Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing
STAG2 encodes a cohesin component and is frequently mutated in myeloid neoplasms, showing highly significant co-mutation patterns with other drivers, including RUNX1. However, the molecular basis of cohesin-mutated leukemogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show a critical role of an interplay between Stag2 and Runx1 in the regulation of enhancer-promoter looping and transcription in hematopoiesis. Combined loss of Stag2 and Runx1, which co-localize at enhancer-rich, Ctcf-deficient sites, synergistically attenuates enhancer-promoter loops, particularly at sites enriched for RNA polymerase II and Mediator, and deregulates gene expression, leading to myeloid-skewed expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Attenuated enhancer-promoter loops in Stag2/Runx1-deficient cells are associated with downregulation of genes with high basal transcriptional pausing, which are important for the regulation of HSPCs. Down-regulation of high-pausing genes is also confirmed in STAG2/cohesin-mutated primary AML/MDS samples. Our results highlight a unique STAG2/RUNX1 interplay in gene regulation and provide insights into cohesin-mutated leukemogenesis.
Comprehensive epigenome sequencing (RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, ChIP-seq and Hi-C) in WT, Stag2 knockout, Runx1 knockout, and double knockout cells.