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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 101(DEE101)

MedGen UID:
1805172
Concept ID:
C5676955
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: DEE101
 
Gene (location): GRIN1 (9q34.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030727
OMIM®: 619814

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-101 (DEE101) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and severe global developmental delay (summary by Blakes et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Third degree atrioventricular block
MedGen UID:
56230
Concept ID:
C0151517
Disease or Syndrome
Third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (also referred to as complete heart block) is the complete dissociation of the atria and the ventricles. Third-degree AV block exists when more P waves than QRS complexes exist and no relationship (no conduction) exists between them.
Bradycardia
MedGen UID:
140901
Concept ID:
C0428977
Finding
A slower than normal heart rate (in adults, slower than 60 beats per minute).
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
56246
Concept ID:
C0151818
Sign or Symptom
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Profound global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
766364
Concept ID:
C3553450
Disease or Syndrome
A profound delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Poor head control
MedGen UID:
322809
Concept ID:
C1836038
Finding
Difficulty to maintain correct position of the head while standing or sitting. Infant head lag is observed when the head seems to flop around or lags posteriorly behind the trunk. Several articles have maintained that head lag should be absent by age 3 to 4 months.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Limb joint contracture
MedGen UID:
369611
Concept ID:
C1969879
Anatomical Abnormality
A contracture (chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin) that prevent normal movement of one or more joints of the limbs.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Apnea
MedGen UID:
2009
Concept ID:
C0003578
Sign or Symptom
Lack of breathing with no movement of the respiratory muscles and no exchange of air in the lungs. This term refers to a disposition to have recurrent episodes of apnea rather than to a single event.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Xia Y, Duan Y, Sha L, Lai W, Zhang Z, Hou J, Chen L
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2024 Apr 18;24(1):101. doi: 10.1186/s12911-024-02509-z. PMID: 38637746Free PMC Article
Essajee F, Urban M, Smit L, Wilmshurst JM, Solomons R, van Toorn R, Moosa S
Seizure 2022 Oct;101:197-204. Epub 2022 Sep 2 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2022.09.001. PMID: 36084525
Liu SY, An N, Yang MH, Hou Z, Liu Y, Liao W, Zhang Q, Cai FC, Yang H
Epilepsy Res 2012 Aug;101(1-2):36-45. Epub 2012 Mar 28 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2012.02.017. PMID: 22459639

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Thalwitzer KM, Driedger JH, Xian J, Saffari A, Zacher P, Bölsterli BK, Ruggiero SM, Sullivan KR, Datta AN, Kellinghaus C, Althaus J, Wiemer-Kruel A, van Baalen A, Pampel A, Alber M, Braakman HMH, Debus OM, Denecke J, Hobbiebrunken E, Breitweg I, Diehl D, Eitel H, Gburek-Augustat J, Preisel M, Schlump JU, Laufs M, Mammadova D, Wurst C, Prager C, Löhr-Nilles C, Martin P, Garbade SF, Platzer K, Benkel-Herrenbrueck I, Egler K, Fazeli W, Lemke JR, Runkel E, Klein B, Linden T, Schröter J, Steffeck H, Thies B, von Deimling F, Illsinger S, Borggraefe I, Classen G, Wieczorek D, Ramantani G, Koelker S, Hoffmann GF, Ries M, Helbig I, Syrbe S
Neurology 2023 Aug 29;101(9):e879-e891. Epub 2023 Jul 5 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207550. PMID: 37407264Free PMC Article
Knight EMP, Amin S, Bahi-Buisson N, Benke TA, Cross JH, Demarest ST, Olson HE, Specchio N, Fleming TR, Aimetti AA, Gasior M, Devinsky O; Marigold Trial Group
Lancet Neurol 2022 May;21(5):417-427. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00077-1. PMID: 35429480
Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

van der Veen S, Tse GTW, Ferretti A, Garone G, Post B, Specchio N, Fung VSC, Trivisano M, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Nov 7;101(19):e1884-e1892. Epub 2023 Sep 25 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207808. PMID: 37748886Free PMC Article
Thalwitzer KM, Driedger JH, Xian J, Saffari A, Zacher P, Bölsterli BK, Ruggiero SM, Sullivan KR, Datta AN, Kellinghaus C, Althaus J, Wiemer-Kruel A, van Baalen A, Pampel A, Alber M, Braakman HMH, Debus OM, Denecke J, Hobbiebrunken E, Breitweg I, Diehl D, Eitel H, Gburek-Augustat J, Preisel M, Schlump JU, Laufs M, Mammadova D, Wurst C, Prager C, Löhr-Nilles C, Martin P, Garbade SF, Platzer K, Benkel-Herrenbrueck I, Egler K, Fazeli W, Lemke JR, Runkel E, Klein B, Linden T, Schröter J, Steffeck H, Thies B, von Deimling F, Illsinger S, Borggraefe I, Classen G, Wieczorek D, Ramantani G, Koelker S, Hoffmann GF, Ries M, Helbig I, Syrbe S
Neurology 2023 Aug 29;101(9):e879-e891. Epub 2023 Jul 5 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207550. PMID: 37407264Free PMC Article
Feng Y, Wei ZH, Liu C, Li GY, Qiao XZ, Gan YJ, Zhang CC, Deng YC
Seizure 2022 Oct;101:22-29. Epub 2022 Jul 15 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2022.07.007. PMID: 35850019
Guerrini R, Parrini E, Marini C, Mei D
Epilepsy Behav 2019 Dec;101(Pt B):106373. Epub 2019 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.06.017. PMID: 31300382
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article

Therapy

Knight EMP, Amin S, Bahi-Buisson N, Benke TA, Cross JH, Demarest ST, Olson HE, Specchio N, Fleming TR, Aimetti AA, Gasior M, Devinsky O; Marigold Trial Group
Lancet Neurol 2022 May;21(5):417-427. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00077-1. PMID: 35429480
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Berg AT, Palac H, Wilkening G, Zelko F, Schust Meyer L
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):258-268. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.16750. PMID: 33236786
Trivisano M, Specchio N
Epilepsy Behav 2019 Dec;101(Pt B):106539. Epub 2019 Oct 31 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106539. PMID: 31678000
Lux AL, Edwards SW, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Newton RW, O'Callaghan FJ, Verity CM, Osborne JP; United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study
Lancet Neurol 2005 Nov;4(11):712-7. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70199-X. PMID: 16239177

Prognosis

Peariso K, Arya R, Glauser T, Abend NS, Barcia Aguilar C, Amengual-Gual M, Anderson A, Appavu BL, Brenton JN, Carpenter J, Chapman KE, Clark J, Gaillard WD, Gaínza-Lein M, Goldstein J, Goodkin H, Grinspan Z, Guerriero RM, Horn PS, Huh L, Kahoud R, Kelley SA, Kossoff EH, Kapur K, Lai YC, Marquis BO, McDonough T, Mikati MA, Morgan L, Novotny E, Ostendorf AP, Payne ET, Piantino J, Riviello J, Sands T, Stafstrom CE, Tasker RC, Tchapyjnikov D, Vasquez A, Wainwright MS, Wilfong A, Williams K, Loddenkemper T; for Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG)
Neurology 2023 Aug 1;101(5):e546-e557. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207472. PMID: 37295955Free PMC Article
Pavone P, Pappalardo XG, Ruggieri M, Falsaperla R, Parano E
Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Aug 5;101(31):e29413. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000029413. PMID: 35945798Free PMC Article
Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Winterhalder R, McCabe J, Young C, Lamb K, Sawhney I, Jory C, O'Dwyer M, Shankar R
Acta Neurol Scand 2022 Jun;145(6):753-761. Epub 2022 Mar 17 doi: 10.1111/ane.13612. PMID: 35297524Free PMC Article
Kovacevic J, Maroteaux G, Schut D, Loos M, Dubey M, Pitsch J, Remmelink E, Koopmans B, Crowley J, Cornelisse LN, Sullivan PF, Schoch S, Toonen RF, Stiedl O, Verhage M
Brain 2018 May 1;141(5):1350-1374. doi: 10.1093/brain/awy046. PMID: 29538625Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Thalwitzer KM, Driedger JH, Xian J, Saffari A, Zacher P, Bölsterli BK, Ruggiero SM, Sullivan KR, Datta AN, Kellinghaus C, Althaus J, Wiemer-Kruel A, van Baalen A, Pampel A, Alber M, Braakman HMH, Debus OM, Denecke J, Hobbiebrunken E, Breitweg I, Diehl D, Eitel H, Gburek-Augustat J, Preisel M, Schlump JU, Laufs M, Mammadova D, Wurst C, Prager C, Löhr-Nilles C, Martin P, Garbade SF, Platzer K, Benkel-Herrenbrueck I, Egler K, Fazeli W, Lemke JR, Runkel E, Klein B, Linden T, Schröter J, Steffeck H, Thies B, von Deimling F, Illsinger S, Borggraefe I, Classen G, Wieczorek D, Ramantani G, Koelker S, Hoffmann GF, Ries M, Helbig I, Syrbe S
Neurology 2023 Aug 29;101(9):e879-e891. Epub 2023 Jul 5 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207550. PMID: 37407264Free PMC Article
Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article
Lux AL, Edwards SW, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Newton RW, O'Callaghan FJ, Verity CM, Osborne JP; United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study
Lancet Neurol 2005 Nov;4(11):712-7. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70199-X. PMID: 16239177

Recent systematic reviews

Englman C, Malpas CB, Harvey AS, Maixner WJ, Yang JY
J Clin Neurosci 2021 Sep;91:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2021.06.035. PMID: 34373012
Wyers L, Van de Walle P, Hoornweg A, Tepes Bobescu I, Verheyen K, Ceulemans B, Schoonjans AS, Desloovere K, Hallemans A
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2019 May;23(3):357-367. Epub 2019 Mar 22 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.03.003. PMID: 30940509
Szmuda M, Szmuda T, Springer J, Rogowska M, Sabisz A, Dubaniewicz M, Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska M
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2016;50(1):1-6. Epub 2015 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.pjnns.2015.10.003. PMID: 26851683
Banach R, Boskovic R, Einarson T, Koren G
Drug Saf 2010 Jan 1;33(1):73-9. doi: 10.2165/11317640-000000000-00000. PMID: 20000869

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