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Bronchiectasis

MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Bronchiectases
SNOMED CT: Bronchiectasis (12295008)
 
Related genes: SCNN1G, SCNN1B, SCNN1A, CFTR
 
HPO: HP:0002110
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004822
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS211400

Definition

Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia.
Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immune abnormalities, sensitivity to sunlight, insulin resistance, and a high risk for many cancers that occur at an early age. Despite their very small head circumference, most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability. Women may be fertile but often have early menopause, and men tend to be infertile, with only one confirmed case of paternity. Serious medical complications that are more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus as a result of insulin resistance, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites.
Cystic fibrosis
MedGen UID:
41393
Concept ID:
C0010674
Disease or Syndrome
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease affecting epithelia of the respiratory tract, exocrine pancreas, intestine, hepatobiliary system, and exocrine sweat glands. Morbidities include recurrent sinusitis and bronchitis, progressive obstructive pulmonary disease with bronchiectasis, exocrine pancreatic deficiency and malnutrition, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal manifestations (meconium ileus, rectal prolapse, distal intestinal obstructive syndrome), liver disease, diabetes, male infertility due to hypoplasia or aplasia of the vas deferens, and reduced fertility or infertility in some women. Pulmonary disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF.
Congenital tracheobronchomegaly
MedGen UID:
11871
Concept ID:
C0040587
Disease or Syndrome
Tracheobronchiomegaly is characterized by striking dilatation of the intrathoracic trachea and of the major bronchi (summary by Johnston and Green, 1965).
T-lymphocyte deficiency
MedGen UID:
101814
Concept ID:
C0152094
Disease or Syndrome
T-cell immunodeficiency with thymic aplasia (TIDTA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is often detected at birth through newborn SCID screening with the finding of decreased T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Affected individuals have selective hypo- or aplasia of the thymus, which results in T-cell immunodeficiency due to impaired T-cell development and increased susceptibility to viral infections. The phenotype is similar to T-/B+/NK+ SCID. Some patients may die in childhood; thymus transplantation may be curative (summary by Du et al., 2019).
X-linked agammaglobulinemia
MedGen UID:
65123
Concept ID:
C0221026
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in affected males in the first two years of life. Recurrent otitis is the most common infection prior to diagnosis. Conjunctivitis, sinopulmonary infections, diarrhea, and skin infections are also frequently seen. Approximately 60% of individuals with XLA are recognized as having immunodeficiency when they develop a severe, life-threatening infection such as pneumonia, empyema, meningitis, sepsis, cellulitis, or septic arthritis. S pneumoniae and H influenzae are the most common organisms found prior to diagnosis and may continue to cause sinusitis and otitis after diagnosis and the initiation of gammaglobulin substitution therapy. Severe, difficult-to-treat enteroviral infections (often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis) can be prevented by this treatment. The prognosis for individuals with XLA has improved markedly in the last 25 years as a result of earlier diagnosis, the development of preparations of gammaglobulin that allow normal concentrations of serum IgG to be achieved, and more liberal use of antibiotics.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
MedGen UID:
67461
Concept ID:
C0221757
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can present with hepatic dysfunction in individuals from infancy to adulthood and with chronic obstructive lung disease (emphysema and/or bronchiectasis), characteristically in individuals older than age 30 years. Individuals with AATD are also at increased risk for panniculitis (migratory, inflammatory, tender skin nodules which may ulcerate on legs and lower abdomen) and C-ANCA-positive vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Phenotypic expression varies within and between families. In adults, smoking is the major factor in accelerating the development of COPD; nonsmokers may have a normal life span, but can also develop lung and/or liver disease. Although reported, emphysema in children with AATD is extremely rare. AATD-associated liver disease, which is present in only a small portion of affected children, manifests as neonatal cholestasis. The incidence of liver disease increases with age. Liver disease in adults (manifesting as cirrhosis and fibrosis) may occur in the absence of a history of neonatal or childhood liver disease. The risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increased in individuals with AATD.
Lazy leukocyte syndrome
MedGen UID:
78795
Concept ID:
C0272174
Disease or Syndrome
Periodic fever, immunodeficiency, and thrombocytopenia syndrome (PFITS) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with variable manifestations. Common features include early-onset recurrent respiratory infections, stomatitis, and cutaneous infections. Organisms usually include bacteria such as pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, and H. influenzae, but severe viral infections, including varicella, may also occur. Laboratory investigations may show neutropenia, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, or lymphopenia, although levels of immune cells may also be normal. Detailed studies often show impaired neutrophil chemotaxis associated with increased or abnormal F-actin levels, and impaired, normal, or even increased oxidative burst, depending on the stimulus. B- and T-cell abnormalities have also been observed. Some patients develop autoimmune manifestations, including chronic thrombocytopenia, anemia, and periodic fevers, associated with activation of the inflammasome. Early death may occur; however, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be curative (summary by Kuhns et al., 2016, Standing et al., 2017, and Pfajfer et al., 2018).
Young syndrome
MedGen UID:
137934
Concept ID:
C0340037
Disease or Syndrome
Young syndrome is characterized by chronic sinopulmonary infections, persistent azoospermia, and normal spermatogenesis (Handelsman et al., 1984).
Microcephaly, normal intelligence and immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
140771
Concept ID:
C0398791
Disease or Syndrome
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, early growth deficiency that improves with age, recurrent respiratory infections, an increased risk for malignancy (primarily lymphoma), and premature ovarian failure in females. Developmental milestones are attained at the usual time during the first year; however, borderline delays in development and hyperactivity may be observed in early childhood. Intellectual abilities tend to decline over time. Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis may result in respiratory failure and early death. Other reported malignancies include solid tumors (e.g., medulloblastoma, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma).
Diffuse panbronchiolitis
MedGen UID:
163897
Concept ID:
C0878555
Disease or Syndrome
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a rare chronic inflammatory obstructive pulmonary disease primarily affecting the respiratory bronchioles. 'Diffuse' refers to the distribution of the lesions throughout both lungs, and 'pan-' refers to the involvement of inflammation in all layers of the respiratory bronchioles. Onset of the disorder occurs in the second to fifth decade of life, and is clinically manifest by chronic cough, exertional dyspnea, and sputum production. Most patients also have chronic paranasal sinusitis. If untreated, the disorder progresses to bronchiectasis, respiratory failure, and death (summary by Poletti et al., 2006).
Susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with CD8alpha chain mutation
MedGen UID:
323058
Concept ID:
C1837065
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-116 (IMD116) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infancy or early childhood. Laboratory studies show absence of CD8+ T cells, whereas other lymphocyte numbers and immunoglobulin levels are normal (Dumontet et al., 2015).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 5
MedGen UID:
324840
Concept ID:
C1837615
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-5 (CILD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset of a progressive decline in lung function due to an inability to clear mucus and particles from the airways. Affected individuals have recurrent infections of the sinuses, ears, airways, and lungs. Sperm motility is also decreased. Individuals with CILD5 do not have situs inversus (summary by Olbrich et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 3
MedGen UID:
325210
Concept ID:
C1837618
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; CILD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of normal ciliary function. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus, and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (summary by Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia and the Kartagener syndrome, see CILD1 (244400).
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 4
MedGen UID:
330847
Concept ID:
C1842413
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgM syndrome is a condition characterized by normal or increased serum IgM concentrations associated with low or absent serum IgG, IgA, and IgE concentrations, indicating a defect in the class-switch recombination (CSR) process (summary by Imai et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM, see HIGM1 (308230).
X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder
MedGen UID:
336844
Concept ID:
C1845050
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder shows more severe manifestations in hemizygous males compared to heterozygous females. Affected males have early onset of recurrent respiratory infections and failure to thrive resulting from inflammatory gastroenteritis or colitis. Patients also show reticular pigmentation abnormalities of the skin and may develop corneal scarring. Carrier females may be unaffected or have only pigmentary abnormalities along the lines of Blaschko (summary by Starokadomskyy et al., 2016).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 2
MedGen UID:
338258
Concept ID:
C1847554
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Hypoproteinemia, hypercatabolic
MedGen UID:
343422
Concept ID:
C1855796
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-43 (IMD43) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by decreased or absent expression of MHC class I molecules on the cell surface. Most affected individuals develop recurrent bacterial respiratory tract infections in childhood or adulthood, which may progress to bronchiectasis, and about half develop ulcerating or necrotizing granulomatous inflammatory skin lesions. Laboratory studies show decreased numbers of B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoproteinemia, and decreased alpha-beta CD8+ T cells with increased gamma-delta CD8+ T cells. The severity is variable, and some individuals may be asymptomatic (summary by Ardeniz et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MHC class I deficiency, see MHC1D1 (604571).
MHC class I deficiency
MedGen UID:
346868
Concept ID:
C1858266
Disease or Syndrome
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an inherited disorder of the immune system (primary immunodeficiency). Immunodeficiencies are conditions in which the immune system is not able to protect the body effectively from foreign invaders such as bacteria or viruses. Starting in childhood, most people with BLS I develop recurrent bacterial infections in the lungs and airways (respiratory tract). These recurrent infections can lead to a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs (bronchi) and can cause breathing problems.\n\nMany people with BLS I also have open sores (ulcers) on their skin, usually on the face, arms, and legs. These ulcers typically develop in adolescence or young adulthood. Some people with BLS I have no symptoms of the condition.\n\nPeople with BLS I have a shortage of specialized immune proteins called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins on cells, including infection-fighting white blood cells (lymphocytes), which is where the condition got its name.
Surfactant metabolism dysfunction, pulmonary, 2
MedGen UID:
410078
Concept ID:
C1970470
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction-2 (SMDP2) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with progressive respiratory insufficiency and lung disease with a variable clinical course. The pathophysiology of the disorder is postulated to involve intracellular accumulation of a structurally defective SPC protein (Thomas et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction, see SMDP1 (265120).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 12
MedGen UID:
436379
Concept ID:
C2675228
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 11
MedGen UID:
390741
Concept ID:
C2675229
Disease or Syndrome
Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 9
MedGen UID:
390990
Concept ID:
C2676235
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of normal ciliary function. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus, and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener syndrome, see CILD1 (244400).
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
436694
Concept ID:
C2676468
Finding
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BTNL2 gene.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 7
MedGen UID:
394834
Concept ID:
C2678473
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of normal ciliary function. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus, and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia and the Kartagener syndrome, see CILD1 (244400).
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
394568
Concept ID:
C2697310
Finding
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HLA-DRB1 gene.
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride 1
MedGen UID:
440868
Concept ID:
C2749757
Disease or Syndrome
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-1 (BESC1) is characterized by dilation of the airways arising from chronic bronchial inflammation accompanied by chronic cough, purulent sputum, and recurrent respiratory tract infections. Severity is variable, and some patients may be identified in adulthood and have normal respiratory function (Sheridan et al., 2005, Fajac et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bronchiectasis with or without Elevated Sweat Chloride Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-2 (BESC2; 613021) is caused by mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1A; 600228) on chromosome 12p13, and BESC3 (613071) is caused by mutation in the gene encoding the gamma subunit (SCNN1G; 600761) on chromosome 16p12. Bronchiectasis and elevated sweat chloride associated with pancreatic exocrine dysfunction and infertility are also features of cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700), which is caused by mutation in the CFTR gene (602421).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 13
MedGen UID:
413399
Concept ID:
C2750790
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
RIN2 syndrome
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11.
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride 3
MedGen UID:
414351
Concept ID:
C2751324
Disease or Syndrome
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-3 (BESC3) is characterized by dilation of the airways arising from chronic bronchial inflammation accompanied by chronic cough, purulent sputum, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Most patients show some degree of airflow obstruction (Fajac et al., 2008).
Bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride 2
MedGen UID:
414437
Concept ID:
C2751666
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride-2 (BESC2) have bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis of varying severity. Pancreatic insufficiency may be present (Azad et al., 2009). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity in bronchiectasis with or without elevated sweat chloride, see BESC1 (211400).
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 1
MedGen UID:
460728
Concept ID:
C3149378
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins; the numbers of circulating B cells are usually in the normal range, but can be low. Most individuals with CVID have onset of infections after age 10 years. CVID represents the most common form of primary immunodeficiency disorders and is the most common form of primary antibody deficiency. Approximately 10 to 20% of patients with a diagnosis of CVID have a family history of the disorder (reviews by Chapel et al., 2008, Conley et al., 2009, and Yong et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also CVID2 (240500), caused by mutation in the TACI gene (TNFRSF13B; 604907); CVID3 (613493), caused by mutation in the CD19 gene (107265); CVID4 (613494), caused by mutation in the BAFFR gene (TNFRSF13C; 606269); CVID5 (613495), caused by mutation in the CD20 gene (112210); CVID6 (613496), caused by mutation in the CD81 gene (186845); CVID7 (614699), caused by mutation in the CD21 gene (CR2; 120650); CVID8 (614700), caused by mutation in the LRBA gene (606453); CVID10 (615577), caused by mutation in the NFKB2 gene (164012); CVID11 (615767), caused by mutation in the IL21 gene (605384); CVID12 (616576), caused by mutation in the NFKB1 gene (164011); CVID13 (616873), caused by mutation in the IKZF1 gene (603023); CVID14 (617765), caused by mutation in the IRF2BP2 gene (615332); and CVID15 (620670), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SEC61A1 gene (609213). The disorder formerly designated CVID9 has been found to be a form of autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder; see ALPS3 (615559).
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 2
MedGen UID:
461704
Concept ID:
C3150354
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 14
MedGen UID:
462486
Concept ID:
C3151136
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-14 (CILD14) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (Merveille et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 15
MedGen UID:
462487
Concept ID:
C3151137
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-15 (CILD15) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (summary by Becker-Heck et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 16
MedGen UID:
462810
Concept ID:
C3151460
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-16 (CILD16) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile onset of respiratory distress associated with absence of ciliary outer dynein arms (Mazor et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia 1
MedGen UID:
463494
Concept ID:
C3152144
Disease or Syndrome
Agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by profoundly low or absent serum antibodies and low or absent circulating B cells due to an early block of B-cell development. Affected individuals develop severe infections in the first years of life. The most common form of agammaglobulinemia is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (AGMX1, XLA; 300755), also known as Bruton disease, which is caused by mutation in the BTK gene (300300). AGMX1 accounts for anywhere from 85 to 95% of males who have the characteristic findings (Lopez Granados et al., 2002; Ferrari et al., 2007). Autosomal recessive inheritance of agammaglobulinemia, which has a similar phenotype to that of the X-linked form, has been observed in a small number of families, and accounts for up to 15% of patients with agammaglobulinemia (Ferrari et al., 2007). Conley (1999) gave a comprehensive review of autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Agammaglobulinemia Autosomal agammaglobulinemia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder: see also AGM2 (613500), caused by mutation in the IGLL1 gene (146770); AGM3 (613501), caused by mutation in the CD79A gene (112205); AGM4 (613502), caused by mutation in the BLNK gene (604515); AGM5 (613506), caused by disruption of the LRRC8 gene (608360); AGM6 (612692), caused by mutation in the CD79B gene (147245); AGM7 (615214), caused by mutation in the PIK3R1 gene (171833); AGM8 (616941), caused by mutation in the TCF3 gene (147141); AGM9 (619693), caused by mutation in the SLC39A7 gene (601416); and AGM10 (619707), caused by mutation in the SPI1 gene (165170).
X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection and neoplasia
MedGen UID:
477076
Concept ID:
C3275445
Disease or Syndrome
XMEN is an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency characterized by CD4 (186940) lymphopenia, severe chronic viral infections, and defective T-lymphocyte activation (Li et al., 2011). Affected individuals have chronic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and are susceptible to the development of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Magnesium supplementation may be therapeutic (summary by Li et al., 2014).
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
478169
Concept ID:
C3276539
Disease or Syndrome
FBLN5-related cutis laxa is characterized by cutis laxa, early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and other evidence of a generalized connective disorder such as inguinal hernias and hollow viscus diverticula (e.g., intestine, bladder). Occasionally, supravalvar aortic stenosis is observed. Intrafamilial variability in age of onset is observed. Cardiorespiratory failure from complications of pulmonary emphysema (respiratory or cardiac insufficiency) is the most common cause of death.
Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome
MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 20
MedGen UID:
761920
Concept ID:
C3540844
Disease or Syndrome
CILD20 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from immotile cilia and defective clearance. Patients may also have situs inversus or cardiac anomalies. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows absence of the outer dynein arms. Unlike other forms of CILD, patients with CILD20 do not appear to be infertile. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 17
MedGen UID:
762261
Concept ID:
C3542550
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-17 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile onset of respiratory distress associated with a defect in the function of ciliary outer dynein arms. Situs inversus is variable (summary by Panizzi et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 19
MedGen UID:
762332
Concept ID:
C3543826
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-19 (CILD19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by chronic sinopulmonary infections, asthenospermia, and immotile cilia. Respiratory epithelial cells and sperm flagella of affected individuals lack both the inner and outer dynein arms. About 50% of patients have situs inversus (summary by Kott et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Combined immunodeficiency due to LRBA deficiency
MedGen UID:
766426
Concept ID:
C3553512
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-8 with autoimmunity is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals have early childhood onset of recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, and also develop variable autoimmune disorders, including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. The presentation and phenotype are highly variable, even within families (summary by Lopez-Herrera et al., 2012 and Alangari et al., 2012). Immunologic findings are also variable and may include decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and deficiency of CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells (Charbonnier et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Combined immunodeficiency due to STK4 deficiency
MedGen UID:
766857
Concept ID:
C3553943
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-110 (IMD110) is an autosomal recessive primary T-cell immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by progressive loss of naive T cells, recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, warts, and abscesses, and autoimmune manifestations. Patients are at risk for developing lymphoproliferative disorders or lymphoma, particularly associated with EBV. Some patients may show cardiac malformations, including atrial septal defect (Abdollahpour et al., 2012; Nehme et al., 2012).
Facial dysmorphism-immunodeficiency-livedo-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
767490
Concept ID:
C3554576
Disease or Syndrome
FILS syndrome is characterized by mild facial dysmorphism, mainly malar hypoplasia, livedo on the skin since birth, immunodeficiency resulting in recurrent infections, and short stature (summary by Pachlopnik Schmid et al., 2012).
Cryptosporidiosis-chronic cholangitis-liver disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
767601
Concept ID:
C3554687
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-56 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by B- and T-cell defects and variable dysfunction of NK cells. Patients tend to have normal numbers of lymphocytes, but show defective class-switched B cells, low IgG, defective antibody response, and defective T-cell responses to certain antigens (summary by Kotlarz et al., 2013).
Immunodeficiency 14
MedGen UID:
811535
Concept ID:
C3714976
Disease or Syndrome
Activated PI3K-delta syndrome (also known as APDS) is a disorder that impairs the immune system. Individuals with this condition often have low numbers of white blood cells (lymphopenia), particularly B cells and T cells. Normally, these cells recognize and attack foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria, to prevent infection. The severity of activated PI3K-delta syndrome varies widely. Some people may have multiple, severe infections while others show mild symptoms to none at all.\n\nMost commonly, people with activated PI3K-delta syndrome develop recurrent infections that begin in childhood, particularly in the lungs, sinuses, and ears. Over time, recurrent respiratory tract infections can lead to a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs (bronchi) and can cause breathing problems. People with activated PI3K-delta syndrome may also have chronic active viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, or cytomegalovirus infections.\n\nAnother possible feature of activated PI3K-delta syndrome is abnormal clumping of white blood cells. These clumps can lead to enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) or an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). The white blood cells can also build up to form solid masses (nodular lymphoid hyperplasia), usually in the moist lining of the airways or intestines. While nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is not cancerous (benign), activated PI3K-delta syndrome increases the risk of developing forms of blood cancer called Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.\n\nThere are two types of activated PI3K-delta syndrome, each with different genetic causes.\n\nSome people with activated PI3K-delta syndrome develop autoimmunity, which occurs when the body attacks its own tissues and organs by mistake.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 21
MedGen UID:
815417
Concept ID:
C3809087
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-21 (CILD21) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from abnormal ciliary function. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows normal outer and inner dynein arms, but absence of nexin links and defects in the nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC). Video microscopy of patient cilia shows an increased beat frequency with decreased bending amplitude (summary by Wirschell et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 22
MedGen UID:
815873
Concept ID:
C3809543
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-22 (CILD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia or flagella. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic cough, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and male infertility. Defective motility of embryonic nodal cilia leads to situs abnormalities in about 50% of patients. CILD22 is characterized by defects of the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Zariwala et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 23
MedGen UID:
815878
Concept ID:
C3809548
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-23 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective ciliary motility. Affected individuals have respiratory distress and recurrent upper and lower airway infections, and they often develop bronchiectasis. About 50% of patients have situs inversus or laterality defects. Ultrastructural analysis of respiratory cilia shows defects in the outer dynein arm (summary by Hjeij et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Combined immunodeficiency due to MALT1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
815913
Concept ID:
C3809583
Disease or Syndrome
Combined immunodeficiency due to MALT1 deficiency is a rare, genetic form of primary immunodeficiency characterized by growth retardation, early recurrent pulmonary infections leading to bronchiectasis, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease, and other symptoms, such as rash, dermatitis, skin infections.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 24
MedGen UID:
815964
Concept ID:
C3809634
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-24 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects of motile cilia. It is characterized clinically by sinopulmonary infection and subfertility; situs inversus is not observed. Ultrastructural examination of mutant cilia shows defects of the central microtubule complex and radial spokes (summary by Kott et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 25
MedGen UID:
815971
Concept ID:
C3809641
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-25 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Tarkar et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 26
MedGen UID:
816014
Concept ID:
C3809684
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-26 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 27
MedGen UID:
816031
Concept ID:
C3809701
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-27 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner dynein arms and nexin links. Situs inversus has not been reported in these patients (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 28
MedGen UID:
816036
Concept ID:
C3809706
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-28 (CILD28) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in both the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Knowles et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia
MedGen UID:
816098
Concept ID:
C3809768
Disease or Syndrome
Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare and heterogeneous syndrome defined by a reproducible reduction in the CD4 T-lymphocyte count (less than 300 cells per microliter or less than 20% of total T cells) in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. ICL predisposes to infections and malignancy (summary by Gorska and Alam, 2012).
Immunodeficiency 23
MedGen UID:
862808
Concept ID:
C4014371
Disease or Syndrome
IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by onset of recurrent infections, usually respiratory or cutaneous, in early childhood. Immune workup usually shows neutropenia, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE or IgA. Neutrophil chemotactic defects have also been reported. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many patients develop atopic dermatitis, eczema, and other signs of autoinflammation. Affected individuals may also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Bjorksten and Lundmark, 1976 and Zhang et al., 2014).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 29
MedGen UID:
862971
Concept ID:
C4014534
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-29 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early childhood onset of recurrent respiratory infections due to defective mucociliary clearance. Patients do not have situs inversus (summary by Wallmeier et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Immunodeficiency 36
MedGen UID:
863371
Concept ID:
C4014934
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-36 with lymphoproliferation (IMD36) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency with a highly heterogeneous clinical phenotype, characterized primarily by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, and antibody deficiency. Other features include growth retardation, mild neurodevelopmental delay, and autoimmunity. The major complication is development of B-cell lymphoma (Elkaim et al., 2016).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 30
MedGen UID:
863453
Concept ID:
C4015016
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ciliary dyskinesia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CCDC151 gene.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to CTLA4 haploinsufficiency
MedGen UID:
863651
Concept ID:
C4015214
Disease or Syndrome
Immune dysregulation with autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferation (IDAIL) is an autosomal dominant complex immune disorder with highly variable presentation and clinical manifestations. Prominent features include recurrent infections often associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune features such as autoimmune cytopenias, and abnormal lymphocytic infiltration of nonlymphoid organs, including the lungs, brain, and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteropathy. Laboratory studies often show lymphopenia and abnormal T and B cell subsets. The variable features are a result of impaired function of Treg cells, which play a role in immune homeostasis (summary by Kuehn et al., 2014; Schwab et al., 2018, and Lopez-Nevado et al., 2021). The disorder shows overlapping features with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS); for a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859.
Immunodeficiency 32B
MedGen UID:
865178
Concept ID:
C4016741
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-32B is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections resulting from variable defects in immune cell development or function, including monocytes, dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Patients have particular susceptibility to viral disease (summary by Mace et al., 2017).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 33
MedGen UID:
898734
Concept ID:
C4225230
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-33 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections due to defective ciliary clearance and resulting in chronic lung disease. Some patients may have recurrent ear infections resulting in conductive hearing impairment. Examination of respiratory cilia shows subtle movement defects. Laterality defects have not been reported (summary by Olbrich et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 12
MedGen UID:
906018
Concept ID:
C4225277
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-12 with autoimmunity (CVID12) is an autosomal dominant complex immunologic disorder with multisystem involvement. CVID12 is mainly a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. Notably, about half of patients develop autoimmune features, including cytopenia, as well as generalized inflammation and lymphoproliferation manifest as lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. A smaller percentage of affected individuals (less than 20%) develop cancer, most commonly solid tumors, including lymphoma. Age at onset and disease severity are highly variable, even within the same family. There is also incomplete penetrance, such that mutation carriers may be asymptomatic, even if they have hypogammaglobulinemia. The gene involved, NFKB1, encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of target genes involved in the immune system, thus defining the phenotype as a disorder of immune dysregulation (summary by Fliegauf et al., 2015; Lorenzini et al., 2020). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 32
MedGen UID:
896106
Concept ID:
C4225311
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-32 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, and infertility. The ciliary defect affects the central pair complex and radial spokes of the 9+2 motile cilia; affected individuals do not have situs abnormalities (summary by Jeanson et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 35
MedGen UID:
934688
Concept ID:
C4310721
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-35 (CILD35) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections due to defective ciliary function. Examination of respiratory cilia shows lack of outer dynein arms (ODAs) and immotile cilia. Some patients may have laterality defects (summary by Wallmeier et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 34
MedGen UID:
934689
Concept ID:
C4310722
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-34 (CILD34) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by childhood onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections due to impaired ciliary function. Affected males are infertile due to impaired sperm function and viability. Laterality defects have not been observed in this type of CILD (summary by El Khouri et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 36, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1393107
Concept ID:
C4478372
Disease or Syndrome
CILD36 is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by chronic airway disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections beginning in childhood and caused by defective ciliary function. Affected individuals also have infertility due to defective sperm flagella. About half of patients have laterality defects due to ciliary dysfunction at the embryonic node (summary by Paff et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to LAT deficiency
MedGen UID:
1384124
Concept ID:
C4479588
Disease or Syndrome
IMD52 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency with variable manifestations, including severe combined immunodeficiency, hematologic autoimmune disorders, progressive lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia, and lymphoproliferation with splenomegaly. Patients develop severe recurrent infections from infancy, and most die without bone marrow transplantation. The variable clinical features result from a defect in T-cell receptor signaling (summary by Keller et al., 2016 and Bacchelli et al., 2017).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 37
MedGen UID:
1615746
Concept ID:
C4539798
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency 11b with atopic dermatitis
MedGen UID:
1627819
Concept ID:
C4539957
Disease or Syndrome
IMD11B is an autosomal dominant disorder of immune dysfunction characterized by onset of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Some patients may have recurrent infections and other variable immune abnormalities. Laboratory studies show defects in T-cell activation, increased IgE, and eosinophilia (summary by Ma et al., 2017).
Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1636193
Concept ID:
C4551557
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial dysmorphism (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial dysmorphism, immunoglobulin deficiency, and branching of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of lymphocytes. Hypomethylation of DNA of a small fraction of the genome is an unusual feature of ICF patients that is explained by mutations in the DNMT3B gene in some, but not all, ICF patients (Hagleitner et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Immunodeficiency-Centromeric Instability-Facial Anomalies Syndrome See also ICF2 (614069), caused by mutation in the ZBTB24 gene (614064) on chromosome 6q21; ICF3 (616910), caused by mutation in the CDCA7 gene (609937) on chromosome 2q31; and ICF4 (616911), caused by mutation in the HELLS gene (603946) on chromosome 10q23.
Kartagener syndrome
MedGen UID:
1646059
Concept ID:
C4551906
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of function of different parts of the primary ciliary apparatus, most often dynein arms. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus (270100), and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia include CILD2 (606763), caused by mutation in the DNAAF3 gene (614566) on 19q13; CILD3 (608644), caused by mutation in the DNAH5 gene (603335) on 5p15; CILD4 (608646), mapped to 15q13; CILD5 (608647), caused by mutation in the HYDIN gene (610812) on 16q22; CILD6 (610852), caused by mutation in the TXNDC3 gene (607421) on 7p14; CILD7 (611884), caused by mutation in the DNAH11 gene (603339) on 7p15; CILD8 (612274), mapped to 15q24-q25; CILD9 (612444), caused by mutation in the DNAI2 gene (605483) on 17q25; CILD10 (612518), caused by mutation in the DNAAF2 gene (612517) on 14q21; CILD11 (612649), caused by mutation in the RSPH4A gene (612647) on 6q22; CILD12 (612650), caused by mutation in the RSPH9 gene (612648) on 6p21; CILD13 (613193), caused by mutation in the DNAAF1 gene (613190) on 16q24; CILD14 (613807), caused by mutation in the CCDC39 gene (613798) gene on 3q26; CILD15 (613808), caused by mutation in the CCDC40 gene (613799) on 17q25; CILD16 (614017), caused by mutation in the DNAL1 gene (610062) on 14q24; CILD17 (614679), caused by mutation in the CCDC103 gene (614677) on 17q21; CILD18 (614874), caused by mutation in the DNAAF5 gene (614864) on 7p22; CILD19 (614935), caused by mutation in the LRRC6 gene (614930) on 8q24; CILD20 (615067), caused by mutation in the CCDC114 gene (615038) on 19q13; CILD21 (615294), caused by mutation in the DRC1 gene (615288) on 2p23; CILD22 (615444), caused by mutation in the ZMYND10 gene (607070) on 3p21; CILD23 (615451), caused by mutation in the ARMC4 gene (615408) on 10p; CILD24 (615481), caused by mutation in the RSPH1 gene (609314) on 21q22; CILD25 (615482), caused by mutation in the DYX1C1 gene (608706) on 15q21; CILD26 (615500), caused by mutation in the C21ORF59 gene (615494) on 21q22; CILD27 (615504), caused by mutation in the CCDC65 gene (611088) on 12q13; CILD28 (615505), caused by mutation in the SPAG1 gene (603395) on 8q22; CILD29 (615872), caused by mutation in the CCNO gene (607752) on 5q11; CILD30 (616037), caused by mutation in the CCDC151 gene (615956) on 19p13; CILD32 (616481), caused by mutation in the RSPH3 gene (615876) on 6q25; CILD33 (616726), caused by mutation in the GAS8 gene (605178) on 16q24; CILD34 (617091), caused by mutation in the DNAJB13 gene (610263) on 11q13; CILD35 (617092), caused by mutation in the TTC25 gene (617095) on 17q21; CILD36 (300991), caused by mutation in the PIH1D3 gene (300933) on Xq22; CILD37 (617577), caused by mutation in the DNAH1 gene (603332) on 3p21; CILD38 (618063), caused by mutation in the CFAP300 gene (618058) on 11q22; CILD39 (618254), caused by mutation in the LRRC56 gene (618227) on 11p15; CILD40 (618300), caused by mutation in the DNAH9 gene (603330) on 17p12; CILD41 (618449), caused by mutation in the GAS2L2 gene (611398) on 17q12; CILD42 (618695), caused by mutation in the MCIDAS gene (614086) on 5q11; CILD43 (618699), caused by mutation in the FOXJ1 gene (602291) on 17q25; CILD44 (618781), caused by mutation in the NEK10 gene (618726) on 3p24; CILD45 (618801), caused by mutation in the TTC12 gene (610732) on 11q23; CILD46 (619436), caused by mutation in the STK36 gene (607652) on 2q35; CILD47 (619466), caused by mutation in the TP73 gene (601990) on 1p36; CILD48 (620032), caused by mutation in the NME5 gene (603575) on chromosome 5q31; CILD49 (620197), caused by mutation in the CFAP74 gene (620187) on chromosome 1p36; CILD50 (620356), caused by mutation in the DNAH7 gene (610061) on chromosome 2q32; CILD51 (620438), caused by mutation in the BRWD1 gene (617824) on chromosome 21q22; CILD52 (620570), caused by mutation in the DAW1 gene (620279) on chromosome 2q36; and CILD53 (620642), caused by mutation in the CLXN gene (619564) on chromosome 8q11. Ciliary abnormalities have also been reported in association with both X-linked and autosomal forms of retinitis pigmentosa. Mutations in the RPGR gene (312610), which underlie X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3; 300029), are in some instances (e.g., 312610.0016) associated with recurrent respiratory infections indistinguishable from immotile cilia syndrome; see 300455. Afzelius (1979) gave an extensive review of cilia and their disorders. There are also several possibly distinct CILDs described based on the electron microscopic appearance of abnormal cilia, including CILD with transposition of the microtubules (215520), CILD with excessively long cilia (242680), and CILD with defective radial spokes (242670).
Combined immunodeficiency due to DOCK8 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648410
Concept ID:
C4722305
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-2 with recurrent infections (HIES2) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections of the skin and respiratory tract, eczema, elevated serum immunoglobulin E, and hypereosinophilia. It is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES1 (147060) by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see 147060. See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES2 and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006).
Retinitis pigmentosa with or without situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1658130
Concept ID:
C4747737
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-82 with or without situs inversus (RP82) is an autosomal recessive form of retinal degeneration characterized by initial loss of rod photoreceptors, resulting in impaired night vision followed by progressive visual-field constriction as both rod and cone photoreceptors die. Some affected individuals have situs inversus (Davidson et al., 2013; Audo et al., 2017).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 38
MedGen UID:
1648465
Concept ID:
C4748052
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-38 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic airway disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections beginning in infancy and caused by defective ciliary function. Affected individuals often have neonatal respiratory distress and may later have infertility. About half of patients have laterality defects due to ciliary dysfunction in early embryonic development (summary by Fassad et al., 2018 and Hoben et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency 57
MedGen UID:
1648306
Concept ID:
C4748212
Disease or Syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CARMIL2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648422
Concept ID:
C4748304
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-58 is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by early-onset skin lesions, including eczematous dermatitis, infectious abscesses, and warts, recurrent respiratory infections or allergies, and chronic persistent infections with candida, Molluscum contagiosum, mycobacteria, EBV, bacteria, and viruses. Some patients may have gastrointestinal involvement, including inflammatory bowel disease, EBV+ smooth muscle tumors, and esophagitis. Immunologic analysis shows defective T-cell function with decreased Treg cells and deficient CD3/CD28 costimulation responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B-cell function may also be impaired (summary by Wang et al., 2016 and Alazami et al., 2018).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 33
MedGen UID:
1648420
Concept ID:
C4748840
Disease or Syndrome
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 39
MedGen UID:
1648363
Concept ID:
C4748841
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-39 (CILD39) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic sinopulmonary infections beginning soon after birth and laterality defects in about 50% of patients. Although patient nasal ciliary samples have normal structure, detailed studies may show ciliary kinetic defects in some patients (summary by Bonnefoy et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 3, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1648483
Concept ID:
C4748969
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-3 with recurrent infections (HIES3) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of atopic dermatitis, skin infections particularly with Staphylococcus aureus, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and increased serum IgE and IgG. Patients are susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup shows impaired differentiation of CD4+ T cells into T-helper 17 cells, decreased memory B cells, and often decreased NK cells (summary by Beziat et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
Immunodeficiency 60
MedGen UID:
1681890
Concept ID:
C5193072
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-60 and autoimmunity (IMD60) is an autosomal dominant primary immunologic disorder characterized by inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections. The age at symptom onset is highly variable, ranging from infancy to mid-adulthood. Laboratory studies show dysregulation of both B and T cells, with variably decreased immunoglobulin production, decreased T-regulatory cells, and overall impaired lymphocyte maturation (summary by Afzali et al., 2017).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 41
MedGen UID:
1680404
Concept ID:
C5193103
Disease or Syndrome
Ciliary dyskinesia-41 (CILD41) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic sinusitis, otitis media, and bronchiectasis (Bustamante-Marin et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency 62
MedGen UID:
1673905
Concept ID:
C5193109
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-62 (IMD62) is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder clinically characterized by onset of recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections late in the first decade of life. Patients may also have increased viral susceptibility to varicella zoster virus (VZV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV). Laboratory studies show impaired antibody response to vaccination, low levels of circulating memory B cells, and almost undetectable antibodies. There is also evidence of secondary T-cell dysfunction. The disorder may result from disturbed actin cytoskeleton dynamics causing impaired lymphocyte migration (summary by Bouafia et al., 2019).
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 4, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1673363
Concept ID:
C5193141
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-4B with recurrent infections (HIES4B) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of recurrent infections and skeletal abnormalities, including craniosynostosis and scoliosis. Patients are mainly susceptible to bacterial infections that affect the respiratory tract, skin, and eye. Immunologic workup shows increased serum IgE, intermittent eosinophilia, and impaired IL6 (147620) and IL27 (608273) downstream signaling that affects the development and function of certain B- and T-cell populations, as well as the acute-phase response; IL11 (147681) signaling in fibroblasts is also affected (summary by Shahin et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
Immunodeficiency 64
MedGen UID:
1684716
Concept ID:
C5231402
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-64 with lymphoproliferation (IMD64) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in early childhood. Laboratory studies show variably decreased numbers of T cells, with lesser deficiencies of B and NK cells. There is impaired T-cell proliferation and activation; functional defects in B cells and NK cells may also be observed. Patients have increased susceptibility to EBV infection and may develop lymphoproliferation or EBV-associated lymphoma. Some patients may develop features of autoimmunity (summary by Salzer et al., 2016, Mao et al., 2018, and Winter et al., 2018).
Immunodeficiency 65, susceptibility to viral infections
MedGen UID:
1684865
Concept ID:
C5231441
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-65 (IMD65) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent and severe viral infections from early infancy. Affected individuals have impaired ability to fight viral infections, resulting in clinically significant disease, including pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and septic shock. Laboratory studies may show lymphopenia or hypogammaglobulinemia, particularly during infection; more detailed studies show an impaired cellular type I interferon response. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is beneficial. Important features of this disorder include the rapid development of septic shock, as well as poor outcomes after vaccination with live attenuated vaccines; such vaccines should never be administered to patients with known impaired interferon responses (summary by Hernandez et al., 2018 and Bravo Garcia-Morato et al., 2019).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 42
MedGen UID:
1684665
Concept ID:
C5231464
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-42 (CILD42) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a defect in motile cilia and ciliary clearance resulting in the onset of respiratory insufficiency soon after birth, and associated with recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections with chronic progressive lung disease. Other more variable features may include infertility and mild hydrocephalus. Patients with this form of the disorder do not have situs abnormalities. The disorder is considered to be a type of ciliopathy known as 'reduced generation of multiple motile cilia' (RGMC) (summary by Boon et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 43
MedGen UID:
1684675
Concept ID:
C5231466
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-43 (CILD43) is a disorder characterized by a defect in motile cilia and ciliary clearance resulting in the onset of respiratory insufficiency soon after birth, and associated with recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections with chronic progressive lung disease. Patients with this disorder also develop significant obstructive hydrocephalus requiring shunting in infancy, although adult onset of neurologic symptoms may occur. Other more variable features include infertility and about a 50% chance of situs inversus or other left-right asymmetry defects. The disorder is considered to be a type of ciliopathy known as 'reduced generation of multiple motile cilia' (RGMC) (summary by Wallmeier et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 44
MedGen UID:
1716408
Concept ID:
C5394063
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-44 (CILD44) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections resulting from defective mucociliary clearance. Affected individuals have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood, and the repetitive nature of the disorder results in bronchiectasis. Although respiratory epithelial cell motile cilia are shorter than normal and overall ciliary motion is decreased, nasal nitric oxide, radial ciliary structure, and ciliary beat frequency are normal. In addition, patients do not have situs inversus (summary by Chivukula et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 45
MedGen UID:
1714988
Concept ID:
C5394104
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-45 (CILD45) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections resulting from defective mucociliary clearance. Affected individuals have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood, and the repetitive nature of the disorder may result in bronchiectasis. Nasal nitric oxide may be decreased, but patients do not have situs abnormalities. Male patients have infertility due to immotile sperm (summary by Thomas et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency 72 with autoinflammation
MedGen UID:
1749856
Concept ID:
C5436540
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-72 with autoinflammation and lymphoproliferation (IMD72) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent infections or systemic inflammation in the first year of life. Affected individuals develop bacterial and viral infections that can be severe, including bacteremia, recurrent pneumonia, and meningitis, consistent with an immunodeficiency. There is also an autoimmune and hyperinflammatory aspect to the disorder, manifest as atopy or allergies, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphoproliferation, including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Immunologic workup shows variable abnormalities, including low or high Ig subsets, increased B cells, irregular T-cell activation and cytokine response, impaired immune synapse formation, and defective cellular migration. At the cellular level, these defects are related to abnormal F-actin polymerization and altered intracellular signaling (summary by Cook et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 73b with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and lymphopenia
MedGen UID:
1740566
Concept ID:
C5436549
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-73B with defective neutrophil chemotaxis (IMD73B) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent infections in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals develop respiratory infections, cellulitis, and severe invasive infections or sepsis; organisms include bacteria such as Staphylococcus, as well as viruses, fungi, and mycobacterial species. Laboratory studies show variable abnormalities, including B- and T-cell lymphopenia, decreased immunoglobulin subsets, decreased TRECs and dysfunctional T cells, decreased NK cells, neutropenia, and impaired neutrophil chemotaxis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative (summary by Hsu et al., 2019; review by Lougaris et al., 2020). In a review of autosomal forms of chronic granulomatous disease (see 306400 for genetic heterogeneity of CGD), Roos et al. (2021) noted that patients with RAC2 mutations may manifest CGD-like symptoms due to defects in neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity.
Immunodeficiency 75
MedGen UID:
1741014
Concept ID:
C5436860
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-75 with lymphoproliferation (IMD75) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation, and the development of lymphoproliferative disorders, including lymphoma. Affected individuals usually present in infancy with severe and recurrent infections, mainly viral and affecting the respiratory tract. Some patients may have autoimmune cytopenias, anemia, or thrombocytopenia. Patients also develop hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, lymphoproliferative disorders, and various types of T- or B-cell lymphomas. Immunologic work-up shows decreased class-switched B cells, impaired B-cell terminal differentiation, and hypo- or hypergammaglobulinemia. There is skewed differentiation and dysregulation of T cells, as well as possibly disrupted hematopoiesis. Additional features include failure to thrive and global developmental delay. The phenotype may be reminiscent of ALPS (601859), including laboratory evidence of impaired Fas-dependent T-cell apoptosis. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be effective treatment, many patients die in childhood (summary by Stremenova Spegarova et al., 2020).
WHIM syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778124
Concept ID:
C5542296
Disease or Syndrome
WHIM syndrome-1 (WHIMS1) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and warts due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the peripheral neutropenia, bone marrow aspirates from affected individuals contain abundant mature myeloid cells, a condition termed myelokathexis. The susceptibility to HPV is disproportionate compared with other immunodeficiency conditions (summary by Hernandez et al., 2003). Heusinkveld et al. (2019) provided a detailed review of the clinical features, proposed pathogenesis, and possible therapeutic treatments of WHIM syndrome. There is significant phenotypic variation among patients, such that some individuals may have an 'incomplete' form of the disorder in which one or more of the classic tetrad features are not present. In general, the WHIMS phenotype comprises a spectrum of manifestations with variable expressivity. The pathogenesis of WHIMS1 is postulated to result from impaired CXCL12 (600835)-induced internalization of CXCR4, resulting in prolonged receptor presence at the cell surface that likely contributes to amplification of signaling with a gain-of-function effect. Genetic Heterogeneity of WHIM Syndrome See also WHIMS2 (619407), caused by mutation in the CXCR2 gene (146928) on chromosome 2q35.
Immunodeficiency 78 with autoimmunity and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1785772
Concept ID:
C5543159
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-78 with autoimmunity and developmental delay (IMD78) is an autosomal recessive systemic disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in early childhood. Affected individuals present with features of immune deficiency, such as recurrent sinopulmonary or skin infections, as well as autoimmunity, including autoimmune cytopenias, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Autoimmune hepatitis or thyroid disease and central nervous system vasculitis with stroke may also occur. There is increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Laboratory studies show lymphopenia with advanced differentiation and premature senescence of CD8+ T cells and B cells; some patients may have hypergammaglobulinemia. The findings indicate immune dysregulation. Patients also have global developmental delay with speech delay and variable intellectual disability. Many patients die prematurely, but successful hematopoietic bone marrow transplant may be curative (summary by Lu et al., 2014 and Atallah et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 77
MedGen UID:
1788976
Concept ID:
C5543173
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-77 (IMD77) is an immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent and persistent polymicrobial infections with multiple unusual organisms. Skin and pulmonary infections are the most common, consistent with increased susceptibility to epithelial cell infections. The age at onset is highly variable: some patients have recurrent infections from childhood, whereas others present in late adulthood. The limited number of reported patients are all female, suggesting incomplete penetrance or a possible sex-influenced trait. Patient cells, mainly macrophages, show impaired killing of intracellular bacteria and organisms, including nontubercular mycobacteria, although there is also impaired killing of other organisms, such as Pseudomonas, Candida, and Aspergillus. Treatment with gamma-IFN (IFNG; 147570) may be a therapeutic option (summary by McCormack et al., 2017 and Merselis et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 82 with systemic inflammation
MedGen UID:
1781752
Concept ID:
C5543581
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-82 with systemic inflammation (IMD82) is a complex autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent infections with various organisms, as well as noninfectious inflammation manifest as lymphocytic organ infiltration with gastritis, colitis, and lung, liver, CNS, or skin disease. One of the more common features is inflammation of the stomach and bowel. Most patients develop symptoms in infancy or early childhood; the severity is variable. There may be accompanying fever, elevated white blood cell count, decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, increased C-reactive protein (CRP; 123260), and a generalized hyperinflammatory state. Immunologic workup shows variable B- and T-cell abnormalities such as skewed subgroups. Patients have a propensity for the development of lymphoma, usually in adulthood. At the molecular level, the disorder results from a gain-of-function mutation that leads to constitutive and enhanced activation of the intracellular inflammatory signaling pathway. Treatment with SYK inhibitors rescued human cell abnormalities and resulted in clinical improvement in mice (Wang et al., 2021).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 46
MedGen UID:
1780196
Concept ID:
C5543646
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-46 (CILD46) is characterized by recurrent sinus and respiratory infections, with reduced pulmonary function and uncoordinated beating of respiratory cilia. No situs abnormalities have been observed (Edelbusch et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Diarrhea 12, with microvillus atrophy
MedGen UID:
1794152
Concept ID:
C5561942
Disease or Syndrome
Microvillus inclusion disease (DIAR12) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by neonatal-onset intractable secretory diarrhea, resulting in severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Patients may tolerate limited enteral feeding, but are dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and require eventual small bowel and/or liver transplantation. Pathologic hallmarks include variable loss of brush-border microvilli, microvillus inclusions, and accumulation of subapical vesicles in villus enterocytes (summary by Wiegerinck et al., 2014). Another form of microvillus inclusion disease, MVID1 (DIAR2; 251850), is caused by mutation in the MYO5B gene (606540). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of diarrhea, see DIAR1 (214700). Mutations in the STX3 gene that affect only isoform A (STX3A) cause DIAR12, whereas mutations in STX3 affecting both STX3A and isoform B (STX3B), which predominates in retinal tissue, cause a syndrome involving severe early-onset retinal dystrophy and MVID (RDMVID; 619446).
Retinal dystrophy and microvillus inclusion disease
MedGen UID:
1794153
Concept ID:
C5561943
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal dystrophy and microvillus inclusion disease (RDMVID) is characterized by early-onset severe retinal dystrophy in association with intractable congenital diarrhea requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Intestinal biopsies show typical features of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), including loss of microvilli, microvillus inclusions, and accumulation of subapical vesicles in epithelial cells (Janecke et al., 2021). Because STX3 isoform B (STX3B) predominates in the retina, mutations in the STX3 gene that affect both isoform A (STX3A) and STX3B cause both retinal and gastrointestinal disease (RDMVID), whereas mutations in STX3 affecting only the STX3A transcript cause only diarrhea (DIAR12; 619445).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 47, and lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
1794161
Concept ID:
C5561951
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-47 and lissencephaly (CILD47) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of recurrent respiratory infections and respiratory dysfunction caused by defective mucociliary clearance in early childhood. Affected individuals also have neurologic features, such as impaired intellectual development and central hypotonia, associated with structural brain abnormalities, most notably lissencephaly and thin or absent corpus callosum. The disorder results from impaired function of motile ciliopathy and can be classified as 'reduced generation of multiple motile cilia' (RGMC). Situs inversus is not observed (summary by Wallmeier et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy 2
MedGen UID:
1794163
Concept ID:
C5561953
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy-2 (NPHPL2) is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease characterized by onset of progressive renal insufficiency in the first decades of life. Renal imaging and biopsy show corticomedullary cysts, tubular ectasia, tubular basement membrane disruption, and tubulointerstitial infiltrations. Patients eventually progress to end-stage renal failure, necessitating kidney transplantation or dialysis (summary by Hurd et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephronophthisis, see NPHP1 (256100).
Immunodeficiency 89 and autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
1794237
Concept ID:
C5562027
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-89 and autoimmunity (IMD89) is an autosomal recessive immune disorder characterized by adult onset of recurrent infections, allergies, microcytic anemia, and Crohn disease (see 266600) (Yang et al., 2020).
Progressive microcephaly-seizures-cortical blindness-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
1799073
Concept ID:
C5567650
Disease or Syndrome
Seizures, cortical blindness, and microcephaly syndrome (SCBMS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by microcephaly, early-onset seizures, severely delayed psychomotor development, and cortical blindness. Affected individuals also tend to show poor overall growth with short stature (summary by Ercan-Sencicek et al., 2015).
Immunodeficiency 102
MedGen UID:
1812534
Concept ID:
C5676886
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-102 (IMD102) is an X-linked recessive immunologic disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent sinopulmonary, mucosal, and other infections in early childhood, usually accompanied by refractory autoimmune cytopenias. Affected individuals have bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, as well as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and decreased NK cells. Laboratory studies show defective T-cell proliferation and function, likely due to signaling abnormalities. The disorder may also manifest as a hyperinflammatory state with immune dysregulation (Delmonte et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 93 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
1804175
Concept ID:
C5676899
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-93 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (IMD93) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of recurrent viral and bacterial infections, particularly with encapsulated bacteria, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first months or years of life. Immunologic workup typically shows decreased circulating B cells and hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, sometimes with neutropenia or T-cell lymphocytosis, although laboratory findings may be variable among patients. Ig replacement therapy is beneficial. Cardiac involvement can also include atrial septal defect, valvular insufficiency, and pre-excitation syndrome. Rare myopathic or neurologic involvement has been reported, but these features are not consistently part of the disorder and may be related to other genetic defects (summary by Niehues et al., 2020 and Saettini et al., 2021).
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811526
Concept ID:
C5676901
Disease or Syndrome
PI4KA-related disorder is a clinically variable disorder characterized primarily by neurologic dysfunction (limb spasticity, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, ataxia, nystagmus), gastrointestinal manifestations (multiple intestinal atresia, inflammatory bowel disease), and combined immunodeficiency (leukopenia, variable immunoglobulin defects). Age of onset is typically antenatal or in early childhood; individuals can present with any combination of these features. Rare individuals present with later-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain MRI findings can include hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy, thin or dysplastic corpus callosum, and/or perisylvian polymicrogyria.
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 4A, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1809613
Concept ID:
C5676920
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-4A with recurrent infections (HIES4A) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent, mainly sinopulmonary infections associated with increased serum IgE. The phenotype is variable, even within families. Some patients have onset of symptoms in early childhood and develop complications, including bronchiectasis or hemoptysis, whereas others have later onset of less severe infections. Immunologic workup usually shows normal leukocyte levels, although some patients may demonstrate alterations in lymphocyte subsets, including T cells. Affected individuals also have variable skeletal abnormalities, including high-arched palate, hyperextensible joints, scoliosis, and bone fractures. The IL6ST mutations are loss-of-function, although the truncated mutant proteins are expressed and interfere with the wildtype protein in a dominant-negative manner by disrupting IL6 (147620) and IL11 (147681) signaling (summary by Beziat et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 48, without situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1823987
Concept ID:
C5774214
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-48 without situs inversus (CILD48) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections due to impaired ciliary movement and clearance. Affected individuals often develop chronic lung disease. Since the defect involves the radial spokes and central pairs of microtubules in motile cilia, situs abnormalities do not occur (summary by Cho et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal dominant 10
MedGen UID:
1824007
Concept ID:
C5774234
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-10 (HMND10) is a neurologic disorder of the peripheral nerves characterized clinically by length-dependent motor neuropathy primarily affecting the lower limbs. Affected individuals have onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy in early childhood that results in walking difficulties and gait abnormalities. Some have pyramidal signs, including hyperreflexia, suggesting the involvement of upper motor neurons. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a neurogenic process. More variable features may include mild intellectual disability, minor gyration defects on brain imaging, foot deformities, and connective tissue defects (1 family) (Capuano et al., 2016; Iacomino et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960).
Atelis syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1824054
Concept ID:
C5774281
Disease or Syndrome
Atelis syndrome-1 (ATELS1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with learning difficulties and poor overall growth with short stature and microcephaly. Most patients have anemia, some have immunologic defects, and some have congenital heart septal defects. More variable features may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, skin pigmentary anomalies, and mild skeletal defects. Patient cells show multiple chromosomal abnormalities due to impaired DNA replication and disrupted mitosis (Grange et al., 2022). See also ATELS2 (620185), caused by mutation in the SMC5 gene (609386) on chromosome 9q21. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MVA, see MVA1 (257300).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 49, without situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1824064
Concept ID:
C5774291
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-49 (CILD49) without situs inversus is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent respiratory infections, chronic cough, and bronchiectasis in early childhood due to defective ciliary clearance. Affected males also show infertility due to defective flagellar morphology and function. Nasal nitric oxide (NO) levels are normal and situs abnormalities are not observed (Sha et al., 2020; Biebach et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Respiratory infections, recurrent, and failure to thrive with or without diarrhea
MedGen UID:
1824079
Concept ID:
C5774306
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent respiratory infections and failure to thrive with or without diarrhea (RIFTD) is characterized by neonatal onset of chronic cough, episodic wheezing, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, chronic diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Despite the resemblance to cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700), these patients have normal sweat chloride and pancreatic elastase tests (Bertoli-Avella et al., 2022).
Immunodeficiency 109 with lymphoproliferation
MedGen UID:
1840982
Concept ID:
C5830346
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-109 with EBV-induced lymphoproliferation (IMD109) is an autosomal recessive primary immune disorder characterized by onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections in childhood. Affected individuals are susceptible to infection with EBV and develop EBV viremia and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease or B-cell lymphoma. Immunologic work-up shows normal levels of T, B, and NK cells, with defective CD8+ T cell function after stimulation. Some patients may have hypogammaglobulinemia and poor antibody response to stimulation (Alosaimi et al., 2019).
C1Q deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
1841058
Concept ID:
C5830422
Disease or Syndrome
C1q deficiency (C1QD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent skin lesions, chronic infections, and an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; see 152700) or SLE-like diseases. It has also been associated with chronic glomerulonephritis and renal failure. C1q deficiency presents in 2 different forms, absent C1q protein or presence of a dysfunctional molecule (summary by Topaloglu et al., 1996 and Vassallo et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of C1q deficiency, see 613652.
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 51
MedGen UID:
1841244
Concept ID:
C5830608
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-51 (CILD51) is characterized by male infertility due to multiple morphologic abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF), resulting in severely reduced progressive motility. Some men also have a low sperm count. In addition, affected individuals experience chronic rhinosinusitis and bronchitis, and recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections, and some exhibit dextrocardia and/or situs inversus (Guo et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Diab Cáceres L, Zamarrón de Lucas E
Med Clin (Barc) 2023 Nov 10;161(9):389-396. Epub 2023 Aug 7 doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2023.06.006. PMID: 37558605
Kadura S, Raghu G
Eur Respir Rev 2021 Jun 30;30(160) Epub 2021 Jun 23 doi: 10.1183/16000617.0011-2021. PMID: 34168062Free PMC Article
Chang AB, Bush A, Grimwood K
Lancet 2018 Sep 8;392(10150):866-879. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31554-X. PMID: 30215382

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Metersky ML, Barker AF
Clin Chest Med 2022 Mar;43(1):35-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2021.11.003. PMID: 35236559
Chalmers JD, Chang AB, Chotirmall SH, Dhar R, McShane PJ
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Nov 15;4(1):45. doi: 10.1038/s41572-018-0042-3. PMID: 30442957
Flume PA, Chalmers JD, Olivier KN
Lancet 2018 Sep 8;392(10150):880-890. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31767-7. PMID: 30215383Free PMC Article
Chang AB, Bush A, Grimwood K
Lancet 2018 Sep 8;392(10150):866-879. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31554-X. PMID: 30215382
Visser SK, Bye P, Morgan L
Med J Aust 2018 Aug 20;209(4):177-183. doi: 10.5694/mja17.01195. PMID: 30107772

Diagnosis

Barbosa M, Chalmers JD
Presse Med 2023 Sep;52(3):104174. Epub 2023 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2023.104174. PMID: 37778637
Chalmers JD, Chang AB, Chotirmall SH, Dhar R, McShane PJ
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Nov 15;4(1):45. doi: 10.1038/s41572-018-0042-3. PMID: 30442957
Chang AB, Bush A, Grimwood K
Lancet 2018 Sep 8;392(10150):866-879. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31554-X. PMID: 30215382
Visser SK, Bye P, Morgan L
Med J Aust 2018 Aug 20;209(4):177-183. doi: 10.5694/mja17.01195. PMID: 30107772
O'Donnell AE
Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Apr;31(2):194-198. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000445. PMID: 29489526

Therapy

Martins M, Keir HR, Chalmers JD
Pulmonology 2023 Nov-Dec;29(6):505-517. Epub 2023 Apr 6 doi: 10.1016/j.pulmoe.2023.03.004. PMID: 37030997
Macfarlane L, Kumar K, Scoones T, Jones A, Loebinger MR, Lord R
Clin Med (Lond) 2021 Nov;21(6):e571-e577. doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2021-0651. PMID: 34862215Free PMC Article
Cox NS, Dal Corso S, Hansen H, McDonald CF, Hill CJ, Zanaboni P, Alison JA, O'Halloran P, Macdonald H, Holland AE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jan 29;1(1):CD013040. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013040.pub2. PMID: 33511633Free PMC Article
Chang AB, Bush A, Grimwood K
Lancet 2018 Sep 8;392(10150):866-879. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31554-X. PMID: 30215382
Polverino E, Goeminne PC, McDonnell MJ, Aliberti S, Marshall SE, Loebinger MR, Murris M, Cantón R, Torres A, Dimakou K, De Soyza A, Hill AT, Haworth CS, Vendrell M, Ringshausen FC, Subotic D, Wilson R, Vilaró J, Stallberg B, Welte T, Rohde G, Blasi F, Elborn S, Almagro M, Timothy A, Ruddy T, Tonia T, Rigau D, Chalmers JD
Eur Respir J 2017 Sep;50(3) Epub 2017 Sep 9 doi: 10.1183/13993003.00629-2017. PMID: 28889110

Prognosis

Suarez-Cuartin G, Chalmers JD, Sibila O
Respir Med 2016 Jul;116:70-7. Epub 2016 May 17 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.05.014. PMID: 27296824
Mao B, Yang JW, Lu HW, Xu JF
Eur Respir J 2016 Jun;47(6):1680-6. Epub 2016 Apr 13 doi: 10.1183/13993003.01862-2015. PMID: 27076584
Fitzpatrick ME, Sethi S, Daley CL, Ray P, Beck JM, Gingo MR
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2014 Aug;11 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):S221-6. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201401-041PL. PMID: 25148428Free PMC Article
Chalmers JD, Goeminne P, Aliberti S, McDonnell MJ, Lonni S, Davidson J, Poppelwell L, Salih W, Pesci A, Dupont LJ, Fardon TC, De Soyza A, Hill AT
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014 Mar 1;189(5):576-85. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201309-1575OC. PMID: 24328736Free PMC Article
Scully Cbe C, Porter S
BMJ Clin Evid 2008 Jul 17;2008 PMID: 19445739Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Johnson E, Long MB, Chalmers JD
Eur Respir Rev 2024 Jul;33(173) Epub 2024 Jul 3 doi: 10.1183/16000617.0234-2023. PMID: 38960612Free PMC Article
Guan WJ, Xu JF, Luo H, Xu XX, Song YL, Ma WL, Liang ZA, Liu XD, Zhang GJ, Zhang XJ, Li RK, Zhu SY, Zhang YJ, Cai XJ, Wei LP, Tian DB, Zhao H, Chen PY, Qu JM, Zhong NS; TORNASOL Study Group
Chest 2023 Jan;163(1):64-76. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2022.07.007. PMID: 35863486
Goutaki M, Shoemark A
Clin Chest Med 2022 Mar;43(1):127-140. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2021.11.008. PMID: 35236553
Flament T, Bigot A, Chaigne B, Henique H, Diot E, Marchand-Adam S
Eur Respir Rev 2016 Jun;25(140):110-23. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0011-2016. PMID: 27246587Free PMC Article
Chalmers JD, Goeminne P, Aliberti S, McDonnell MJ, Lonni S, Davidson J, Poppelwell L, Salih W, Pesci A, Dupont LJ, Fardon TC, De Soyza A, Hill AT
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014 Mar 1;189(5):576-85. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201309-1575OC. PMID: 24328736Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Zisi D, Chryssanthopoulos C, Nanas S, Philippou A
Heart Lung 2022 May-Jun;53:89-98. Epub 2022 Feb 27 doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.02.006. PMID: 35235877
Cox NS, Dal Corso S, Hansen H, McDonald CF, Hill CJ, Zanaboni P, Alison JA, O'Halloran P, Macdonald H, Holland AE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jan 29;1(1):CD013040. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013040.pub2. PMID: 33511633Free PMC Article
Chalmers JD, Chotirmall SH
Lancet Respir Med 2018 Sep;6(9):715-726. Epub 2018 Feb 23 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30053-5. PMID: 29478908
Panda A, Bhalla AS, Goyal A
Diagn Interv Radiol 2017 Jul-Aug;23(4):307-317. doi: 10.5152/dir.2017.16454. PMID: 28703105Free PMC Article
Magis-Escurra C, Reijers MH
BMJ Clin Evid 2015 Feb 25;2015 PMID: 25715965Free PMC Article

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