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Series GSE19587 Query DataSets for GSE19587
Status Public on Aug 19, 2010
Title Imaging-guided microarray: Identifies molecular markers in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease
Organism Homo sapiens
Experiment type Expression profiling by array
Summary The full complement of molecular pathways contributing to Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, to address this issue, we began by using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to pinpoint brainstem regions differentially affected by, and resistant to, the disease. Then, relying on the imaging information as a guide, we profiled gene expression levels of postmortem brain samples and used a factorial statistical model to identify a disease related decrease in the expression of the polyamine enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1). Next, a series of studies were performed to confirm the pathogenic relevance of this finding. First, to test for a causal link between polyamines and α-synuclein toxicity, we investigated a yeast model expressing α-synuclein. Polyamines were found to enhance the toxicity of α-synuclein, and an unbiased genome-wide screen for modifiers of α-synuclein toxicity identified Tpo4, a member of a family of proteins responsible for polyamine transport. Second, to test for a causal link between SAT1 activity and PD histopathology we investigated a mouse model expressing α-synuclein. DENSPM (N1, N11-diethylnorspermine), a polyamine analog that increases SAT1 activity, was found to reduce PD histopathology, while Berenil (diminazene aceturate), a pharmacological agent that reduces SAT1 activity, worsened the histopathology. Third, we genotyped PD patients and controls and isolated a rare but novel variant in the SAT1 gene, although the functional significance of this genetic variant was not identified. Taken together, the results suggest that the polyamine pathway contributes to PD pathogenesis.
Overall design Imaging-guided microarray

In principle, gene expression profiling techniques like microarray are well suited to identify molecular pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of complex diseases. In practice, however, microarray applied to diseases of the brain present a number of analytic challenges. By identifying regions within the same brain structure that are differentially targeted by and resistant to a disease, imaging-guided microarray is an approach designed to address these limitations. Specifically, guided by the spatial information generated from high resolution functional imaging, a 2x2 factorial analysis-of-variance can be designed, including both within and between group factors, and this “double subtraction” model is effective in improving signal-to-noise in a microarray experiment.

Relying on imaging findings, we harvested the DMNV from 6 postmortem brains with evidence of PD and from 5 control brains. The postmortem PD cases were evaluated for pathological changes (Lewy body-containing neurons and Lewy neurites evidenced with antibodies directed against α-synuclein aggregates) that matched the pattern proposed by Braak.

We relied on the imaging results to identify a neighboring medullary region relatively unaffected by the disease to be used as a within-brain control. We decided on the inferior olivary nucleus (ION), because it is histologically identifiable, and harvested the ION from each of the 6 PD cases and 5 controls. Microarray techniques were used to generate gene expression profiles for each of the 22 tissue samples.

A repeated-measures 2x2 factorial ANOVA model constructed for the imaging study was applied to the expression dataset, in which expression levels from two regions of the medulla (DMNV vs. ION) were included as the first within group factor, diagnosis (PD vs. controls) was the between group factor, and age and sex were included as covariates. Based on current literature, one of the top hits (SAT1) was investigated further to determine if it played a role in PD pathogenesis.
Contributor(s) lewandowski nm, small sa
Citation(s) 20837543
Submission date Dec 20, 2009
Last update date Dec 06, 2018
Contact name scott small
Organization name Columbia University
Street address 630 W 168th st
City new york
State/province NY
ZIP/Postal code 10032
Country USA
Platforms (1)
GPL571 [HG-U133A_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 Array
Samples (22)
GSM488111 Brain (Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus)_Control_case1
GSM488112 Brain (Inferior Olivary Nucleus)_Control_case1
GSM488113 Brain (Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus)_Control_case2
BioProject PRJNA122363

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Supplementary file Size Download File type/resource
GSE19587_RAW.tar 42.4 Mb (http)(custom) TAR (of CEL, CHP)
Processed data included within Sample table
Processed data provided as supplementary file

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