905199
Concept ID:
C4225382
Disease or Syndrome
Cole-Carpenter syndrome-2 (CLCRP2) is a skeletal dysplasia associated with low bone mass or an osteogenesis imperfecta-like syndrome. It is characterized by bone fragility with craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features such as marked frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and micrognathia (summary by Takeyari et al., 2018).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34
MedGen UID:
902184
Concept ID:
C4225417
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-34 (MRXS34) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities, including thickening of the corpus callosum (summary by Mircsof et al., 2015).
Chromosome 10q23 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
906099
Concept ID:
C4225669
Disease or Syndrome
The 10q22.3-q23.2 region is characterized by a complex set of low-copy repeats (LCRs), which can give rise to various genomic changes mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Recurrent deletions of chromosome 10q22.3-q23.2, including the BMPR1A gene (601299) have been associated with dysmorphic facies, developmental delay, and multiple congenital anomalies. Some patients with deletions that extend distally to include the PTEN gene (601728) have a more severe phenotype with infantile/juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and developmental delay (summary by van Bon et al., 2011).
Polydactyly, postaxial, type A1
MedGen UID:
924305
Concept ID:
C4282400
Congenital Abnormality
Band heterotopia of brain
MedGen UID:
924885
Concept ID:
C4284594
Disease or Syndrome
Band heterotopia (BH) is a neuronal migration disorder in which aberrantly located neurons, in the form of a band in the brain white matter, are present below a cortex that appears relatively normal by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinically, patients show severe developmental delay with intellectual disability, seizures, hypotonia, and hydrocephalus (Kielar et al., 2014, Shaheen et al., 2017).
Coloboma, osteopetrosis, microphthalmia, macrocephaly, albinism, and deafness
MedGen UID:
934592
Concept ID:
C4310625
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy 11
MedGen UID:
934595
Concept ID:
C4310628
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy-11 (OPA11) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, ataxia, optic atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Laboratory studies are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Hartmann et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of optic atrophy, see OPA1 (165500).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, seizures, and absent language
MedGen UID:
934610
Concept ID:
C4310643
Disease or Syndrome
Shashi-Pena syndrome
MedGen UID:
934639
Concept ID:
C4310672
Disease or Syndrome
Shashi-Pena syndrome is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by delayed psychomotor development, variable intellectual disability, hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and some unusual features, including enlarged head circumference, glabellar nevus flammeus, and deep palmar creases. Some patients may also have atrial septal defect, episodic hypoglycemia, changes in bone mineral density, and/or seizures (summary by Shashi et al., 2016).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 74
MedGen UID:
934651
Concept ID:
C4310684
Disease or Syndrome
MRT74 is characterized by intellectual impairment, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic features. Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonus has also been reported (Almuriekhi et al., 2015; Mastrangelo et al., 2020).
Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
934655
Concept ID:
C4310688
Disease or Syndrome
CHD4 neurodevelopmental disorder (CHD4-NDD) is associated with developmental delay, speech delay, and usually mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Variability between individuals with CHD4-NDD is significant, and a few have normal intelligence. Other manifestations can include brain anomalies, heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities; less common features are hypogonadism in males, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. Most affected individuals have mild nonspecific dysmorphic facial features with or without macrocephaly.
ZTTK syndrome
MedGen UID:
934663
Concept ID:
C4310696
Disease or Syndrome
ZTTK syndrome (ZTTKS) is a severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and eye or visual abnormalities. Most patients also have musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some have congenital defects of the heart and urogenital system. Brain imaging usually shows developmental abnormalities such as gyral changes, cortical and/or cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Kim et al., 2016).
Tall stature-intellectual disability-renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2
MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections.
Macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and psychomotor retardation
MedGen UID:
934733
Concept ID:
C4310766
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and psychomotor retardation (MDFPMR) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by large head and somatic overgrowth apparent at birth followed by global developmental delay. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features and persistently large head, but increased birth weight normalizes with age. Additional neurologic features, including seizures, hypotonia, and gait ataxia, may also occur. Patients show severe intellectual impairment (summary by Ortega-Recalde et al., 2015).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Progeroid and marfanoid aspect-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934763
Concept ID:
C4310796
Disease or Syndrome
The marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) is characterized by congenital lipodystrophy, premature birth with an accelerated linear growth disproportionate to weight gain, and progeroid appearance with distinct facial features, including proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and retrognathia. Other characteristic features include arachnodactyly, digital hyperextensibility, myopia, dural ectasia, and normal psychomotor development (Takenouchi et al., 2013). Takenouchi et al. (2013) noted phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome (154700) and Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (182212).
Autosomal dominant Kenny-Caffey syndrome
MedGen UID:
1373312
Concept ID:
C4316787
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by severe growth retardation, short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of long bones, delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle, absent diploic space in the skull bones, prominent forehead, macrocephaly, dental anomalies, eye problems (hypermetropia and pseudopapilledema), and hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism, sometimes resulting in convulsions. Intelligence is normal.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36
MedGen UID:
1382656
Concept ID:
C4317295
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair is characterized by facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome (163950), including hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, low-set posteriorly angulated ears, and overfolded pinnae. In addition, patients display short stature, frequently with growth hormone (GH; see 139250) deficiency; cognitive deficits; relative macrocephaly; small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation; hypernasal voice; cardiac defects, especially dysplasia of the mitral valve and septal defects; and ectodermal abnormalities, in which the most characteristic feature is the hair anomaly, including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, slow-growing hair (summary by Bertola et al., 2017). Reviews Komatsuzaki et al. (2010) reviewed the clinical manifestations of patients with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome (218040), and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC; see 115150) compared to patients with mutations in the SHOC2 gene. They noted that although there is phenotypic overlap among the disorders, loose anagen/easily pluckable hair had not been reported in mutation-positive patients with Noonan, CFC, or Costello syndrome, and appeared to be a distinctive feature of SHOC2 mutation-positive patients. Genetic Heterogeneity of Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair NSLH2 (617506) is caused by mutation in the PPP1CB gene (600590) on chromosome 2p23.
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Rahman syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388282
Concept ID:
C4479637
Disease or Syndrome
The name HIST1H1E syndrome has been proposed as a mnemonic for the characteristic features of this emerging, recognizable phenotype: hypotonia; intellectual disability with behavioral issues; skeletal; testes (undescended) and thyroid; heart anomalies (most commonly atrial septal defect); and ectodermal issues (including sparse hair, thin nails, and abnormal dentition). In the 47 affected individuals reported to date, predominant findings were intellectual disability (ranging from mild to profound) and behavioral problems (combinations of anxiety/phobias, obsessive behaviors, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autistic spectrum disorder/traits among others). Skeletal involvement can include scoliosis and decreased bone mineral density. Other findings in some include seizures, craniosynostosis, and hearing loss. Life expectancy does not appear to be reduced in HIST1H1E syndrome.
Cohen-Gibson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1386939
Concept ID:
C4479654
Disease or Syndrome
EED-related overgrowth is characterized by fetal or early childhood overgrowth (tall stature, macrocephaly, large hands and feet, and advanced bone age) and intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe. To date, EED-related overgrowth has been reported in eight individuals.
Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia wormian bone type
MedGen UID:
1382152
Concept ID:
C4510809
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CRMDD) is characterized clinically by macrocephaly with frontal prominence, dental hypoplasia, and increased bone fragility. Diagnostic radiologic features include thin bones in the superior part of calvaria with prominent wormian bones, diaphyseal widening of the long tubular bones in early childhood with wide undermineralized metaphyses in older individuals, widened ribs and clavicles, and broadening of short tubular bones with increased transparency and thin cortices (summary by Dhar et al., 2010).
Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1619150
Concept ID:
C4540131
Disease or Syndrome
Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome (PILBOS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed development, impaired intellectual development, often with autistic features, speech apraxia, and mild dysmorphic features. Some patients may have seizures. The phenotype is somewhat variable (summary by Pilarowski et al., 2018).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 48
MedGen UID:
1619532
Concept ID:
C4540321
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay and moderate to severe intellectual disability, as well as variable other manifestations, such as macro- or microcephaly, epilepsy, hypotonia, behavioral problems, stereotypic movements, and facial dysmorphism (including arched eyebrows, long palpebral fissures, prominent nasal bridge, upturned nose, dysplastic ears, and broad mouth), among others. Brain imaging may show cerebellar anomalies, hypoplastic corpus callosum, enlarged ventricles, polymicrogyria, or white matter abnormalities.
Joubert syndrome 32
MedGen UID:
1626697
Concept ID:
C4540342
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-32 (JBTS32) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and postaxial polydactyly. Brain imaging shows cerebellar abnormalities consistent with the molar tooth sign (MTS) (summary by De Mori et al., 2017). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Joubert syndrome 33
MedGen UID:
1615779
Concept ID:
C4540389
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome (JBTS) represents a classic ciliopathy characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, cognitive impairment, and a distinctive brain malformation, the 'molar tooth sign.' In addition, retinal dystrophy, cystic kidney disease, liver fibrosis, and polydactyly occur in a subset of patients (summary by Wheway et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 51
MedGen UID:
1625009
Concept ID:
C4540474
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 52
MedGen UID:
1615839
Concept ID:
C4540478
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 53
MedGen UID:
1623344
Concept ID:
C4540481
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641736
Concept ID:
C4551475
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Joubert syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644883
Concept ID:
C4551568
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639277
Concept ID:
C4551773
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, dysplastic or absent nails, hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hirsutism, and abnormalities of the cartilage of the nose and/or ears (summary by Balasubramanian and Parker, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Zimmermann-Laband Syndrome ZLS2 (616455) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V1B2 gene (606939) on chromosome 8p21. ZLS3 (618658) is caused by mutation in the KCNN3 gene (602983) on chromosome 1q21.
Gaze palsy, familial horizontal, with progressive scoliosis 1
MedGen UID:
1647423
Concept ID:
C4551964
Disease or Syndrome
HGPPS is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by eye movement abnormalities apparent from birth and childhood-onset progressive scoliosis. These features are associated with a developmental malformation of the brainstem including hypoplasia of the pons and cerebellar peduncles and defective decussation of certain neuronal systems. Cognitive function is normal (summary by Bosley et al., 2005). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Horizontal Gaze Palsy With Progressive Scoliosis See also HGPPS2 (617542), caused by mutation in the DCC gene (120470) on chromosome 18q21.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639644
Concept ID:
C4551996
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormalities of the mandible are another characteristic feature of auriculo-condylar syndrome. These abnormalities often include an unusually small chin (micrognathia) and malfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which connects the lower jaw to the skull. Problems with the TMJ affect how the upper and lower jaws fit together and can make it difficult to open and close the mouth. The term "condylar" in the name of the condition refers to the mandibular condyle, which is the upper portion of the mandible that forms part of the TMJ.\n\nOther features of auriculo-condylar syndrome can include prominent cheeks, an unusually small mouth (microstomia), differences in the size and shape of facial structures between the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry), and an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). These features vary, even among affected members of the same family.\n\nMost people with auriculo-condylar syndrome have malformed outer ears ("auriculo-" refers to the ears). A hallmark of this condition is an ear abnormality called a "question-mark ear," in which the ears have a distinctive question-mark shape caused by a split that separates the upper part of the ear from the earlobe. Other ear abnormalities that can occur in auriculo-condylar syndrome include cupped ears, ears with fewer folds and grooves than usual (described as "simple"), narrow ear canals, small skin tags in front of or behind the ears, and ears that are rotated backward. Some affected individuals also have hearing loss.\n\nAuriculo-condylar syndrome is a condition that affects facial development, particularly development of the ears and lower jaw (mandible).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 1
MedGen UID:
1646889
Concept ID:
C4552003
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 1 (EDSSPD1) is characterized by short stature, developmental anomalies of the forearm bones and elbow, and bowing of extremities, in addition to the classic stigmata of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, including joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, and poor wound healing. Significant developmental delay is not a consistent feature (Guo et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Spondylodysplastic Type See EDSSPD2 (615349), caused by mutation in the B3GALT6 gene (615291), and EDSSPD3 (612350), caused by mutation in the SLC39A13 gene (608735).
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1634304
Concept ID:
C4693347
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities, abnormal gait, and autistic features
MedGen UID:
1647077
Concept ID:
C4693405
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities, abnormal gait, and autistic features (NEDMAGA) is characterized by infantile-onset global developmental delay with severe to profound intellectual disability, mildly delayed walking with broad-based and unsteady gait, and absence of meaningful language. Patients have features of autism, with repetitive behaviors and poor communication, but usually are socially reactive and have a happy demeanor. More variable neurologic features include mild seizures, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Palmer et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor language and loss of hand skills
MedGen UID:
1637031
Concept ID:
C4693546
Disease or Syndrome
NDPLHS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental stagnation or regression apparent in the first years of life and manifest as loss of purposeful hand movements, loss of language, and intellectual disability. Additional features may include stereotypic movements, dystonia, gait abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and small hands and feet. The phenotype is reminiscent of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750) (summary by Yoo et al., 2017).
Adenosine kinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1632232
Concept ID:
C4706555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy); homocysteine is typically normal (summary by Bjursell et al., 2011).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648498
Concept ID:
C4748135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypertelorism and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
1648403
Concept ID:
C4748381
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies with developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1648330
Concept ID:
C4748484
Disease or Syndrome
CAFDADD is a multisystemic developmental disorder with variable cardiac and digital anomalies and facial dysmorphism. Some patients may have seizures and ocular/aural abnormalities (Tokita et al., 2018).
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 9
MedGen UID:
1648399
Concept ID:
C4748540
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-9 is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profoundly impaired motor and cognitive development apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals develop intractable seizures and are unable to speak or ambulate. Brain imaging shows pachygyria as well as hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and other variable brain abnormalities. The phenotype results from impaired cortical neuronal migration (summary by Schaffer et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648495
Concept ID:
C4748701
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome (SNIBCPS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and delayed speech acquisition. Affected individuals tend to have expressive language deficits, with speech apraxia and dysarthria. Other features include macrocephaly and characteristic facial features, such as prominent forehead and hypertelorism, hypotonia, and joint laxity. The severity of the neurologic deficits and presence of nonneurologic features is variable (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2018).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1648324
Concept ID:
C4748753
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 18
MedGen UID:
1648321
Concept ID:
C4748790
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency nuclear type 18 (MC1DN18) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Affected individuals present with lactic acidemia soon after birth. Clinical features may include hypertonia or hypotonia, poor feeding, respiratory problems, leukomalacia, and seizures. Death occurs by 6 months of age (Saada et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex I deficiency, see 252010.
Global developmental delay - lung cysts - overgrowth - Wilms tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648360
Concept ID:
C4748924
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic overgrowth syndrome characterised by global developmental delay, macrosomia with subsequent somatic overgrowth, bilateral cystic lung lesions, congenital nephromegaly and bilateral Wilms tumour. Craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, frontal bossing, large anterior fontanelle, mild hypertelorism, ear pit, flat nasal bridge, anteverted nares and mild micrognathia. Additional features may include brain and skeletal anomalies, enlarged protuberant abdomen, fat pads on dorsum of feet and toes, and rugated soles with skin folds, as well as umbilical/inguinal hernia and autistic behaviour.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 69
MedGen UID:
1648381
Concept ID:
C4748988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-69 (DEE69) is an autosomal dominant severe neurodevelopmental encephalopathic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profoundly impaired development often associated with macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movements, and contractures. The disorder can sometimes result in early death. Some patients may have a favorable seizure response to topiramate medication (summary by Helbig et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Macrocephaly, acquired, with impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648471
Concept ID:
C4748993
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant, 2b, prenatal onset, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1648362
Concept ID:
C4749003
Disease or Syndrome
SMALED2B is a severe neuromuscular disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals show decreased fetal movements and are usually born with congenital contractures consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). After birth, they have severe hypotonia and muscle atrophy as well as respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness. Some patients may have dysmorphic facial features and/or abnormalities on brain imaging. Many patients die in early childhood (summary by Storbeck et al., 2017) For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600).
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1675627
Concept ID:
C5193024
Disease or Syndrome
IDDCDF is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by globally impaired development with intellectual disability and speech delay, congenital cardiac malformations, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, such as distal skeletal anomalies, may also be observed (Stephen et al., 2018).
Houge-Janssens syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1677130
Concept ID:
C5193048
Disease or Syndrome
Houge-Janssens syndrome-3 (HJS3) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: patients may have hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and sometimes small brainstem. Many develop seizures, sometimes refractory, and some may have nonspecific dysmorphic features. Intellectual impairment can vary from mild to profound, and some patients may benefit from special education and respond well to speech therapy (summary by Reynhout et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HJS, see HJS1 (616355).
Turnpenny-fry syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683283
Concept ID:
C5193060
Disease or Syndrome
Turnpenny-Fry syndrome (TPFS) is characterized by developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, impaired growth, and recognizable facial features that include frontal bossing, sparse hair, malar hypoplasia, small palpebral fissures and oral stoma, and dysplastic 'satyr' ears. Other common findings include feeding problems, constipation, and a range of brain, cardiac, vascular, and skeletal malformations (Turnpenny et al., 2018).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1676192
Concept ID:
C5193092
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities (DDVIBA) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. Most patients have impaired intellectual development with speech difficulties, and many have behavioral abnormalities, most commonly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), defects in attention, and/or hyperactivity. Many patients have dysmorphic features, although there is not a consistent gestalt. Additional more variable features may include hypotonia, somatic overgrowth with macrocephaly, mild distal skeletal anomalies, sleep disturbances, movement disorders, and gastrointestinal issues, such as constipation. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Vetrini et al., 2019 and Torti et al., 2019).
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 71
MedGen UID:
1673448
Concept ID:
C5193133
Disease or Syndrome
O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677602
Concept ID:
C5193138
Disease or Syndrome
O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome (ODLURO) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, speech delay, variably delayed intellectual development, and subtle dysmorphic features. Some patients may have autism, seizures, hypotonia, and/or feeding difficulties (summary by O'Donnell-Luria et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder 59
MedGen UID:
1678593
Concept ID:
C5193190
Disease or Syndrome
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 8
MedGen UID:
1684717
Concept ID:
C5231395
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital nongoitrous hypothyroidism-8 (CHNG8) is characterized by relatively mild central hypothyroidism, which may be accompanied by hearing loss in some patients (Heinen et al., 2016).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with nonspecific brain abnormalities and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684757
Concept ID:
C5231470
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with nonspecific brain abnormalities is a highly variable syndrome characterized by impaired intellectual development and behavioral abnormalities associated with structural changes on brain imaging. Some patients have seizures, hypotonia, and scoliosis/kyphosis. Cognitive function ranges from severely impaired to the ability to attend schools with special assistance (summary by Fischer-Zirnsak et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphism with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684850
Concept ID:
C5231476
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with intellectual developmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphism with or without seizures (IDDBCS) have impaired intellectual development or developmental delay of varying severity with impaired motor skills and language delay. Macrocephaly, obesity, and overgrowth are frequently seen. Approximately half of patients experience seizures, and neurobehavioral disorders including autism are usually present (Hamanaka et al., 2019; Kim et al., 2019).
Joubert syndrome 36
MedGen UID:
1684786
Concept ID:
C5231493
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-36 (JBTS36) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by global developmental delay, ocular movement abnormalities, and mesoaxial polydactyly. Brain imaging may be normal or show the classic 'molar tooth sign.' There is some phenotypic similarity to and overlap with orofaciodigital syndrome VI (OFD6; 277170) (summary by Shaheen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome
MedGen UID:
1711007
Concept ID:
C5394073
Disease or Syndrome
Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome (IMMAS) is characterized by variable pre- and postnatal overgrowth; dysmorphic features including postnatal macrocephaly, prominent forehead, round face, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, and low and broad nasal bridge; and variable musculoskeletal abnormalities. Developmental delay and impaired intellectual development are common, whereas abnormalities of cerebral imaging are uncommon but may be significant. Some patients exhibit genitourinary abnormalities, and respiratory issues have been reported (Cyrus et al., 2019).
Beck-Fahrner syndrome
MedGen UID:
1711894
Concept ID:
C5394097
Disease or Syndrome
Beck-Fahrner syndrome (BEFAHRS) is a developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as learning disabilities. Most patients have hypotonia and dysmorphic facies. Some may have growth abnormalities, including overgrowth or poor growth, poor feeding, and rarely, seizures. Although both monoallelic and biallelic mutations have been reported, some heterozygous carriers in autosomal recessive families may have milder symptoms; thus, both groups are included in this entry (summary by Beck et al., 2020).
Genitourinary and/or brain malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
1720440
Concept ID:
C5394158
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with PPP1R12A-related urogenital and/or brain malformation syndrome (UBMS) usually present with multiple congenital anomalies, commonly including brain and/or urogenital malformations. The brain abnormalities are variable, with the most severe belonging to the holoprosencephaly spectrum and associated with moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, seizures, and feeding difficulties. In individuals without brain involvement, variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability may be present, although normal intelligence has been seen in a minority of affected individuals. Eye abnormalities and skeletal issues (kyphoscoliosis, joint contractures) can also be present in individuals of either sex. Regardless of the presence of a brain malformation, affected individuals with a 46,XY chromosome complement may have a disorder of sex development (DSD) with gonadal abnormalities (dysgenetic gonads or streak gonads). Individuals with a 46,XX chromosome complement may have varying degrees of virilization (clitoral hypertrophy, posterior labial fusion, urogenital sinus).
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
1720321
Concept ID:
C5394173
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features (RLSDF) is characterized by rhizomelic shortening of the extremities, predominantly of the upper limbs, and variable dysmorphic features, including macrocephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, depressed or broad nasal bridge, and micrognathia. Hearing loss has also been observed (Sajan et al., 2019; Pagnamenta et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 63, with macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
1716581
Concept ID:
C5394205
Disease or Syndrome
Skeletal dysplasia, mild, with joint laxity and advanced bone age
MedGen UID:
1711043
Concept ID:
C5394341
Disease or Syndrome
CSGALNACT1 deficiency is characterized by mild skeletal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, and advanced bone age. Shortness of long bones is evident prenatally, and patients exhibit short stature and relative macrocephaly. Advanced carpotarsal bone age and monkey-wrench appearance of the femur observed in infancy may disappear with age (Mizumoto et al., 2020).
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718475
Concept ID:
C5394523
Disease or Syndrome
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome (ACOGS) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies (Accogli et al., 2019).
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome
MedGen UID:
1770070
Concept ID:
C5399974
Disease or Syndrome
ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood.
Chromosome 17q11.2 deletion syndrome, 1.4Mb
MedGen UID:
1726802
Concept ID:
C5401456
Disease or Syndrome
Approximately 5 to 20% of all patients with neurofibromatosis type I (162200) carry a heterozygous deletion of approximately 1.4 Mb involving the NF1 gene and contiguous genes lying in its flanking regions (Riva et al., 2000; Jenne et al., 2001), which is caused by nonallelic homologous recombination of NF1 repeats A and C (Dorschner et al., 2000). The 'NF1 microdeletion syndrome' is often characterized by a more severe phenotype than that observed in the majority of NF1 patients. In particular, patients with NF1 microdeletion often show variable facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, developmental delay, an excessive number of early-onset neurofibromas (Venturin et al., 2004), and an increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (De Raedt et al., 2003).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1758434
Concept ID:
C5436699
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies (NEDSID) is characterized by developmental delay associated with mild to moderately impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral or psychiatric abnormalities, and delayed speech and language acquisition. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal problems or feeding difficulties, and hypotonia. The phenotypic features and severity of the disorder are variable (summary by Kummeling et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is characterized by a distinctive type of alopecia, global developmental delay in the moderate to severe range, hypotonia, nonspecific dysmorphic features, behavioral abnormalities (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and feeding difficulties. Hair is typically present at birth but may be sparse and of an unexpected color with subsequent loss of hair in large clumps within the first few weeks of life. Rare findings may include seizures with onset in later childhood and conductive hearing loss.
Hearing loss, autosomal dominant 78
MedGen UID:
1777362
Concept ID:
C5436768
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-78 (DFNA78) is characterized by profound congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss affecting all frequencies. Some patients may have mild motor delay early in life due to vestibular dysfunction, although the motor skills catch up with age. Affected individuals do not have systemic or other neurologic manifestations (summary by Mutai et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 89
MedGen UID:
1761611
Concept ID:
C5436853
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-89 (DEE89) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profound global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, inability to sit or walk due to axial hypotonia and spastic quadriparesis, and onset of seizures in the first days or months of life. EEG shows suppression-burst pattern or hypsarrhythmia, consistent with DEE or a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. More variable features include joint contractures with foot deformities, dysmorphic facial features with cleft palate, and omphalocele. Affected individuals have poor motor skills, poor eye contact, and lack of language development; some die in infancy or early childhood. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities (summary by Chatron et al., 2020).
Congenital secretory sodium diarrhea 3
MedGen UID:
1778108
Concept ID:
C5441927
Disease or Syndrome
Any secretory diarrhea in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SPINT2 gene.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Odontochondrodysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1784281
Concept ID:
C5542277
Disease or Syndrome
Odontochondrodysplasia-1 (ODCD1) is characterized by mesomelic shortening of tubular bones, ligamentous laxity, and scoliosis, in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta involving both primary and secondary dentition. Affected individuals show variable severity. Radiologic features include trident pelvis, posteriorly flattened vertebrae, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses (Maroteaux et al., 1996). Clinical variability and extraskeletal manifestations have been observed (Wehrle et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Odontochondrodysplasia Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2; 619269) is caused by mutation in the TANGO1 gene (MIA3; 613455) on chromosome 1q41.
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1787991
Concept ID:
C5543226
Disease or Syndrome
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities (GDSBA) is characterized by developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed fine and motor skills with walking by 3 years of age, mildly impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities, mostly autism and ADHD. Some patients may have additional nonspecific features, such as facial dysmorphism, myopia or strabismus, and skeletal defects, including joint hypermobility, pes planus, or slender fingers (summary by Granadillo et al., 2020).
CATARACTS, SPASTIC PARAPARESIS, AND SPEECH DELAY
MedGen UID:
1778818
Concept ID:
C5543440
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, spastic paraparesis, and speech delay (CSPSD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts. Speech delay is a common feature (Ferdinandusse et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies
MedGen UID:
1794140
Concept ID:
C5561930
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies (MRXSPF) is characterized by a phenotypic triad of severe developmental delay, coarse facial dysmorphisms, and Blaschkoid pigmentary mosaicism. Additional clinical features may include epilepsy, orthopedic abnormalities, hypotonia, and growth abnormalities. The disorder affects both males and females (Villegas et al., 2019; Diaz et al., 2020).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 22
MedGen UID:
1794146
Concept ID:
C5561936
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-22 (BBS22) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and intellectual disability (Lindstrand et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794185
Concept ID:
C5561975
Disease or Syndrome
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome (CAGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development, speech delay, facial dysmorphism, and variable other features, including recurrent bacterial infections, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Chopra et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794214
Concept ID:
C5562004
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities (DDIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a nonspecific phenotype of developmental delay. Additional features may include neonatal feeding problems, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features (Dulovic-Mahlow et al., 2019; van Woerden et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, hypotonia, musculoskeletal defects, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794222
Concept ID:
C5562012
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, hypotonia, musculoskeletal defects, and behavioral abnormalities (DEHMBA) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by these features. Affected individuals also have nonspecific and variable dysmorphic facial features that do not constitute a recognizable gestalt. Although the disorder is caused by truncating mutations in the SRCAP gene as is FLHS, the DEHMBA phenotype is clinically distinguishable from FLHS by the lack of short stature, brachydactyly, and delayed bone age, as well as absence of a specific facial appearance. There are some overlapping features between the 2 disorders, mainly impaired intellectual development and speech delay (summary by Rots et al., 2021).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iw, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1794278
Concept ID:
C5562068
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iw (CDG1WAD) is characterized by variable skeletal anomalies, short stature, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic features; about half of patients have impaired intellectual development. Additional features include increased muscle tone and muscle cramps (Wilson et al., 2021).
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 3
MedGen UID:
1798903
Concept ID:
C5567480
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies-3 is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Most affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal psychomotor development, poor speech, and inability to walk independently (summary by Bhoj et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies, see IHPRF1 (615419).
D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
1802316
Concept ID:
C5574940
Disease or Syndrome
Combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D2L2AD) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development resulting in early death. Brain imaging shows abnormalities including enlarged ventricles, delayed myelination, and germinal layer cysts (Muntau et al., 2000). See also isolated L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (236792) and isolated D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (see 600721).
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type
MedGen UID:
1806238
Concept ID:
C5575335
Disease or Syndrome
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type (CTDI) is characterized by childhood-onset short stature in association with macrocephaly, dolichocephaly, or prominent forehead. Radiography shows hyperostosis of the calvaria and skull base, with metadiaphyseal undermodeling of the long tubular bones and mild shortening and diaphyseal broadening of the short tubular bones. Affected individuals experience progressive vision loss in the first decade of life due to optic nerve compression, and deafness may develop in the second decade of life (Guo et al., 2021).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1804638
Concept ID:
C5676876
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-1 (CFZS1) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypotonia, Moebius sequence (bilateral congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction), Pierre Robin complex (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and high-arched or cleft palate), delayed motor milestones, and failure to thrive. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability. It has been postulated that many clinical features in CFZS1 may be secondary effects of muscle weakness during development or brainstem anomalies (summary by Pasetti et al., 2016). Di Gioia et al. (2017) determined that CFZS1 represents a slowly progressive congenital myopathy resulting from a defect in myoblast fusion. Genetic Heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is caused by mutation in the MYMX gene (619912) on chromosome 6p21.
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1801103
Concept ID:
C5676905
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-1 (BRYLIB1) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include abnormal head shape, variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj Neurodevelopmental Syndrome See also BRYLIB2 (619721), caused by heterozygous mutation in the H3F3B gene (601058).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811435
Concept ID:
C5676906
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (BRYLIB2) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome, see BRYLIB1 (619720).
Immunodeficiency 94 with autoinflammation and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1802872
Concept ID:
C5676918
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-94 with autoinflammation and dysmorphic facies (IMD94) is a systemic immunologic disorder with onset in early infancy. Primary features include lymphadenopathy, autoinflammation, immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinemia, and dysmorphic facial features. Intellectual development is normal and serum IgE is not elevated. The disease results from constitutive activation of the IL6 signaling cascade, resulting in immune dysregulation and a hyperinflammatory state (summary by Materna-Kiryluk et al., 2021).
Macrocephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, lymphoid hyperplasia, and persistent fetal hemoglobin
MedGen UID:
1802903
Concept ID:
C5676928
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, lymphoid hyperplasia, and persistent fetal hemoglobin (MNDLFH) is characterized by clinically significant pharyngeal lymphoid hypertrophy, with adenoid overgrowth, frequent upper airway infections, and sleep apnea. Macrocephaly without structural brain abnormalities is present, and patients exhibit increased weight for height as well as delayed gross motor and impaired intellectual development; autistic features and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have also been reported. An increased fraction of fetal hemoglobin has been observed in some patients (Ohishi et al., 2020; von der Lippe et al., 2022).
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 2
MedGen UID:
1809253
Concept ID:
C5676931
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation-2 (CDDG2) is an autosomal recessive disorder with variable associated features such as dysmorphic facies, impaired intellectual development, and brain anomalies, including polymicrogyria, interhemispheric cysts, hypothalamic hamartoma, callosal anomalies, and hypoplasia of brainstem and cerebellar vermis (Maia et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital disorder of deglycosylation, see CDGG1 (615273).
Holoprosencephaly 14
MedGen UID:
1811868
Concept ID:
C5676994
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-14 (HPE14) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by severe developmental delay secondary to brain malformations within the holoprosencephaly spectrum (Drissi et al., 2022). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 103
MedGen UID:
1809962
Concept ID:
C5677002
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-103 (DEE103) is characterized by onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, most of which are refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe. Additional features may include hypotonia, ataxia, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism and hyperactivity (Schwarz et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development 1
MedGen UID:
1808104
Concept ID:
C5677021
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (CFSMR1) is characterized by cranial involvement with macrocrania at birth, brachycephaly, anomalies of middle fossa structures including hypoplasia of corpus callosum, enlargement of septum pellucidum, and dilated lateral ventricles, as well as cortical atrophy and hypodensity of the gray matter. Facial dysmorphisms include flat face, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, cleft lip and cleft palate, and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Patients also exhibit short neck and multiple costal and vertebral anomalies. The face is rather characteristic, and various authors have consistently reported affable/friendly personality, despite intellectual delay (summary by Alanay et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Skeletal Anomalies, and Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome CFSMR2 (616994) is caused by mutation in the RAB5IF gene (619960) on chromosome 20q11.
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).
Epilepsy, X-linked 1, with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders
MedGen UID:
1823951
Concept ID:
C5774177
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked epilepsy-1 with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders (EPILX1) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of complex partial seizures in the first or second decades. The seizures are often triggered by showering or water-related hygiene activities, consistent with reflex bathing epilepsy. Additional spontaneous seizures and secondary generalization may also occur. Most patients have associated developmental defects, including learning disabilities, behavioral problems, or autistic features. The pathophysiology of the reflex seizures is thought to be hyperexcitability of the cortical or subcortical neuronal areas that respond to physiologic stimulus in an exaggerated manner, possibly due to aberrant synaptic maturation (summary by Nguyen et al., 2015; Sirsi et al., 2017; Accogli et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, hypotonia, and impaired language
MedGen UID:
1823975
Concept ID:
C5774202
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, hypotonia, and impaired language (DEDHIL) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by variably impaired intellectual development usually with hypotonia, mild motor delay, and language difficulties. Affected individuals may also have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, gastrointestinal problems, and abnormalities on brain imaging (Stephenson et al., 2022).
Diaphragmatic hernia 4, with cardiovascular defects
MedGen UID:
1823983
Concept ID:
C5774210
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphragmatic hernia-4 with cardiovascular defects (DIH4) is an autosomal recessive congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by the presence of diaphragmatic hernia or eventration apparent at birth. Affected infants have associated pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory insufficiency resulting in death in infancy. Most also have variable cardiovascular defects, including aortopulmonary window or conotruncal anomalies. Dysmorphic facial features and mild distal limb anomalies are sometimes observed (Beecroft et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), see DIH1 (142340).
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair 2
MedGen UID:
1823996
Concept ID:
C5774223
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair-2 (DEDSSH2) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by the constellation of these features apparent from infancy. Affected individuals may have other abnormalities, including congenital cardiac defects and distal skeletal anomalies (Hawer et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEDSSH2, see DEDSSH1 (616901).
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders
MedGen UID:
1823997
Concept ID:
C5774224
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders (DEDBANP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild global developmental delay and normal or variably impaired intellectual development. Most individuals have behavioral or neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and executive functioning deficits. Additional features may include speech delay, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, and seizures (Vitobello et al., 2022).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1824015
Concept ID:
C5774242
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies (DIDDF) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurologic deficits and characteristic dysmorphic facial features apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals usually show impaired intellectual development, speech delay, learning difficulties, and/or behavioral problems. Additional features may include hypotonia, hand or foot deformities, and palatal defects (Verberne et al., 2021; Verberne et al., 2022).
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1
MedGen UID:
1826136
Concept ID:
C5779875
Disease or Syndrome
The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur.
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 1
MedGen UID:
1830482
Concept ID:
C5779972
Disease or Syndrome
Any leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the EIF2B1 gene.
Hogue-Janssens syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1830493
Concept ID:
C5779996
Disease or Syndrome
PPP2R5D-related neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by mild to severe neurodevelopmental delay. Pronounced hypotonia with delay in gross motor skills is common. Onset of independent walking varies widely and ataxia is reported. All reported individuals have speech impairment, with a wide range of abilities. Autism spectrum disorder is reported in six individuals. Macrocephaly is common. Seizures and ophthalmologic abnormalities are reported in fewer than half of individuals. Additional anomalies include skeletal, endocrine, and cardiac malformations, each reported in a few individuals. To date, 23 individuals with PPP2R5D-related neurodevelopmental disorder have been reported.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 71, with behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841073
Concept ID:
C5830437
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-71 with behavioral abnormalities (MRD71) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, speech delay, and variably impaired cognitive development. Almost all affected individuals show marked behavioral manifestations, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, hypersensitivity, and aggression. Many have dysmorphic features, although there is not a common gestalt (Harris et al., 2021).
Basal cell nevus syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1841087
Concept ID:
C5830451
Neoplastic Process
The basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is characterized by numerous basal cell cancers and epidermal cysts of the skin, calcified dural folds, keratocysts of the jaws, palmar and plantar pits, ovarian fibromas, medulloblastomas, lymphomesenteric cysts, fetal rhabdomyomas, and various stigmata of maldevelopment (e.g., rib and vertebral abnormalities, cleft lip or cleft palate, and cortical defects of bones) (summary by Koch et al., 2002). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BCNS, see BCNS1 (109400).
Spastic paraplegia 90A, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1841210
Concept ID:
C5830574
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia-90A (SPG90A) is characterized by motor impairment and progressive lower extremity spasticity as well as neurologic findings, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss (Srivastava et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant SPG, see SPG3A (182600).
Spastic paraplegia 90B, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1841214
Concept ID:
C5830578
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-90B (SPG90B) is characterized by motor impairment and progressive lower extremity spasticity as well as neurologic findings, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss (Srivastava et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 72
MedGen UID:
1841248
Concept ID:
C5830612
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-72 (MRD72) is characterized by developmental delay, predominant speech delay, autistic or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder features, overfriendliness, generalized hypotonia, overweight/obesity, and dysmorphic features (Cuinat et al., 2022).
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 3
MedGen UID:
1841261
Concept ID:
C5830625
Disease or Syndrome
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts-3 (MLC3) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increased head circumference in infancy followed by progressive motor and cognitive decline in early childhood. Affected individuals either do not achieve walking or lose independent ambulation in the first or second decades. Cognitive impairment is variable and accompanied by poor speech and dysarthria. Most patients have early-onset seizures, which may be mild or refractory. Brain imaging shows unremitting megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts and swelling of the cerebral white matter (Passchier et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, see MLC1 (604004).
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 4, remitting
MedGen UID:
1841264
Concept ID:
C5830628
Disease or Syndrome
Remitting megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts-4 (MLC4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by macrocephaly in infancy associated with developmental delay, delayed walking, variable cognitive decline, behavioral abnormalities, and early-onset seizures. The severity of neurologic dysfunction is variable, even within a family, but tends to show improvement with time. Brain imaging shows swelling of the cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts in the anterior temporal region, consistent with MLC. Brain imaging abnormalities also tend to improve with time, indicating a remitting disease course (Passchier et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, see MLC1 (604004).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841290
Concept ID:
C5830654
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures (NEDHSS) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and fine and gross motor delay. Most affected individuals are severely affected and may be unable to walk, have feeding difficulties requiring tube-feeding, and develop early-onset seizures. Additional features may include cortical blindness and nonspecific structural brain abnormalities. Rare individuals present only with hypotonia and mild developmental delay (Paul et al., 2023).
Lui-Jee-Baron syndrome
MedGen UID:
1849943
Concept ID:
C5882664
Disease or Syndrome
Lui-Jee Baron syndrome (LJBS) is a generalized overgrowth disorder of prenatal onset characterized by extreme tall stature, enlarged liver and spleen, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, and normal development. Hemizygous males are more severely affected than heterozygous females (Lui et al., 2023).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 111
MedGen UID:
1846991
Concept ID:
C5882690
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-111 (DEE111) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, impaired gross motor development, impaired intellectual development, and absent speech. Most patients have macrocephaly. Brain imaging shows frontal, parietal, and perisylvian polymicrogyria, dysmorphic basal ganglia and corpus callosum, and hypoplastic pons. Additional features may include feeding difficulties, poor vision with ocular anomalies, congenital cardiac abnormalities, and recurrent infections associated with neutropenia. Death in early childhood may occur (Ververi et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Craniometadiaphyseal osteosclerosis with hip dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1844026
Concept ID:
C5882710
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometadiaphyseal osteosclerosis with hip dysplasia (CMDOH) is characterized by macrocephaly, cranial hyperostosis, and vertebral endplate sclerosis. Other frequent findings include hip dysplasia, heart malformations, variable developmental delay, and hematologic anomalies including anemia and pancytopenia. Bone biopsy shows evidence of increased osteoblast and reduced osteoclast function at the growth plate resorption zone, resulting in coarse trabeculae (Terhal et al., 2023). For syndromes with overlapping features, see osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive (OPTB1; 259700) and dominant (OPTA1; 607634), and osteopathia with cranial sclerosis (OSCS; 300373).
Long-Olsen-Distelmaier syndrome
MedGen UID:
1847052
Concept ID:
C5882721
Disease or Syndrome
Long-Olsen-Distelmaier syndrome (LNGODS) is a severe, early-onset disease with multiple system involvement and lethal dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as a core clinical feature (summary by Reijnders et al., 2023).
Polydactyly-macrocephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
1847761
Concept ID:
C5882754
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly-macrocephaly syndrome (PDMCS) is characterized by postaxial polydactyly and progressive macrocephaly. Variable ocular anomalies have been observed, including microphthalmia and coloboma as well as delayed visual maturation. Neurodevelopmental anomalies are also present, including global developmental delay and autism or autistic traits, with prominent perivascular spaces on brain imaging (Harris et al., 2024).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Douzgou S, Rawson M, Baselga E, Danielpour M, Faivre L, Kashanian A, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Kuentz P, Mancini GMS, Maniere MC, Martinez-Glez V, Parker VE, Semple RK, Srivastava S, Vabres P, De Wit MY, Graham JM Jr, Clayton-Smith J, Mirzaa GM, Biesecker LG
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Hoover-Fong J, Scott CI, Jones MC; COMMITTEE ON GENETICS
Pediatrics 2020 Jun;145(6) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1010. PMID: 32457214
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Genet Med 2020 Feb;22(2):389-397. Epub 2019 Aug 7 doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0612-0. PMID: 31388190Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hoover-Fong J, Scott CI, Jones MC; COMMITTEE ON GENETICS
Pediatrics 2020 Jun;145(6) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1010. PMID: 32457214
Nix JS, Blakeley J, Rodriguez FJ
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Patterson MC
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Diagnosis

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Patterson MC
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Wakeling EL
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Therapy

Yeom S, Cohen B, Weiss CR, Montano C, Wohler E, Sobreira N, Hammill AM, Comi A
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Laxova R
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Prognosis

Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Sainz LV, Schuhmann MU
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Nov;37(11):3455-3463. Epub 2021 Oct 23 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05328-z. PMID: 34687332Free PMC Article
Masunaga Y, Inoue T, Yamoto K, Fujisawa Y, Sato Y, Kawashima-Sonoyama Y, Morisada N, Iijima K, Ohata Y, Namba N, Suzumura H, Kuribayashi R, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshihashi H, Fukami M, Saitsu H, Kagami M, Ogata T
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Bartoš V, Kullová M, Adamicová K, Paučinová I
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Wakeling EL
Arch Dis Child 2011 Dec;96(12):1156-61. Epub 2011 Feb 24 doi: 10.1136/adc.2010.190165. PMID: 21349887

Clinical prediction guides

Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Barbosa S, Greville-Heygate S, Bonnet M, Godwin A, Fagotto-Kaufmann C, Kajava AV, Laouteouet D, Mawby R, Wai HA, Dingemans AJM, Hehir-Kwa J, Willems M, Capri Y, Mehta SG, Cox H, Goudie D, Vansenne F, Turnpenny P, Vincent M, Cogné B, Lesca G, Hertecant J, Rodriguez D, Keren B, Burglen L, Gérard M, Putoux A; C4RCD Research Group, Cantagrel V, Siquier-Pernet K, Rio M, Banka S, Sarkar A, Steeves M, Parker M, Clement E, Moutton S, Tran Mau-Them F, Piton A, de Vries BBA, Guille M, Debant A, Schmidt S, Baralle D
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Masunaga Y, Inoue T, Yamoto K, Fujisawa Y, Sato Y, Kawashima-Sonoyama Y, Morisada N, Iijima K, Ohata Y, Namba N, Suzumura H, Kuribayashi R, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshihashi H, Fukami M, Saitsu H, Kagami M, Ogata T
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jan 1;105(1) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz034. PMID: 31544945
Bernier R, Steinman KJ, Reilly B, Wallace AS, Sherr EH, Pojman N, Mefford HC, Gerdts J, Earl R, Hanson E, Goin-Kochel RP, Berry L, Kanne S, Snyder LG, Spence S, Ramocki MB, Evans DW, Spiro JE, Martin CL, Ledbetter DH, Chung WK; Simons VIP consortium
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Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
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Recent systematic reviews

Singh A, Pajni K, Panigrahi I, Khetarpal P
Curr Pediatr Rev 2023;19(2):157-168. doi: 10.2174/1573396318666220315142542. PMID: 35293298
Cummings K, Watkins A, Jones C, Dias R, Welham A
J Neurodev Disord 2022 Jan 4;14(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s11689-021-09406-w. PMID: 34983360Free PMC Article
Pan PY, Bölte S, Kaur P, Jamil S, Jonsson U
Autism 2021 Apr;25(3):812-830. Epub 2020 Sep 9 doi: 10.1177/1362361320951370. PMID: 32907344
Natale V, Rajagopalan A
BMJ Open 2014 Jan 8;4(1):e003735. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003735. PMID: 24401723Free PMC Article
Gripp KW, Hopkins E, Doyle D, Dobyns WB
Am J Med Genet A 2010 May;152A(5):1161-8. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33391. PMID: 20425820Free PMC Article

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