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Intestinal obstruction

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Intestinal Obstruction; Intestinal Obstructions; Obstruction, Intestinal
SNOMED CT: Intestinal obstruction (81060008); Bowel obstruction (81060008); Obstruction of intestine (81060008); IO - Intestinal obstruction (81060008)
HPO: HP:0005214
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004565


Blockage or impairment of the normal flow of the contents of the intestine towards the anal canal. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Protein-losing enteropathy
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (CHAPLE) is characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea, primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, hypoproteinemic edema, and malabsorption. Some patients also exhibit bowel inflammation, recurrent infections associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, and/or angiopathic thromboembolic disease. Patient T lymphocytes show increased complement activation, causing surface deposition of complement and generating soluble C5a (Ozen et al., 2017).
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs are also seen as a feature in several syndromes, e.g., neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) and GIST-plus syndrome (175510).
T-B+ severe combined immunodeficiency due to JAK3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
JAK3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder of the immune system. Individuals with JAK3-deficient SCID lack the necessary immune cells to fight off certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are prone to repeated and persistent infections that can be very serious or life-threatening. Often the organisms that cause infection in people with JAK3-deficient SCID are described as opportunistic because they ordinarily do not cause illness in healthy people. Affected infants typically develop chronic diarrhea, a fungal infection in the mouth called oral thrush, pneumonia, and skin rashes. Persistent illness also causes affected individuals to grow more slowly than other children. Without treatment, people with JAK3-deficient SCID usually live only into early childhood.
Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
About half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.\n\nTrichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.\n\nIntellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.\n\nMothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. \n\nThe signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."\n\nTrichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken. 
Crohn disease-associated growth failure, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Visceral myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Visceral myopathy-2 (VSCM2) is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from intestinal dysmotility and paresis, including abdominal distention, pain, nausea, and vomiting. Some patients exhibit predominantly esophageal symptoms, with hiatal hernia and severe reflux resulting in esophagitis and stricture, whereas others experience chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Bladder involvement resulting in megacystis and megaureter has also been observed and may be evident at birth (Dong et al., 2019; Gilbert et al. (2020)).
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) is characterized by multiple intestinal atresia, in which atresia occurs at various levels throughout the small and large intestines. Surgical outcomes are poor, and the condition is usually fatal within the first month of life. Some patients exhibit inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with or without intestinal atresia, and in some cases, the intestinal features are associated with either mild or severe combined immunodeficiency (Samuels et al., 2013; Avitzur et al., 2014; Lemoine et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of GIDID See also GIDID2 (619708), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on chromosome 22q11.

Professional guidelines


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Recent clinical studies


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Jackson P, Vigiola Cruz M
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Am Fam Physician 2011 Jan 15;83(2):159-65. PMID: 21243991
Shelton BK
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Clinical prediction guides

Ambartsumyan L, Smith C, Kapur RP
Pediatr Dev Pathol 2020 Jan-Feb;23(1):8-22. Epub 2019 Dec 2 doi: 10.1177/1093526619892351. PMID: 31791203
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Recent systematic reviews

Madariaga A, Lau J, Ghoshal A, Dzierżanowski T, Larkin P, Sobocki J, Dickman A, Furness K, Fazelzad R, Crawford GB, Lheureux S
Support Care Cancer 2022 Jun;30(6):4711-4728. Epub 2022 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s00520-022-06889-8. PMID: 35274188Free PMC Article
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J Clin Oncol 2022 Mar 10;40(8):892-910. Epub 2021 Dec 22 doi: 10.1200/JCO.21.02538. PMID: 34936379
Bettenworth D, Bokemeyer A, Baker M, Mao R, Parker CE, Nguyen T, Ma C, Panés J, Rimola J, Fletcher JG, Jairath V, Feagan BG, Rieder F; Stenosis Therapy and Anti-Fibrotic Research (STAR) Consortium.
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