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Fanconi anemia(FA)

MedGen UID:
41967
Concept ID:
C0015625
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: FA; Fanconi pancytopenia; Fanconi's anemia
SNOMED CT: Fanconi's hypoplastic anemia (30575002); Fanconi's familial refractory anemia (30575002); Fanconi anemia (30575002); Fanconi pancytopenia syndrome (30575002); Fanconi's anemia (30575002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Related genes: SLX4, BRIP1, PALB2, FANCI, FANCL, RAD51C, FANCG, FANCF, FANCB, FANCE, FANCD2, FANCC, FANCA, BRCA2
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0019391
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS227650
Orphanet: ORPHA84

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Fanconi Anemia
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Parinda A Mehta  |  Christen Ebens   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Fanconi anemia is a condition that affects many parts of the body. People with this condition may have bone marrow failure, physical abnormalities, organ defects, and an increased risk of certain cancers.

The major function of bone marrow is to produce new blood cells. These include red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body's tissues; white blood cells, which fight infections; and platelets, which are necessary for normal blood clotting. Approximately 90 percent of people with Fanconi anemia have impaired bone marrow function that leads to a decrease in the production of all blood cells (aplastic anemia). Affected individuals experience extreme tiredness (fatigue) due to low numbers of red blood cells (anemia), frequent infections due to low numbers of white blood cells (neutropenia), and clotting problems due to low numbers of platelets (thrombocytopenia). People with Fanconi anemia may also develop myelodysplastic syndrome, a condition in which immature blood cells fail to develop normally.

More than half of people with Fanconi anemia have physical abnormalities. These abnormalities can involve irregular skin coloring such as unusually light-colored skin (hypopigmentation) or café-au-lait spots, which are flat patches on the skin that are darker than the surrounding area. Other possible symptoms of Fanconi anemia include malformed thumbs or forearms and other skeletal problems including short stature; malformed or absent kidneys and other defects of the urinary tract; gastrointestinal abnormalities; heart defects; eye abnormalities such as small or abnormally shaped eyes; and malformed ears and hearing loss. People with this condition may have abnormal genitalia or malformations of the reproductive system. As a result, most affected males and about half of affected females cannot have biological children (are infertile). Additional signs and symptoms can include abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), including increased fluid in the center of the brain (hydrocephalus) or an unusually small head size (microcephaly).

Individuals with Fanconi anemia have an increased risk of developing a cancer of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow called acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or tumors of the head, neck, skin, gastrointestinal system, or genital tract. The likelihood of developing one of these cancers in people with Fanconi anemia is between 10 and 30 percent.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/fanconi-anemia

Term Hierarchy

Follow this link to review classifications for Fanconi anemia in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Olson TS
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2023 Dec 8;2023(1):556-562. doi: 10.1182/hematology.2023000489. PMID: 38066849Free PMC Article
Fiesco-Roa MO, Giri N, McReynolds LJ, Best AF, Alter BP
Blood Rev 2019 Sep;37:100589. Epub 2019 Jul 16 doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2019.100589. PMID: 31351673Free PMC Article
Murai J
Int J Clin Oncol 2017 Aug;22(4):619-628. Epub 2017 Jun 22 doi: 10.1007/s10147-017-1145-7. PMID: 28643177

Curated

Fanconi Anemia Clinical Care Guidelines, Fifth Edition.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dufour C, Pierri F
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2022 Dec 9;2022(1):649-657. doi: 10.1182/hematology.2022000393. PMID: 36485157Free PMC Article
Peake JD, Noguchi E
Hum Genet 2022 Dec;141(12):1811-1836. Epub 2022 May 21 doi: 10.1007/s00439-022-02462-9. PMID: 35596788
Castella M, Pujol R, Callén E, Trujillo JP, Casado JA, Gille H, Lach FP, Auerbach AD, Schindler D, Benítez J, Porto B, Ferro T, Muñoz A, Sevilla J, Madero L, Cela E, Beléndez C, de Heredia CD, Olivé T, de Toledo JS, Badell I, Torrent M, Estella J, Dasí A, Rodríguez-Villa A, Gómez P, Barbot J, Tapia M, Molinés A, Figuera A, Bueren JA, Surrallés J
Blood 2011 Apr 7;117(14):3759-69. Epub 2011 Jan 27 doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-08-299917. PMID: 21273304Free PMC Article
Tischkowitz MD, Hodgson SV
J Med Genet 2003 Jan;40(1):1-10. doi: 10.1136/jmg.40.1.1. PMID: 12525534Free PMC Article
Krijanovski OI, Sieff CA
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1997 Dec;11(6):1061-77. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8588(05)70483-4. PMID: 9443046

Diagnosis

Dufour C, Pierri F
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2022 Dec 9;2022(1):649-657. doi: 10.1182/hematology.2022000393. PMID: 36485157Free PMC Article
Fiesco-Roa MO, Giri N, McReynolds LJ, Best AF, Alter BP
Blood Rev 2019 Sep;37:100589. Epub 2019 Jul 16 doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2019.100589. PMID: 31351673Free PMC Article
Guo M, Vidhyasagar V, Talwar T, Kariem A, Wu Y
Methods 2016 Oct 1;108:118-29. Epub 2016 Apr 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.04.023. PMID: 27107905
Castella M, Pujol R, Callén E, Trujillo JP, Casado JA, Gille H, Lach FP, Auerbach AD, Schindler D, Benítez J, Porto B, Ferro T, Muñoz A, Sevilla J, Madero L, Cela E, Beléndez C, de Heredia CD, Olivé T, de Toledo JS, Badell I, Torrent M, Estella J, Dasí A, Rodríguez-Villa A, Gómez P, Barbot J, Tapia M, Molinés A, Figuera A, Bueren JA, Surrallés J
Blood 2011 Apr 7;117(14):3759-69. Epub 2011 Jan 27 doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-08-299917. PMID: 21273304Free PMC Article
Tischkowitz MD, Hodgson SV
J Med Genet 2003 Jan;40(1):1-10. doi: 10.1136/jmg.40.1.1. PMID: 12525534Free PMC Article

Therapy

Dufour C, Pierri F
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2022 Dec 9;2022(1):649-657. doi: 10.1182/hematology.2022000393. PMID: 36485157Free PMC Article
Reiss KA, Mick R, O'Hara MH, Teitelbaum U, Karasic TB, Schneider C, Cowden S, Southwell T, Romeo J, Izgur N, Hannan ZM, Tondon R, Nathanson K, Vonderheide RH, Wattenberg MM, Beatty G, Domchek SM
J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 1;39(22):2497-2505. Epub 2021 May 10 doi: 10.1200/JCO.21.00003. PMID: 33970687
O'Reilly EM, Lee JW, Zalupski M, Capanu M, Park J, Golan T, Tahover E, Lowery MA, Chou JF, Sahai V, Brenner R, Kindler HL, Yu KH, Zervoudakis A, Vemuri S, Stadler ZK, Do RKG, Dhani N, Chen AP, Kelsen DP
J Clin Oncol 2020 May 1;38(13):1378-1388. Epub 2020 Jan 24 doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.02931. PMID: 31976786Free PMC Article
Ramus SJ, Song H, Dicks E, Tyrer JP, Rosenthal AN, Intermaggio MP, Fraser L, Gentry-Maharaj A, Hayward J, Philpott S, Anderson C, Edlund CK, Conti D, Harrington P, Barrowdale D, Bowtell DD, Alsop K, Mitchell G; AOCS Study Group, Cicek MS, Cunningham JM, Fridley BL, Alsop J, Jimenez-Linan M, Poblete S, Lele S, Sucheston-Campbell L, Moysich KB, Sieh W, McGuire V, Lester J, Bogdanova N, Dürst M, Hillemanns P; Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, Odunsi K, Whittemore AS, Karlan BY, Dörk T, Goode EL, Menon U, Jacobs IJ, Antoniou AC, Pharoah PD, Gayther SA
J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Nov;107(11) Epub 2015 Aug 27 doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv214. PMID: 26315354Free PMC Article
Petryk A, Kanakatti Shankar R, Giri N, Hollenberg AN, Rutter MM, Nathan B, Lodish M, Alter BP, Stratakis CA, Rose SR
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Mar;100(3):803-11. Epub 2015 Jan 9 doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-4357. PMID: 25575015Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Malouf C, Loughran SJ, Wilkinson AC, Shimamura A, Río P
Exp Hematol 2022 Jan;105:18-21. Epub 2021 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/j.exphem.2021.11.004. PMID: 34801643Free PMC Article
Nguyen L, W M Martens J, Van Hoeck A, Cuppen E
Nat Commun 2020 Nov 4;11(1):5584. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19406-4. PMID: 33149131Free PMC Article
Kimble DC, Lach FP, Gregg SQ, Donovan FX, Flynn EK, Kamat A, Young A, Vemulapalli M, Thomas JW, Mullikin JC, Auerbach AD, Smogorzewska A, Chandrasekharappa SC
Hum Mutat 2018 Feb;39(2):237-254. Epub 2017 Nov 22 doi: 10.1002/humu.23366. PMID: 29098742Free PMC Article
Decker B, Allen J, Luccarini C, Pooley KA, Shah M, Bolla MK, Wang Q, Ahmed S, Baynes C, Conroy DM, Brown J, Luben R, Ostrander EA, Pharoah PD, Dunning AM, Easton DF
J Med Genet 2017 Nov;54(11):732-741. Epub 2017 Aug 4 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104588. PMID: 28779002Free PMC Article
Cotter FE
Baillieres Clin Haematol 1998 Dec;11(4):875-98. doi: 10.1016/s0950-3536(98)80044-9. PMID: 10640222

Clinical prediction guides

Zhang S, Liu Y, Sun Y, Liu Q, Gu Y, Huang Y, Zeng Z, Tang F, Ouyang Y
Mol Cancer 2024 Jan 10;23(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12943-023-01924-6. PMID: 38200551Free PMC Article
Ramus SJ, Song H, Dicks E, Tyrer JP, Rosenthal AN, Intermaggio MP, Fraser L, Gentry-Maharaj A, Hayward J, Philpott S, Anderson C, Edlund CK, Conti D, Harrington P, Barrowdale D, Bowtell DD, Alsop K, Mitchell G; AOCS Study Group, Cicek MS, Cunningham JM, Fridley BL, Alsop J, Jimenez-Linan M, Poblete S, Lele S, Sucheston-Campbell L, Moysich KB, Sieh W, McGuire V, Lester J, Bogdanova N, Dürst M, Hillemanns P; Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, Odunsi K, Whittemore AS, Karlan BY, Dörk T, Goode EL, Menon U, Jacobs IJ, Antoniou AC, Pharoah PD, Gayther SA
J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Nov;107(11) Epub 2015 Aug 27 doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv214. PMID: 26315354Free PMC Article
Castella M, Pujol R, Callén E, Trujillo JP, Casado JA, Gille H, Lach FP, Auerbach AD, Schindler D, Benítez J, Porto B, Ferro T, Muñoz A, Sevilla J, Madero L, Cela E, Beléndez C, de Heredia CD, Olivé T, de Toledo JS, Badell I, Torrent M, Estella J, Dasí A, Rodríguez-Villa A, Gómez P, Barbot J, Tapia M, Molinés A, Figuera A, Bueren JA, Surrallés J
Blood 2011 Apr 7;117(14):3759-69. Epub 2011 Jan 27 doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-08-299917. PMID: 21273304Free PMC Article
Willig TN, Gazda H, Sieff CA
Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94. doi: 10.1097/00062752-200003000-00003. PMID: 10698294
Krijanovski OI, Sieff CA
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1997 Dec;11(6):1061-77. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8588(05)70483-4. PMID: 9443046

Recent systematic reviews

Chamseddine RS, Wang C, Yin K, Wang J, Singh P, Zhou J, Robson ME, Braun D, Hughes KS
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jan;191(1):31-38. Epub 2021 Oct 13 doi: 10.1007/s10549-021-06413-2. PMID: 34642874
Lee RH, Kang H, Yom SS, Smogorzewska A, Johnson DE, Grandis JR
Clin Cancer Res 2021 Oct 1;27(19):5168-5187. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1259. PMID: 34045293Free PMC Article
Lang SH, Swift SL, White H, Misso K, Kleijnen J, Quek RGW
Int J Oncol 2019 Sep;55(3):597-616. Epub 2019 Jul 16 doi: 10.3892/ijo.2019.4842. PMID: 31322208Free PMC Article
Raicevic M, Saxena AK
World J Pediatr 2018 Aug;14(4):330-334. Epub 2018 Jul 10 doi: 10.1007/s12519-018-0170-6. PMID: 29992379
Bhanu Prasad V, Mallick S, Upadhyay AD, Rath GK
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jan;92:75-81. Epub 2016 Nov 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.11.005. PMID: 28012539

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    Curated

    • FARF, 2020
      Fanconi Anemia Clinical Care Guidelines, Fifth Edition.

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