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Bohring-Opitz syndrome(BOPS)

MedGen UID:
208678
Concept ID:
C0796232
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Bohring syndrome; BOS syndrome; C-like syndrome; Opitz trigonocephaly-like syndrome
SNOMED CT: Bohring Opitz syndrome (720565000); C-like syndrome (720565000); Opitz trigonocephaly-like syndrome (720565000); Bohring syndrome (720565000)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): ASXL1 (20q11.21)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011510
OMIM®: 605039
Orphanet: ORPHA97297

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Bohring-Opitz Syndrome
Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is characterized by distinctive facial features and posture, growth failure, variable but usually severe intellectual disability, and variable anomalies. The facial features may include microcephaly or trigonocephaly / prominent (but not fused) metopic ridge, hypotonic facies with full cheeks, synophrys, glabellar and eyelid nevus flammeus (simplex), prominent globes, widely set eyes, palate anomalies, and micrognathia. The BOS posture, which is most striking in early childhood and often becomes less apparent with age, is characterized by flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints. Feeding difficulties in early childhood, including cyclic vomiting, have a significant impact on overall health; feeding tends to improve with age. Seizures are common and typically responsive to standard epileptic medications. Minor cardiac anomalies and transient bradycardia and apnea may be present. Affected individuals may experience recurrent infections, which also tend to improve with age. Isolated case reports suggest that individuals with BOS are at greater risk for Wilms tumor than the general population, but large-scale epidemiologic studies have not been conducted. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Bianca Russell  |  Wen-Hann Tan  |  John M Graham   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOPS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, poor feeding, profound mental retardation, trigonocephaly, prominent metopic suture, exophthalmos, nevus flammeus of the face, upslanting palpebral fissures, hirsutism, and flexion of the elbows and wrists with deviation of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints (summary by Hoischen et al., 2011). See also the C syndrome (211750), a disorder with a similar phenotype caused by heterozygous mutation in the CD96 gene (606037) on chromosome 3q13.  http://www.omim.org/entry/605039
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Bohring-Opitz syndrome is a rare condition that affects the development of many parts of the body.

Most individuals with Bohring-Opitz syndrome have profound to severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, and seizures. Most affected individuals have a normal head shape and size with no brain abnormalities; however, some have abnormal development of the head. Abnormal development can lead to a small head size (microcephaly) and a skull abnormality called trigonocephaly, which gives the forehead a pointed appearance. Structural brain abnormalities can occur with or without head abnormalities. For example, the fluid-filled spaces near the center of the brain (ventricles) may be usually large (ventriculomegaly) or the tissue that connects the left and right halves of the brain (the corpus callosum) can be abnormally thin.

Eye problems that can affect vision also occur in people with Bohring-Opitz syndrome. People with this disorder may have protruding eyes (exophthalmos), eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus), widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), or outside corners of the eyes that point upward (upslanting palpebral fissures). Affected individuals may have severe nearsightedness (high myopia) or abnormalities in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina) or the nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain (optic nerves).

Additional facial differences associated with Bohring-Opitz syndrome can include a flat nasal bridge, nostrils that open to the front rather than downward (anteverted nares), a high arch or opening in the roof of the mouth (high arched or cleft palate), a split in the upper lip (cleft lip), a small lower jaw (micrognathia), low-set ears that are rotated backward, a red birthmark (nevus simplex) on the face (usually the forehead), a low frontal hairline often with eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys), and excessive body and facial hair (hirsutism) that increases with age.

Some individuals with Bohring-Opitz syndrome have poor growth before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). During infancy, they grow and gain weight slowly and often have severe feeding difficulties with recurrent vomiting.

People with this condition often have characteristic body positioning, known as Bohring-Opitz syndrome posture. This posture consists of slouching shoulders, bent elbows and wrists, hands positioned with the wrists or all of the fingers angled outward toward the fifth finger (ulnar deviation), with the legs usually extended straight. Affected individuals usually stop exhibiting the Bohring-Opitz syndrome posture as they get older. Other abnormalities include joint deformities (called contractures) that are apparent at birth in the knees, hips, or other joints and abnormal muscle tone. Affected individuals can have recurrent infections and heart, kidney, or genital abnormalities. In rare cases, a childhood form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor can develop.

Some individuals with Bohring-Opitz syndrome do not survive past early childhood, while others live into adolescence or early adulthood. The most common causes of death are heart problems, abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause pauses in breathing (obstructive apnea), and lung infections.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/bohring-opitz-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Vesicoureteral reflux
MedGen UID:
21852
Concept ID:
C0042580
Disease or Syndrome
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys. It is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency (summary by Lu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vesicoureteral Reflux A locus designated VUR1 maps to chromosome 1p13. VUR2 (610878) is caused by mutation in the ROBO2 gene (602431) on chromosome 3p12; VUR3 (613674) is caused by mutation in the SOX17 gene (610928) on chromosome 8q11; VUR4 (614317) maps to chromosome 5; VUR5 (614318) maps to chromosome 13; VUR6 (614319) maps to chromosome 18; VUR7 (615390) maps to chromosome 12; and VUR8 (615963) is caused by mutation in the TNXB gene (600985) on chromosome 6p21. A possible X-linked form has been reported (VURX; 314550).
Syndactyly
MedGen UID:
52619
Concept ID:
C0039075
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the fingers or toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the fingers or toes in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "symphalangism".
Ulnar deviation of the wrist
MedGen UID:
115906
Concept ID:
C0231678
Sign or Symptom
Broad palm
MedGen UID:
75535
Concept ID:
C0264142
Congenital Abnormality
For children from birth to 4 years of age the palm width is more than 2 SD above the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is above the 95th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately wide for the length.
Dislocated radial head
MedGen UID:
488814
Concept ID:
C0265563
Congenital Abnormality
A dislocation of the head of the radius from its socket in the elbow joint.
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
98098
Concept ID:
C0426886
Finding
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest. Initially clawing may be dynamic and only noticeable on walking. Over time the plantar plate tears, subluxation occurs at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), and the deformity becomes permanent.
Short toe
MedGen UID:
322858
Concept ID:
C1836195
Finding
A toe that appears disproportionately short compared to the foot.
Deep palmar crease
MedGen UID:
387849
Concept ID:
C1857539
Finding
Excessively deep creases of the palm.
Mesomelic/rhizomelic limb shortening
MedGen UID:
356185
Concept ID:
C1866239
Finding
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Intestinal malrotation
MedGen UID:
113153
Concept ID:
C0221210
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the intestinal rotation and fixation that normally occurs during the development of the gut. This can lead to volvulus, or twisting of the intestine that causes obstruction and necrosis.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Hyperechogenic pancreas
MedGen UID:
347581
Concept ID:
C1857945
Disease or Syndrome
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Gray matter heterotopia
MedGen UID:
452349
Concept ID:
C0266491
Finding
Heterotopia or neuronal heterotopia are macroscopic clusters of misplaced neurons (gray matter), most often situated along the ventricular walls or within the subcortical white matter.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
892508
Concept ID:
C3161330
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
Delayed peripheral myelination
MedGen UID:
868960
Concept ID:
C4023374
Finding
Delayed myelination in the peripheral nervous system.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Joint dislocation
MedGen UID:
41614
Concept ID:
C0012691
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement or malalignment of joints.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Trigonocephaly
MedGen UID:
82713
Concept ID:
C0265535
Congenital Abnormality
Wedge-shaped, or triangular head, with the apex of the triangle at the midline of the forehead and the base of the triangle at the occiput.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Prominent metopic ridge
MedGen UID:
387953
Concept ID:
C1857949
Finding
Vertical bony ridge positioned in the midline of the forehead.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Neonatal respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
924182
Concept ID:
C4281993
Finding
Respiratory difficulty as newborn.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Broad alveolar ridges
MedGen UID:
347470
Concept ID:
C1857500
Finding
Facial hemangioma
MedGen UID:
348361
Concept ID:
C1861443
Finding
Hemangioma, a benign tumor of the vascular endothelial cells, occurring in the face.
Bilateral cleft palate
MedGen UID:
765998
Concept ID:
C3553084
Finding
Nonmidline cleft palate on the left and right sides.
Unilateral cleft palate
MedGen UID:
867754
Concept ID:
C4022143
Congenital Abnormality
Cutis laxa
MedGen UID:
8206
Concept ID:
C0010495
Disease or Syndrome
Wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin.
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Hypertrichosis
MedGen UID:
43787
Concept ID:
C0020555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrichosis is increased hair growth that is abnormal in quantity or location.
Nevus flammeus
MedGen UID:
65911
Concept ID:
C0235752
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital vascular malformation consisting of superficial and deep dilated capillaries in the skin which produce a reddish to purplish discolouration of the skin.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A cutaneous indentation resulting from tethering of the skin to underlying structures (bone) of the intergluteal cleft.
Deep plantar creases
MedGen UID:
341890
Concept ID:
C1857953
Finding
The presence of unusually deep creases (ridges/wrinkles) on the skin of sole of foot.
Thick hair
MedGen UID:
892635
Concept ID:
C4073184
Finding
Increased density of hairs, i.e., and elevated number of hairs per unit area.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Supernumerary nipple
MedGen UID:
120564
Concept ID:
C0266011
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of more than two nipples.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Abnormal optic nerve morphology
MedGen UID:
472883
Concept ID:
C0029131
Finding
Abnormality of the optic nerve.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBohring-Opitz syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Bohring-Opitz syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Russell B, Johnston JJ, Biesecker LG, Kramer N, Pickart A, Rhead W, Tan WH, Brownstein CA, Kate Clarkson L, Dobson A, Rosenberg AZ, Vergano SA, Helm BM, Harrison RE, Graham JM Jr
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Sep;167A(9):2122-31. Epub 2015 Apr 29 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37131. PMID: 25921057Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lin I, Wei A, Awamleh Z, Singh M, Ning A, Herrera A; REACH Biobank and Registry, Russell BE, Weksberg R, Arboleda VA
JCI Insight 2023 May 22;8(10) doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.167744. PMID: 37053013Free PMC Article
Russell BE, Kianmahd RR, Munster C, Yu A, Ahad L, Tan WH
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Apr;191(4):1050-1058. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63125. PMID: 36751885
Kanduła Z, Kroll-Balcerzak R, Lewandowski K
J Clin Lab Anal 2022 May;36(5):e24388. Epub 2022 Apr 18 doi: 10.1002/jcla.24388. PMID: 35435261Free PMC Article
Bedoukian E, Copenheaver D, Bale S, Deardorff M
Am J Med Genet A 2018 May;176(5):1249-1252. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38686. PMID: 29681100
Urreizti R, Roca-Ayats N, Trepat J, Garcia-Garcia F, Aleman A, Orteschi D, Marangi G, Neri G, Opitz JM, Dopazo J, Cormand B, Vilageliu L, Balcells S, Grinberg D
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Jan;170A(1):24-31. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37418. PMID: 26768331

Diagnosis

Leon E, Diaz J, Castilla-Vallmanya L, Grinberg D, Balcells S, Urreizti R
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Jan;182(1):201-204. Epub 2019 Nov 6 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61397. PMID: 31692235
Bedoukian E, Copenheaver D, Bale S, Deardorff M
Am J Med Genet A 2018 May;176(5):1249-1252. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38686. PMID: 29681100
Urreizti R, Roca-Ayats N, Trepat J, Garcia-Garcia F, Aleman A, Orteschi D, Marangi G, Neri G, Opitz JM, Dopazo J, Cormand B, Vilageliu L, Balcells S, Grinberg D
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Jan;170A(1):24-31. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37418. PMID: 26768331
Dangiolo SB, Wilson A, Jobanputra V, Anyane-Yeboa K
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Dec;167A(12):3161-6. Epub 2015 Sep 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37342. PMID: 26364555
Hastings R, Cobben JM, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Goodship J, Hove H, Kjaergaard S, Kemp H, Kingston H, Lunt P, Mansour S, McGowan R, Metcalfe K, Murdoch-Davis C, Ray M, Rio M, Smithson S, Tolmie J, Turnpenny P, van Bon B, Wieczorek D, Newbury-Ecob R
Eur J Hum Genet 2011 May;19(5):513-9. Epub 2011 Feb 2 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.234. PMID: 21368916Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Visayaragawan N, Selvarajah N, Apparau H, Kamaru Ambu V
Med J Malaysia 2017 Aug;72(4):248-249. PMID: 28889139
Urreizti R, Roca-Ayats N, Trepat J, Garcia-Garcia F, Aleman A, Orteschi D, Marangi G, Neri G, Opitz JM, Dopazo J, Cormand B, Vilageliu L, Balcells S, Grinberg D
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Jan;170A(1):24-31. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37418. PMID: 26768331
Dangiolo SB, Wilson A, Jobanputra V, Anyane-Yeboa K
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Dec;167A(12):3161-6. Epub 2015 Sep 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37342. PMID: 26364555
Wang J, Li Z, He Y, Pan F, Chen S, Rhodes S, Nguyen L, Yuan J, Jiang L, Yang X, Weeks O, Liu Z, Zhou J, Ni H, Cai CL, Xu M, Yang FC
Blood 2014 Jan 23;123(4):541-53. Epub 2013 Nov 19 doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-05-500272. PMID: 24255920Free PMC Article
Hastings R, Cobben JM, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Goodship J, Hove H, Kjaergaard S, Kemp H, Kingston H, Lunt P, Mansour S, McGowan R, Metcalfe K, Murdoch-Davis C, Ray M, Rio M, Smithson S, Tolmie J, Turnpenny P, van Bon B, Wieczorek D, Newbury-Ecob R
Eur J Hum Genet 2011 May;19(5):513-9. Epub 2011 Feb 2 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.234. PMID: 21368916Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Wang Q, Zhang J, Jiang N, Xie J, Yang J, Zhao X
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 May;10(5):e1924. Epub 2022 Mar 11 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1924. PMID: 35276034Free PMC Article
Koboldt DC, Mihalic Mosher T, Kelly BJ, Sites E, Bartholomew D, Hickey SE, McBride K, Wilson RK, White P
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2018 Jun;4(3) Epub 2018 Jun 1 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a002410. PMID: 29305346Free PMC Article
Carlston CM, O'Donnell-Luria AH, Underhill HR, Cummings BB, Weisburd B, Minikel EV, Birnbaum DP; Exome Aggregation Consortium, Tvrdik T, MacArthur DG, Mao R
Hum Mutat 2017 May;38(5):517-523. Epub 2017 Mar 21 doi: 10.1002/humu.23203. PMID: 28229513Free PMC Article
Wang J, Li Z, He Y, Pan F, Chen S, Rhodes S, Nguyen L, Yuan J, Jiang L, Yang X, Weeks O, Liu Z, Zhou J, Ni H, Cai CL, Xu M, Yang FC
Blood 2014 Jan 23;123(4):541-53. Epub 2013 Nov 19 doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-05-500272. PMID: 24255920Free PMC Article
Aravind L, Iyer LM
Cell Cycle 2012 Jan 1;11(1):119-31. doi: 10.4161/cc.11.1.18475. PMID: 22186017Free PMC Article

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    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

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