U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Craniosynostosis syndrome

MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Craniosynostosis
SNOMED CT: CSO - Craniosynostosis (57219006); Premature cranial suture closure (57219006); Craniosynostosis syndrome (57219006); Craniostosis (57219006); Craniosynostosis (57219006); Premature closure of cranial sutures (57219006); Congenital ossification of cranial sutures (57219006); Congenital ossification of sutures of skull (57219006); Craniostenosis (57219006)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
Unknown inheritance
MedGen UID:
989040
Concept ID:
CN307042
Finding
Source: Orphanet
Hereditary clinical entity whose mode of inheritance is unknown.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Related genes: TWIST1, TCF12, MSX2, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR1, ERF
 
HPO: HP:0001363
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0015469
OMIM®: 123100
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS123100
Orphanet: ORPHA1531

Definition

Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. Primary craniosynostosis refers to the closure of one or more sutures due to abnormalities in skull development, and secondary craniosynostosis results from failure of brain growth. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract.
Pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy
MedGen UID:
10988
Concept ID:
C0033788
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Childhood hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
65089
Concept ID:
C0220743
Congenital Abnormality
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
120531
Concept ID:
C0265306
Congenital Abnormality
Typical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by macrocephaly, widely spaced eyes associated with increased interpupillary distance, preaxial polydactyly with or without postaxial polydactyly, and cutaneous syndactyly. Developmental delay, intellectual disability, or seizures appear to be uncommon manifestations (~<10%) of GCPS and may be more common in individuals with large (>300-kb) deletions that encompass GLI3. Approximately 20% of individuals with GCPS have hypoplasia or agenesis of the corpus callosum.
Baller-Gerold syndrome
MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean.
Infantile hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
75677
Concept ID:
C0268412
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Hypochondroplasia
MedGen UID:
98376
Concept ID:
C0410529
Congenital Abnormality
Hypochondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature; stocky build; disproportionately short arms and legs; broad, short hands and feet; mild joint laxity; and macrocephaly. Radiologic features include shortening of long bones with mild metaphyseal flare; narrowing of the inferior lumbar interpedicular distances; short, broad femoral neck; and squared, shortened ilia. The skeletal features are very similar to those seen in achondroplasia but tend to be milder. Medical complications common to achondroplasia (e.g., spinal stenosis, tibial bowing, obstructive apnea) occur less frequently in hypochondroplasia but intellectual disability and epilepsy may be more prevalent. Children usually present as toddlers or at early school age with decreased growth velocity leading to short stature and limb disproportion. Other features also become more prominent over time.
Trigonocephaly 1
MedGen UID:
98473
Concept ID:
C0432122
Congenital Abnormality
Individuals with trigonocephaly have a keel-shaped forehead with wide biparietal diameter, resulting in a triangular shape of the head. Trigonocephaly results from premature closure of the metopic sutures and usually occurs sporadically (summary by Frydman et al., 1984). Genetic Heterogeneity of Isolated Trigonocephaly Also see trigonocephaly-2 (TRIGNO2; 614485), caused by mutation in the FREM1 gene (608944) on chromosome 9p22.
Cloverleaf skull syndrome
MedGen UID:
98141
Concept ID:
C0432126
Disease or Syndrome
Cloverleaf skull, or Kleeblattschaedel, consists of a trilobular skull with craniosynostosis. The condition shows pathogenetic variability and etiologic heterogeneity. The cause of isolated cloverleaf skull is unknown (Cohen, 2009). Cohen (1975) pointed out that Kleeblattschaedel is a component of many syndromes, e.g., it is found in some cases of Crouzon syndrome (123500), Pfeiffer syndrome (101600), and Carpenter syndrome (201000). Cohen (2009) listed 12 monogenic disorders with cloverleaf skull as a feature, including type II thanatophoric dysplasia (187601), which accounts for 40% of all cloverleaf skull syndromes. Cohen (2009) published photographs of cloverleaf skull in various syndromes.
Osteoglophonic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96592
Concept ID:
C0432283
Congenital Abnormality
Osteoglophonic dysplasia (OGD) is characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism, nonossifying bone lesions, craniosynostosis, prominent supraorbital ridge, and depressed nasal bridge (summary by White et al., 2005).
Gomez Lopez Hernandez syndrome
MedGen UID:
163201
Concept ID:
C0795959
Disease or Syndrome
Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (GLHS), also known as cerebellotrigeminal dermal dysplasia, is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by the triad of rhombencephalosynapsis, trigeminal anesthesia, often giving rise to corneal opacities, and bilateral parietal or parietooccipital alopecia. However, trigeminal anesthesia is an inconsistent finding (summary by Sukhudyan et al., 2010).
Jackson-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
208653
Concept ID:
C0795998
Disease or Syndrome
Jackson-Weiss syndrome (JWS) is an autosomal dominant condition consisting of craniosynostosis characterized by premature fusion of the cranial sutures as well as radiographic anomalies of the feet (summary by Heike et al., 2001).
Kabuki syndrome
MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Lowry-MacLean syndrome
MedGen UID:
167095
Concept ID:
C0796020
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome with characteristics of microcephaly, craniosynostosis, glaucoma, growth failure and visceral malformations. Only three cases have been reported in the literature in three unrelated families. Dysmorphic features include trigonocephaly, exotropia, cleft palate, beaked nose and low-set ears. All the affected patients have associated congenital visceral malformations including congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genital or cerebral abnormalities. The demonstration of congenital glaucoma, hallmark of the syndrome, in the father of an affected patient, supports autosomal dominant inheritance. Prognosis is poor.
3MC syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
167115
Concept ID:
C0796279
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome
MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Disease or Syndrome
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: delayed motor and cognitive milestones and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability; craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; distinctive craniofacial features; and musculoskeletal findings including olichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures, pes planus, foot malposition, and C1-C2 spine malformation. Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, secundum atrial septal defect, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, and myopia are also characteristic findings.
Hunter-McAlpine craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
321949
Concept ID:
C1832408
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of craniosynostosis, intellectual deficit, short stature, facial dysmorphism (oval face with almond-shaped palpebral fissures, droopy eyelids and a small nose) and minor distal anomalies. It has been described in 10 patients. Transmission is autosomal dominant and the syndrome is associated with partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q35-5qter).
Aprosencephaly cerebellar dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
330459
Concept ID:
C1832412
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic non-syndromic central nervous system malformation with characteristics of absence of the telencephalon and absent or abnormal diencephalic structures, combined with severe abnormalities of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. Further malformations, for example of the hands and feet, have been described in addition.
Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome
MedGen UID:
322127
Concept ID:
C1833136
Disease or Syndrome
Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe contractual arachnodactyly from birth and distinctive facial dysmorphism, including triangular face, malar hypoplasia, narrow nose, everted lips, and blepharophimosis. Skeletal anomalies include slender ribs, hooked clavicles, and dislocated radial head. There is no neurologic involvement (summary by Patel et al., 2014).
Craniosynostosis, Adelaide type
MedGen UID:
371600
Concept ID:
C1833578
Disease or Syndrome
8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Hartsfield-Bixler-Demyer syndrome
MedGen UID:
335111
Concept ID:
C1845146
Congenital Abnormality
FGFR1-related Hartsfield syndrome comprises two core features: holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum disorder and ectrodactyly spectrum disorder. HPE spectrum disorder, resulting from failed or incomplete forebrain division early in gestation, includes alobar, semilobar, or lobar HPE. Other observed midline brain malformations include corpus callosum agenesis, absent septum pellucidum, absent olfactory bulbs and tracts, and vermian hypoplasia. Other findings associated with the HPE spectrum such as craniofacial dysmorphism, neurologic issues (developmental delay, spasticity, seizures, hypothalamic dysfunction), feeding problems, and endocrine issues (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and central insipidus diabetes) are common. Ectrodactyly spectrum disorders are unilateral or bilateral malformations of the hands and/or feet characterized by a median cleft of hand or foot due to absence of the longitudinal central rays (also called split-hand/foot malformation). The number of digits on the right and left can vary. Polydactyly and syndactyly can also be seen.
IMAGe syndrome
MedGen UID:
337364
Concept ID:
C1846009
Disease or Syndrome
IMAGe syndrome is an acronym for the major findings of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary abnormalities (in males). Findings reported in individuals with a clinical and/or molecular diagnosis include: IUGR; Some type of skeletal abnormality (most commonly delayed bone age and short stature, and occasionally, metaphyseal and epiphyseal dysplasia of varying severity); Adrenal insufficiency often presenting in the first month of life as an adrenal crisis or (rarely) later in childhood with failure to thrive and recurrent vomiting; Genital abnormalities in males (cryptorchidism, micropenis, and hypospadias) but not in females. Hypotonia and developmental delay are reported in some individuals; cognitive outcome appears to be normal in the majority of individuals.
Saldino-Mainzer syndrome
MedGen UID:
341455
Concept ID:
C1849437
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
376708
Concept ID:
C1850127
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome
MedGen UID:
377668
Concept ID:
C1852406
Disease or Syndrome
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (BSTVS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the furrowed skin disorder of cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, craniosynostosis, craniofacial dysmorphism, digital anomalies, umbilical and anogenital abnormalities, and early death (summary by Przylepa et al., 1996).
Cerebrooculonasal syndrome
MedGen UID:
340138
Concept ID:
C1854108
Disease or Syndrome
A multisystem malformation syndrome that has been reported in about 10 patients. The clinical features include bilateral anophthalmia, abnormal nares, central nervous system anomalies, and neurodevelopmental delay. Additional features include brachycephaly and other facial anomalies. Non-facial anomalies have also been reported: postaxial polydactyly, genital hypoplasia. All cases reported so far have been sporadic, suggesting that the syndrome may be due to a new dominant mutation.
Microcephaly-micromelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
381553
Concept ID:
C1855079
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly-micromelia syndrome (MIMIS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder that usually results in death in utero or in the perinatal period. Affected individuals have severe growth retardation with microcephaly and variable malformations of the limbs, particularly the upper limbs. Defects include radial ray anomalies, malformed digits, and clubfeet (summary by Evrony et al., 2017).
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
381579
Concept ID:
C1855188
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly-short stature-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by mild to severe short stature, brachydactyly, and retinal degeneration (usually retinitis pigmentosa), associated with variable intellectual disability, developmental delays, and craniofacial anomalies.
Craniotelencephalic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
347462
Concept ID:
C1857471
Disease or Syndrome
Characterised by frontal encephalocoele, craniosynostosis, and developmental delay.
Craniosynostosis-intellectual disability-clefting syndrome
MedGen UID:
387829
Concept ID:
C1857472
Disease or Syndrome
A recessive syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis, intellectual disability, seizures, choroidal coloboma, dysplastic kidneys, bat ears, cleft lip and palate, and beaked nose.
Craniosynostosis-fibular aplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
347468
Concept ID:
C1857492
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis-fibular aplasia is an extremely rare genetic disease, reported in only 2 brothers to date, characterized by the combination of craniosynostosis (involving both coronal sutures), congenital absence of the fibula, cryptorchidism, and bilateral simian creases. Intelligence is normal and an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance has been proposed. There have been no further reports in the literature since 1972.
Craniosynostosis 2
MedGen UID:
346753
Concept ID:
C1858160
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Distal symphalangism
MedGen UID:
350018
Concept ID:
C1861401
Congenital Abnormality
Distal symphalangism is ankylosis or rigidity of the distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and/or the feet (summary by Poush, 1991).
Aurocephalosyndactyly
MedGen UID:
354732
Concept ID:
C1862380
Disease or Syndrome
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Robinow-Sorauf syndrome
MedGen UID:
356703
Concept ID:
C1867146
Disease or Syndrome
The signs and symptoms of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome vary widely, even among affected individuals in the same family. This condition can cause mild changes in the hands and feet, such as partial fusion of the skin between the second and third fingers on each hand and a broad or duplicated first (big) toe. Delayed development and learning difficulties have been reported, although most people with this condition are of normal intelligence. Less common signs and symptoms of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome include short stature, abnormalities of the bones of the spine (the vertebra), hearing loss, and heart defects.\n\nMost people with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have prematurely fused skull bones along the coronal suture, the growth line that goes over the head from ear to ear. Other parts of the skull may be malformed as well. These changes can result in an abnormally shaped head, a high forehead, a low frontal hairline, droopy eyelids (ptosis), widely spaced eyes, and a broad nasal bridge. One side of the face may appear noticeably different from the other (facial asymmetry). Most people with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome also have small, rounded ears.\n\nSaethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face.\n\nRobinow-Sorauf syndrome is a condition with features similar to those of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, including craniosynostosis and broad or duplicated great toes. It was once considered a separate disorder, but was found to result from mutations in the same gene and is now thought to be a variant of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.
Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome 1A
MedGen UID:
401232
Concept ID:
C1867440
Disease or Syndrome
Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome-1A (CPSFS1) is characterized by contractures of proximal and distal joints, pterygia involving the neck, axillae, elbows, and/or knees, as well as variable vertebral, carpal, and tarsal fusions and short stature. Progression of vertebral fusions has been observed, and inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (Carapito et al., 2016; Zieba et al., 2017; Cameron-Christie et al., 2018). An autosomal recessive form of CPSFS (CPSFS1B; 618469) is caused by compound heterozygous mutation in the MYH3 gene.
Craniofacial dysplasia - osteopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
382398
Concept ID:
C2674574
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Distal 10q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 10q26 deletion syndrome vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Among the more common features associated with this chromosomal change are distinctive facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth problems, and developmental delay. People with 10q26 deletion syndrome often have delayed development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some have limited speech throughout life. Affected individuals may experience seizures, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control (impulsivity), or exhibit autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nA range of facial features is seen in people with 10q26 deletion syndrome, but not all affected individuals have these features. Facial features of people with 10q26 deletion syndrome may include a prominent or beaked nose, a broad nasal bridge, a small jaw (micrognathia), malformed ears that are low set, a thin upper lip, and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Many affected individuals have widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism) that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Some people with this condition have a short neck with extra folds of skin (webbed neck).\n\nLess common signs and symptoms can occur in 10q26 deletion syndrome. Skeletal problems include a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis), limited movement in the elbows or other joints, or curved fifth fingers and toes (clinodactyly). Slow growth before and after birth can also occur in affected individuals. Males with this condition may have genital abnormalities, such as a small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Some people with 10q26 deletion syndrome have kidney abnormalities, heart defects, breathing problems, recurrent infections, or hearing or vision problems.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
Crouzon syndrome-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
394201
Concept ID:
C2677099
Disease or Syndrome
Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is considered to be a distinct disorder from classic Crouzon syndrome (123500), which is caused by mutation in the FGFR2 gene (176943). Cohen (1999) argued that this condition is separate from Crouzon syndrome for 2 main reasons: it is caused by a highly specific mutation of the FGFR3 gene, whereas multiple different FGFR2 mutations result in Crouzon syndrome, and the phenotypes are different.
Syndactyly-telecanthus-anogenital and renal malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
394424
Concept ID:
C2678045
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of toe syndactyly, facial dysmorphism including telecanthus and a broad nasal tip, urogenital malformations and anal atresia. Around ten cases have been reported so far. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the FAM58A gene (located on the X chromosome) encoding a protein of unknown function.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Frontonasal dysplasia with alopecia and genital anomaly
MedGen UID:
462053
Concept ID:
C3150703
Disease or Syndrome
Frontonasal dysplasia-2 (FND2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable degrees of alopecia, skull defects, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge with notched alae nasi, and abnormal central nervous system findings (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2014).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome
MedGen UID:
462437
Concept ID:
C3151087
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481473
Concept ID:
C3279843
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth and variable phenotypic manifestations, such as facial dysmorphism and congenital heart defects, associated with mosaic aneuploidies resulting from defects in cell division (summary by Snape et al., 2011). See also MVA1 (257300), caused by mutation in the BUB1B gene (602860) on chromosome 15q15.
Lethal occipital encephalocele-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
482359
Concept ID:
C3280729
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal occipital encephalocele-skeletal dysplasia syndrome is a rare, genetic, bone development disorder characterized by occipital and parietal bone hypoplasia leading to occipital encephalocele, calvarial mineralization defects, craniosynostosis, radiohumeral fusions, oligodactyly and other skeletal anomalies (arachnodactyly, terminal phalangeal aplasia of the thumbs, bilateral absence of the great toes, pronounced bilateral angulation of femora, shortened limbs, advanced osseous maturation). Fetal death in utero is associated.
Acrocephalopolydactyly
MedGen UID:
501209
Concept ID:
C3495588
Disease or Syndrome
Acrocephalopolydactylous dysplasia, or Elejalde syndrome, is a lethal multiple congenital disorder characterized by increased birth weight, globular body with thick skin, organomegaly, and fibrosis in multiple tissues (summary by Phadke et al., 2011).
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Craniosynostosis 5, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
816149
Concept ID:
C3809819
Finding
Premature fusion of the various sutures in the human neurocranium (skull vault and base) is defined as craniosynostosis (CRS). Clinical consequences include abnormal head shape and increased intracranial pressure, which may result in neurologic symptoms, developmental delay, and hearing or vision problems. Approximately 80% of cases are classified as nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and present as isolated suture fusion with no other associated anomalies. Sagittal suture fusion is the most common form of isolated craniosynostosis, accounting for 40 to 58% of all isolated cases (summary by Yagnik et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
SLC39A8-CDG
MedGen UID:
899837
Concept ID:
C4225234
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIn (CDG2N) is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy, hypotonia, and variable additional features, such as short stature, seizures, visual impairment, and cerebellar atrophy. Serum transferrin analysis shows a CDG type II pattern (summary by Boycott et al., 2015 and Park et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDG type II, see CDG2A (212066).
Craniosynostosis 6
MedGen UID:
904675
Concept ID:
C4225269
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-6 is a bicoronal form associated with bony defects in the sagittal, metopic, or lambdoid sutures (Twigg et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100). Structural brain anomalies with impaired intellectual development and craniosynostosis (BAIDCS; 618736) is an allelic disorder.
Au-Kline syndrome
MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies.
Acrofacial dysostosis Cincinnati type
MedGen UID:
903483
Concept ID:
C4225317
Disease or Syndrome
The Cincinnati type of acrofacial dysostosis is a ribosomopathy characterized by a spectrum of mandibulofacial dysostosis phenotypes, with or without extrafacial skeletal defects (Weaver et al., 2015). In addition, a significant number of neurologic abnormalities have been reported, ranging from mild delays to refractory epilepsy, as well as an increased incidence of congenital heart defects, primarily septal in nature (Smallwood et al., 2023).
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Adducted thumbs-arthrogryposis syndrome, Christian type
MedGen UID:
929724
Concept ID:
C4304055
Disease or Syndrome
A type of arthrogryposis with characteristics of congenital cleft palate, microcephaly, craniostenosis and arthrogryposis. Additional features include facial dysmorphism. Velopharyngeal insufficiency with difficulties in swallowing, increased secretion of the nose and throat, prominent occiput, generalised muscular hypotonia with mild cyanosis and no spontaneous movements, seizures, torticollis, areflexia, intellectual disability, hypertrichosis of the lower extremities, and scleroedema are also observed. The disease often leads to early death. Transmission is autosomal recessive. No new cases have been described since 1983.
ZTTK syndrome
MedGen UID:
934663
Concept ID:
C4310696
Disease or Syndrome
ZTTK syndrome (ZTTKS) is a severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and eye or visual abnormalities. Most patients also have musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some have congenital defects of the heart and urogenital system. Brain imaging usually shows developmental abnormalities such as gyral changes, cortical and/or cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Kim et al., 2016).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
934705
Concept ID:
C4310738
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CDC45 gene.
Progeroid and marfanoid aspect-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934763
Concept ID:
C4310796
Disease or Syndrome
The marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) is characterized by congenital lipodystrophy, premature birth with an accelerated linear growth disproportionate to weight gain, and progeroid appearance with distinct facial features, including proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and retrognathia. Other characteristic features include arachnodactyly, digital hyperextensibility, myopia, dural ectasia, and normal psychomotor development (Takenouchi et al., 2013). Takenouchi et al. (2013) noted phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome (154700) and Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (182212).
Immunoskeletal dysplasia with neurodevelopmental abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1381460
Concept ID:
C4479452
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis 7
MedGen UID:
1392447
Concept ID:
C4479496
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive, 1
MedGen UID:
1632314
Concept ID:
C4551495
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets is a disorder related to low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia). Phosphate is a mineral that is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth.\n\nIn most cases, the signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets begin in early childhood. The features of the disorder vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Mildly affected individuals may have hypophosphatemia without other signs and symptoms. More severely affected children experience slow growth and are shorter than their peers. They develop bone abnormalities that can interfere with movement and cause bone pain. The most noticeable of these abnormalities are bowed legs or knock knees. These abnormalities become apparent with weight-bearing activities such as walking. If untreated, they tend to worsen with time.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets can include premature fusion of the skull bones (craniosynostosis) and dental abnormalities. The disorder may also cause abnormal bone growth where ligaments and tendons attach to joints (enthesopathy). In adults, hypophosphatemia is characterized by a softening of the bones known as osteomalacia.\n\nResearchers have described several forms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, which are distinguished by their pattern of inheritance and genetic cause. The most common form of the disorder is known as X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). It has an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder are much rarer.\n\nAnother rare type of the disorder is known as hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH). In addition to hypophosphatemia, this condition is characterized by the excretion of high levels of calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria).
TWIST1-related craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
1646646
Concept ID:
C4551902
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Mutation in the TWIST1 has been found to cause coronal and sagittal forms of craniosynostosis. Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis-2 (CRS2; 604757) is caused by mutation in the MSX2 gene (123101) on chromosome 5q35. Craniosynostosis-3 (CRS3; 615314) is caused by mutation in the TCF12 gene (600480) on chromosome 15q21. Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4; 600775) is caused by mutation in the ERF gene (611888) on chromosome 19q13. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-5 (CRS5; 615529) is conferred by variation in the ALX4 gene (605420) on chromosome 11p11. Craniosynostosis-6 (CRS6; 616602) is caused by mutation in the ZIC1 gene (600470) on chromosome 3q24. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-7 (CRS7; 617439) is conferred by variation in the SMAD6 gene (602931) on chromosome 15q22.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1646567
Concept ID:
C4551955
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 1
MedGen UID:
1646889
Concept ID:
C4552003
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 1 (EDSSPD1) is characterized by short stature, developmental anomalies of the forearm bones and elbow, and bowing of extremities, in addition to the classic stigmata of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, including joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, and poor wound healing. Significant developmental delay is not a consistent feature (Guo et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Spondylodysplastic Type See EDSSPD2 (615349), caused by mutation in the B3GALT6 gene (615291), and EDSSPD3 (612350), caused by mutation in the SLC39A13 gene (608735).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 57
MedGen UID:
1648280
Concept ID:
C4748003
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRD57 is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy or early childhood, language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include hypotonia, feeding problems, gastrointestinal issues, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Reijnders et al., 2018).
Cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies with developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1648330
Concept ID:
C4748484
Disease or Syndrome
CAFDADD is a multisystemic developmental disorder with variable cardiac and digital anomalies and facial dysmorphism. Some patients may have seizures and ocular/aural abnormalities (Tokita et al., 2018).
Arthrogryposis, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, and impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648372
Concept ID:
C4748872
Disease or Syndrome
ACCIID is characterized by arthrogryposis, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, micrognathia, short stature, and impaired intellectual development. Seizures and bony abnormalities (severe slenderness of the ribs and tubular bones and perinatal fractures) have been observed (Mizuguchi et al., 2018).
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 4, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1673363
Concept ID:
C5193141
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-4B with recurrent infections (HIES4B) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of recurrent infections and skeletal abnormalities, including craniosynostosis and scoliosis. Patients are mainly susceptible to bacterial infections that affect the respiratory tract, skin, and eye. Immunologic workup shows increased serum IgE, intermittent eosinophilia, and impaired IL6 (147620) and IL27 (608273) downstream signaling that affects the development and function of certain B- and T-cell populations, as well as the acute-phase response; IL11 (147681) signaling in fibroblasts is also affected (summary by Shahin et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
Intellectual developmental disorder with autistic features and language delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1715081
Concept ID:
C5394447
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with autistic features and language delay, with or without seizures (IDDALDS), is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variable intellectual disability, impaired speech development, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly on the autism spectrum. About half of patients develop seizures; brain imaging is typically normal. Additional features are highly variable, but may include chronic constipation, walking difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1758434
Concept ID:
C5436699
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies (NEDSID) is characterized by developmental delay associated with mild to moderately impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral or psychiatric abnormalities, and delayed speech and language acquisition. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal problems or feeding difficulties, and hypotonia. The phenotypic features and severity of the disorder are variable (summary by Kummeling et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 2E
MedGen UID:
1794154
Concept ID:
C5561944
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIE (ARCL2E) is characterized by connective tissue features, including generalized cutis laxa and inguinal hernia, craniofacial dysmorphology, variable mild heart defects, and prominent skeletal features, including craniosynostosis, short stature, brachydactyly, clinodactyly, and syndactyly (Pottie et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
DEGCAGS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short stature-short fourth metatarsals-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1800305
Concept ID:
C5568882
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of global developmental delay and intellectual disability, progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, short stature, short fourth metatarsals and dysmorphic craniofacial features (including microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, mild ptosis, strabismus, malar hypoplasia, short nose, depressed nasal bridge, full lips, small, low-set ears and short neck). Craniosynostosis, generalized hypotonia, as well as asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres and mild thinning of the corpus callosum on brain imaging have also been described.
Parenti-mignot neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1808333
Concept ID:
C5676984
Disease or Syndrome
Parenti-Mignot neurodevelopmental syndrome (PMNDS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder frequently characterized by impaired intellectual development, speech delay, motor delay, behavioral problems, and epilepsy (Parenti et al., 2021).
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development 1
MedGen UID:
1808104
Concept ID:
C5677021
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (CFSMR1) is characterized by cranial involvement with macrocrania at birth, brachycephaly, anomalies of middle fossa structures including hypoplasia of corpus callosum, enlargement of septum pellucidum, and dilated lateral ventricles, as well as cortical atrophy and hypodensity of the gray matter. Facial dysmorphisms include flat face, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, cleft lip and cleft palate, and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Patients also exhibit short neck and multiple costal and vertebral anomalies. The face is rather characteristic, and various authors have consistently reported affable/friendly personality, despite intellectual delay (summary by Alanay et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Skeletal Anomalies, and Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome CFSMR2 (616994) is caused by mutation in the RAB5IF gene (619960) on chromosome 20q11.
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1823971
Concept ID:
C5774198
Disease or Syndrome
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome (PDIL) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, with extreme microcephaly, short stature, and absence of subcutaneous fat. There is also significant hematologic/immune dysfunction, with hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, as well as lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, and most affected individuals succumb to infection in early childhood (Parry et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and language delay, ocular defects, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841232
Concept ID:
C5830596
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and language delay, ocular defects, and brain abnormalities (NEDMLOB) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of features in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals show hypotonia, severe motor delay with ataxic gait or sometimes an inability to achieve walking, and impaired intellectual development with speech and language delay. Ocular defects can include optic atrophy, nystagmus, strabismus, and retinal dystrophy. Additional features may include seizures (in some), dysmorphic facial features, poor overall growth, and variable brain imaging abnormalities (Tepe et al., 2023).
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 1, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1846538
Concept ID:
CN031130
Disease or Syndrome
STAT3 hyper IgE syndrome (STAT3-HIES) is a primary immune deficiency syndrome characterized by elevated serum IgE, eczema, and recurrent skin and respiratory tract infections, together with several nonimmune features. This disorder typically manifests in the newborn period with a rash (often diagnosed as eosinophilic pustulosis) that subsequently evolves into an eczematoid dermatitis. Recurrent staphylococcal skin boils and bacterial pneumonias usually manifest in the first years of life. Pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis often result from aberrant healing of pneumonias. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is common. Nonimmune features may include retained primary teeth, scoliosis, bone fractures following minimal trauma, joint hyperextensibility, and characteristic facial appearance, which typically emerges in adolescence. Vascular abnormalities have been described and include middle-sized artery tortuosity and aneurysms, with infrequent clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal dysmotility, and spontaneous intestinal perforations (some of which are associated with diverticuli). Fungal infections of the GI tract (typically histoplasmosis, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides) also occur infrequently. Survival is typically into adulthood, with most individuals now living into or past the sixth decade. Most deaths are associated with gram-negative (Pseudomonas) or filamentous fungal pneumonias resulting in hemoptysis. Lymphomas occur at an increased frequency.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Rubio EI, Blask A, Bulas DI
Pediatr Radiol 2016 May;46(5):709-18. Epub 2016 Feb 25 doi: 10.1007/s00247-016-3550-x. PMID: 26914936
Agochukwu NB, Solomon BD, Muenke M
Childs Nerv Syst 2012 Sep;28(9):1447-63. Epub 2012 Aug 8 doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1756-2. PMID: 22872262Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Vuola P, Pakkasjärvi N, Ritvanen A, Heliövaara A, Tukiainen E, Gissler M
Birth Defects Res 2024 Feb;116(2):e2319. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2319. PMID: 38348760
Tan AP, Mankad K
Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Feb;34(2):205-216. Epub 2017 Dec 2 doi: 10.1007/s00381-017-3670-0. PMID: 29198073
Arts S, Delye H, van Lindert EJ
J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Feb;21(2):112-118. Epub 2017 Nov 24 doi: 10.3171/2017.7.PEDS17155. PMID: 29171801
Hibberd CE, Bowdin S, Arudchelvan Y, Forrest CR, Brakora KA, Marcucio RS, Gong SG
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Dec;170(12):3215-3221. Epub 2016 Aug 2 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37862. PMID: 27481450Free PMC Article
Paumard-Hernández B, Berges-Soria J, Barroso E, Rivera-Pedroza CI, Pérez-Carrizosa V, Benito-Sanz S, López-Messa E, Santos F, García-Recuero II, Romance A, Ballesta-Martínez JM, López-González V, Campos-Barros Á, Cruz J, Guillén-Navarro E, Sánchez Del Pozo J, Lapunzina P, García-Miñaur S, Heath KE
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Jul;23(7):907-14. Epub 2014 Oct 1 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.205. PMID: 25271085Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Vuola P, Pakkasjärvi N, Ritvanen A, Heliövaara A, Tukiainen E, Gissler M
Birth Defects Res 2024 Feb;116(2):e2319. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2319. PMID: 38348760
Ehmke N, Graul-Neumann L, Smorag L, Koenig R, Segebrecht L, Magoulas P, Scaglia F, Kilic E, Hennig AF, Adolphs N, Saha N, Fauler B, Kalscheuer VM, Hennig F, Altmüller J, Netzer C, Thiele H, Nürnberg P, Yigit G, Jäger M, Hecht J, Krüger U, Mielke T, Krawitz PM, Horn D, Schuelke M, Mundlos S, Bacino CA, Bonnen PE, Wollnik B, Fischer-Zirnsak B, Kornak U
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):833-843. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.016. PMID: 29100093Free PMC Article
González-Del Angel A, Estandía-Ortega B, Alcántara-Ortigoza MA, Martínez-Cruz V, Gutiérrez-Tinajero DJ, Rasmussen A, Gómez-González CS
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Dec;170(12):3189-3196. Epub 2016 Aug 29 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37951. PMID: 27568649
Rubio EI, Blask A, Bulas DI
Pediatr Radiol 2016 May;46(5):709-18. Epub 2016 Feb 25 doi: 10.1007/s00247-016-3550-x. PMID: 26914936
Flück CE, Pandey AV
Endocr Dev 2011;20:63-79. Epub 2010 Dec 16 doi: 10.1159/000321221. PMID: 21164260

Therapy

Arts S, Delye H, van Lindert EJ
J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Feb;21(2):112-118. Epub 2017 Nov 24 doi: 10.3171/2017.7.PEDS17155. PMID: 29171801
Li X, Young NM, Tropp S, Hu D, Xu Y, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS
Hum Mol Genet 2013 Dec 20;22(25):5160-72. Epub 2013 Aug 1 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt369. PMID: 23906837Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Radu S, Jedrzejewski B, Urbinelli L
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2023 Oct;60(10):1321-1325. Epub 2022 Mar 21 doi: 10.1177/10556656221088743. PMID: 35313736
Katsuragi SY, Hirose E, Arai Y, Otsuki Y, Ohki S, Kobayashi H
Am J Case Rep 2021 Aug 9;22:e932450. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.932450. PMID: 34366428Free PMC Article
Tan AP, Mankad K
Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Feb;34(2):205-216. Epub 2017 Dec 2 doi: 10.1007/s00381-017-3670-0. PMID: 29198073
Agochukwu NB, Solomon BD, Muenke M
Childs Nerv Syst 2012 Sep;28(9):1447-63. Epub 2012 Aug 8 doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1756-2. PMID: 22872262Free PMC Article
Bellus GA, Gaudenz K, Zackai EH, Clarke LA, Szabo J, Francomano CA, Muenke M
Nat Genet 1996 Oct;14(2):174-6. doi: 10.1038/ng1096-174. PMID: 8841188

Clinical prediction guides

Glass GE, O'Hara J, Canham N, Cilliers D, Dunaway D, Fenwick AL, Jeelani NO, Johnson D, Lester T, Lord H, Morton JEV, Nishikawa H, Noons P, Schwiebert K, Shipster C, Taylor-Beadling A, Twigg SRF, Vasudevan P, Wall SA, Wilkie AOM, Wilson LC
Am J Med Genet A 2019 Apr;179(4):615-627. Epub 2019 Feb 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61073. PMID: 30758909Free PMC Article
Ehmke N, Graul-Neumann L, Smorag L, Koenig R, Segebrecht L, Magoulas P, Scaglia F, Kilic E, Hennig AF, Adolphs N, Saha N, Fauler B, Kalscheuer VM, Hennig F, Altmüller J, Netzer C, Thiele H, Nürnberg P, Yigit G, Jäger M, Hecht J, Krüger U, Mielke T, Krawitz PM, Horn D, Schuelke M, Mundlos S, Bacino CA, Bonnen PE, Wollnik B, Fischer-Zirnsak B, Kornak U
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):833-843. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.016. PMID: 29100093Free PMC Article
Lin Y, Gao H, Ai S, Eswarakumar JV, Li T, Liu B, Jiang H, Liu Y, Liu X, Li Y, Ni Y, Chen J, Lin Z, Liang X, Jin C, Huang X, Lu L, Liu Y
Mol Med Rep 2016 Sep;14(3):1941-6. Epub 2016 Jul 11 doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5497. PMID: 27430617Free PMC Article
Zhuang L, Bluteau G, Trueb B
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2015 Aug;186:43-50. Epub 2015 Apr 28 doi: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2015.04.009. PMID: 25934085
Bellus GA, Gaudenz K, Zackai EH, Clarke LA, Szabo J, Francomano CA, Muenke M
Nat Genet 1996 Oct;14(2):174-6. doi: 10.1038/ng1096-174. PMID: 8841188

Recent systematic reviews

Stater BJ, Oomen KP, Modi VK
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Jan;141(1):73-7. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2014.2790. PMID: 25375853

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...