U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities(NEDHYBA)

MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NEDHYBA; NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH HYPOTONIA AND BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
 
Gene (location): CLCN3 (4q33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859187
OMIM®: 619512

Definition

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Dislocated radial head
MedGen UID:
488814
Concept ID:
C0265563
Congenital Abnormality
A dislocation of the head of the radius from its socket in the elbow joint.
Bilateral talipes equinovarus
MedGen UID:
332956
Concept ID:
C1837835
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral clubfoot deformity.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Long fingers
MedGen UID:
346836
Concept ID:
C1858091
Finding
The middle finger is more than 2 SD above the mean for newborns 27 to 41 weeks EGA or above the 97th centile for children from birth to 16 years of age AND the five digits retain their normal length proportions relative to each other (i.e., it is not the case that the middle finger is the only lengthened digit), or, Fingers that appear disproportionately long compared to the palm of the hand.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces
MedGen UID:
342926
Concept ID:
C1853618
Finding
Increased dimensions of the Virchow-Robin spaces (also known as perivascular spaces), which surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. Perivascular spaces are commonly microscopic, and not visible on conventional neuroimaging. This term refers to an increase of size of these spaces such that they are visible on neuroimaging (usually magnetic resonance imaging). The dilatations are regular cavities that always contain a patent artery.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Aqueductal stenosis
MedGen UID:
75614
Concept ID:
C0266476
Congenital Abnormality
Stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct (also known as the mesencephalic duct, aqueductus mesencephali, or aqueduct of Sylvius), which connects the third cerebral ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
98127
Concept ID:
C0431368
Congenital Abnormality
A partial failure of the development of the corpus callosum.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Compulsive behaviors
MedGen UID:
109373
Concept ID:
C0600104
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Behavior that consists of repetitive acts, characterized by the feeling that one "has to" perform them, while being aware that these acts are not in line with one's overall goal.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Hypoplasia of the pons
MedGen UID:
341246
Concept ID:
C1848529
Finding
Underdevelopment of the pons.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Elongated superior cerebellar peduncle
MedGen UID:
816544
Concept ID:
C3810214
Finding
Increased length of the superior cerebellar peduncle.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Abnormal dentate nucleus morphology
MedGen UID:
867758
Concept ID:
C4022148
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the dentate nucleus.
Delayed fine motor development
MedGen UID:
869257
Concept ID:
C4023681
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the fingers and hands.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Frequent temper tantrums
MedGen UID:
1369702
Concept ID:
C4476626
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Temper tantrums that occur more frequently compared to the temper tantrums that are a part of the normal developmental process.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Congenital hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
9258
Concept ID:
C0019555
Disease or Syndrome
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Large fontanelles
MedGen UID:
105329
Concept ID:
C0456132
Finding
In newborns, the two frontal bones, two parietal bones, and one occipital bone are joined by fibrous sutures, which form a small posterior fontanelle, and a larger, diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle. These regions allow for the skull to pass the birth canal and for later growth. The fontanelles gradually ossify, whereby the posterior fontanelle usually closes by eight weeks and the anterior fontanelle by the 9th to 16th month of age. Large fontanelles are diagnosed if the fontanelles are larger than age-dependent norms.
Prominent metopic ridge
MedGen UID:
387953
Concept ID:
C1857949
Finding
Vertical bony ridge positioned in the midline of the forehead.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Hypoplastic coccygeal vertebrae
MedGen UID:
414028
Concept ID:
C2751480
Finding
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
MedGen UID:
1830310
Concept ID:
C5779613
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital contractures in different body areas.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Narrow nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
373404
Concept ID:
C1837761
Finding
Decreased width of the nasal ridge.
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Exaggerated cupid bow
MedGen UID:
376842
Concept ID:
C1850629
Finding
More pronounced paramedian peaks and median notch of the Cupid's bow.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Full cheeks
MedGen UID:
355661
Concept ID:
C1866231
Finding
Increased prominence or roundness of soft tissues between zygomata and mandible.
High anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
477667
Concept ID:
C3276036
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Almond-shaped palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
870336
Concept ID:
C4024780
Finding
A shape created by an acute downward arching of the upper eyelid and upward arching of the lower eyelid, toward the medial canthus, which gives the outline of the palpebral fissures the configuration of an almond. Thus, the maximum distance between the fissures is offset from, and medial to, the center point.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Fetal pyelectasis
MedGen UID:
384527
Concept ID:
C2317073
Disease or Syndrome
Mild pyelectasis is defined as a hypoechoic spherical or elliptical space within the renal pelvis that measures at least 5mm and not more than 10 mm. The measurement is taken on a transverse section through the fetal renal pelvis using the maximum anterior-to-posterior measurement.
Anisometropia
MedGen UID:
8099
Concept ID:
C0003081
Disease or Syndrome
Inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Esotropia
MedGen UID:
4550
Concept ID:
C0014877
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes turned inward ('crossed') to a relatively severe degree, usually defined as 10 diopters or more.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).
Retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
208903
Concept ID:
C0854723
Finding
Retinal dystrophy is an abnormality of the retina associated with a hereditary process. Retinal dystrophies are defined by their predominantly monogenic inheritance and they are frequently associated with loss or dysfunction of photoreceptor cells as a primary or secondary event.
Bilateral ptosis
MedGen UID:
356120
Concept ID:
C1865916
Disease or Syndrome

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Oppermann H, Marcos-Grañeda E, Weiss LA, Gurnett CA, Jelsig AM, Vineke SH, Isidor B, Mercier S, Magnussen K, Zacher P, Hashim M, Pagnamenta AT, Race S, Srivastava S, Frazier Z, Maiwald R, Pergande M, Milani D, Rinelli M, Levy J, Krey I, Fontana P, Lonardo F, Riley S, Kretzer J, Rankin J, Reis LM, Semina EV, Reuter MS, Scherer SW, Iascone M, Weis D, Fagerberg CR, Brasch-Andersen C, Hansen LK, Kuechler A, Noble N, Gardham A, Tenney J, Rathore G, Beck-Woedl S, Haack TB, Pavlidou DC, Atallah I, Vodopiutz J, Janecke AR, Hsieh TC, Lesmann H, Klinkhammer H, Krawitz PM, Lemke JR, Jamra RA, Nieto M, Tümer Z, Platzer K
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Nov;31(11):1251-1260. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01445-2. PMID: 37644171Free PMC Article
Spahiu L, Behluli E, Grajçevci-Uka V, Liehr T, Temaj G
J Mother Child 2022 Mar 1;26(1):118-123. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00034. PMID: 36803942Free PMC Article
Albokhari D, Ng BG, Guberinic A, Daniel EJP, Engelhardt NM, Barone R, Fiumara A, Garavelli L, Trimarchi G, Wolfe L, Raymond KM, Morava E, He M, Freeze HH, Lam C, Edmondson AC
J Inherit Metab Dis 2022 Sep;45(5):969-980. Epub 2022 Jun 30 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12527. PMID: 35716054Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lozano R, Gbekie C, Siper PM, Srivastava S, Saland JM, Sethuram S, Tang L, Drapeau E, Frank Y, Buxbaum JD, Kolevzon A
J Neurodev Disord 2021 Apr 23;13(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s11689-021-09358-1. PMID: 33892622Free PMC Article
Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Van Dijck A, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Cappuyns E, van der Werf IM, Mancini GM, Tzschach A, Bernier R, Gozes I, Eichler EE, Romano C, Lindstrand A, Nordgren A; ADNP Consortium, Kvarnung M, Kleefstra T, de Vries BBA, Küry S, Rosenfeld JA, Meuwissen ME, Vandeweyer G, Kooy RF
Biol Psychiatry 2019 Feb 15;85(4):287-297. Epub 2018 Mar 15 doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.02.1173. PMID: 29724491Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Rots D, Jakub TE, Keung C, Jackson A, Banka S, Pfundt R, de Vries BBA, van Jaarsveld RH, Hopman SMJ, van Binsbergen E, Valenzuela I, Hempel M, Bierhals T, Kortüm F, Lecoquierre F, Goldenberg A, Hertz JM, Andersen CB, Kibæk M, Prijoles EJ, Stevenson RE, Everman DB, Patterson WG, Meng L, Gijavanekar C, De Dios K, Lakhani S, Levy T, Wagner M, Wieczorek D, Benke PJ, Lopez Garcia MS, Perrier R, Sousa SB, Almeida PM, Simões MJ, Isidor B, Deb W, Schmanski AA, Abdul-Rahman O, Philippe C, Bruel AL, Faivre L, Vitobello A, Thauvin C, Smits JJ, Garavelli L, Caraffi SG, Peluso F, Davis-Keppen L, Platt D, Royer E, Leeuwen L, Sinnema M, Stegmann APA, Stumpel CTRM, Tiller GE, Bosch DGM, Potgieter ST, Joss S, Splitt M, Holden S, Prapa M, Foulds N, Douzgou S, Puura K, Waltes R, Chiocchetti AG, Freitag CM, Satterstrom FK, De Rubeis S, Buxbaum J, Gelb BD, Branko A, Kushima I, Howe J, Scherer SW, Arado A, Baldo C, Patat O, Bénédicte D, Lopergolo D, Santorelli FM, Haack TB, Dufke A, Bertrand M, Falb RJ, Rieß A, Krieg P, Spranger S, Bedeschi MF, Iascone M, Josephi-Taylor S, Roscioli T, Buckley MF, Liebelt J, Dagli AI, Aten E, Hurst ACE, Hicks A, Suri M, Aliu E, Naik S, Sidlow R, Coursimault J, Nicolas G, Küpper H, Petit F, Ibrahim V, Top D, Di Cara F; Genomics England Research Consortium, Louie RJ, Stolerman E, Brunner HG, Vissers LELM, Kramer JM, Kleefstra T
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jun 1;110(6):963-978. Epub 2023 May 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.04.008. PMID: 37196654Free PMC Article
Spahiu L, Behluli E, Grajçevci-Uka V, Liehr T, Temaj G
J Mother Child 2022 Mar 1;26(1):118-123. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00034. PMID: 36803942Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article

Therapy

Curie A, Lion-François L, Valayannopoulos V, Perreton N, Gavanon M, Touil N, Brun-Laurisse A, Gheurbi F, Buchy M, Halep H, Cheillan D, Mercier C, Brassier A, Desnous B, Kassai B, De Lonlay P, Des Portes V
Neurology 2024 Apr 23;102(8):e209243. Epub 2024 Mar 26 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000209243. PMID: 38531017
Li T, Lu D, Yao C, Li T, Dong H, Li Z, Xu G, Chen J, Zhang H, Yi X, Zhu H, Liu G, Wen K, Zhao H, Gao J, Zhang Y, Han Q, Li T, Zhang W, Zhao J, Li T, Bai Z, Song M, He X, Zhou T, Xia Q, Li A, Pan X
Nat Commun 2022 Feb 17;13(1):931. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-28613-0. PMID: 35177641Free PMC Article
Frank Y
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Sep;122:59-64. Epub 2021 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.06.002. PMID: 34325981
Da'as SI, Aamer W, Hasan W, Al-Maraghi A, Al-Kurbi A, Kilani H, AlRayahi J, Zamel K, Stotland MA, Fakhro KA
Cells 2020 Jul 27;9(8) doi: 10.3390/cells9081782. PMID: 32726939Free PMC Article
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Oppermann H, Marcos-Grañeda E, Weiss LA, Gurnett CA, Jelsig AM, Vineke SH, Isidor B, Mercier S, Magnussen K, Zacher P, Hashim M, Pagnamenta AT, Race S, Srivastava S, Frazier Z, Maiwald R, Pergande M, Milani D, Rinelli M, Levy J, Krey I, Fontana P, Lonardo F, Riley S, Kretzer J, Rankin J, Reis LM, Semina EV, Reuter MS, Scherer SW, Iascone M, Weis D, Fagerberg CR, Brasch-Andersen C, Hansen LK, Kuechler A, Noble N, Gardham A, Tenney J, Rathore G, Beck-Woedl S, Haack TB, Pavlidou DC, Atallah I, Vodopiutz J, Janecke AR, Hsieh TC, Lesmann H, Klinkhammer H, Krawitz PM, Lemke JR, Jamra RA, Nieto M, Tümer Z, Platzer K
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Nov;31(11):1251-1260. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01445-2. PMID: 37644171Free PMC Article
Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Chowdhury F, Wang L, Al-Raqad M, Amor DJ, Baxová A, Bendová Š, Biamino E, Brusco A, Caluseriu O, Cox NJ, Froukh T, Gunay-Aygun M, Hančárová M, Haynes D, Heide S, Hoganson G, Kaname T, Keren B, Kosaki K, Kubota K, Lemons JM, Magriña MA, Mark PR, McDonald MT, Montgomery S, Morley GM, Ohnishi H, Okamoto N, Rodriguez-Buritica D, Rump P, Sedláček Z, Schatz K, Streff H, Uehara T, Walia JS, Wheeler PG, Wiesener A, Zweier C, Kawakami K, Wentzensen IM, Lalani SR, Siu VM, Bi W, Balci TB
Genet Med 2021 Jul;23(7):1234-1245. Epub 2021 Apr 6 doi: 10.1038/s41436-021-01129-6. PMID: 33824499
Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345
Magoulas PL, El-Hattab AW
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2012 Jan 4;7:2. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-7-2. PMID: 22216833Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Stephenson SEM, Costain G, Blok LER, Silk MA, Nguyen TB, Dong X, Alhuzaimi DE, Dowling JJ, Walker S, Amburgey K, Hayeems RZ, Rodan LH, Schwartz MA, Picker J, Lynch SA, Gupta A, Rasmussen KJ, Schimmenti LA, Klee EW, Niu Z, Agre KE, Chilton I, Chung WK, Revah-Politi A, Au PYB, Griffith C, Racobaldo M, Raas-Rothschild A, Ben Zeev B, Barel O, Moutton S, Morice-Picard F, Carmignac V, Cornaton J, Marle N, Devinsky O, Stimach C, Wechsler SB, Hainline BE, Sapp K, Willems M, Bruel AL, Dias KR, Evans CA, Roscioli T, Sachdev R, Temple SEL, Zhu Y, Baker JJ, Scheffer IE, Gardiner FJ, Schneider AL, Muir AM, Mefford HC, Crunk A, Heise EM, Millan F, Monaghan KG, Person R, Rhodes L, Richards S, Wentzensen IM, Cogné B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Vincent M, Besnard T, Piton A, Marcelis C, Kato K, Koyama N, Ogi T, Goh ES, Richmond C, Amor DJ, Boyce JO, Morgan AT, Hildebrand MS, Kaspi A, Bahlo M, Friðriksdóttir R, Katrínardóttir H, Sulem P, Stefánsson K, Björnsson HT, Mandelstam S, Morleo M, Mariani M; TUDP Study Group, Scala M, Accogli A, Torella A, Capra V, Wallis M, Jansen S, Weisfisz Q, de Haan H, Sadedin S; Broad Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lim SC, White SM, Ascher DB, Schenck A, Lockhart PJ, Christodoulou J, Tan TY
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Apr 7;109(4):601-617. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.03.002. PMID: 35395208Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Vissers LELM, Kalvakuri S, de Boer E, Geuer S, Oud M, van Outersterp I, Kwint M, Witmond M, Kersten S, Polla DL, Weijers D, Begtrup A, McWalter K, Ruiz A, Gabau E, Morton JEV, Griffith C, Weiss K, Gamble C, Bartley J, Vernon HJ, Brunet K, Ruivenkamp C, Kant SG, Kruszka P, Larson A, Afenjar A, Billette de Villemeur T, Nugent K; DDD Study, Raymond FL, Venselaar H, Demurger F, Soler-Alfonso C, Li D, Bhoj E, Hayes I, Hamilton NP, Ahmad A, Fisher R, van den Born M, Willems M, Sorlin A, Delanne J, Moutton S, Christophe P, Mau-Them FT, Vitobello A, Goel H, Massingham L, Phornphutkul C, Schwab J, Keren B, Charles P, Vreeburg M, De Simone L, Hoganson G, Iascone M, Milani D, Evenepoel L, Revencu N, Ward DI, Burns K, Krantz I, Raible SE, Murrell JR, Wood K, Cho MT, van Bokhoven H, Muenke M, Kleefstra T, Bodmer R, de Brouwer APM
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Jul 2;107(1):164-172. Epub 2020 Jun 17 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.05.017. PMID: 32553196Free PMC Article
Vetrini F, McKee S, Rosenfeld JA, Suri M, Lewis AM, Nugent KM, Roeder E, Littlejohn RO, Holder S, Zhu W, Alaimo JT, Graham B, Harris JM, Gibson JB, Pastore M, McBride KL, Komara M, Al-Gazali L, Al Shamsi A, Fanning EA, Wierenga KJ, Scott DA, Ben-Neriah Z, Meiner V, Cassuto H, Elpeleg O, Holder JL Jr, Burrage LC, Seaver LH, Van Maldergem L, Mahida S, Soul JS, Marlatt M, Matyakhina L, Vogt J, Gold JA, Park SM, Varghese V, Lampe AK, Kumar A, Lees M, Holder-Espinasse M, McConnell V, Bernhard B, Blair E, Harrison V; DDD study, Muzny DM, Gibbs RA, Elsea SH, Posey JE, Bi W, Lalani S, Xia F, Yang Y, Eng CM, Lupski JR, Liu P
Genome Med 2019 Feb 28;11(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s13073-019-0623-0. PMID: 30819258Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Zhao A, Shu D, Zhang D, Yang B, Hong L, Wang A, Yao R, Wang J, Lv H, Wang J, Shen Y, Wang H, Gu Q
Int J Dev Neurosci 2022 Feb;82(1):96-103. Epub 2021 Nov 4 doi: 10.1002/jdn.10154. PMID: 34708882
Neuser S, Brechmann B, Heimer G, Brösse I, Schubert S, O'Grady L, Zech M, Srivastava S, Sweetser DA, Dincer Y, Mall V, Winkelmann J, Behrends C, Darras BT, Graham RJ, Jayakar P, Byrne B, Bar-Aluma BE, Haberman Y, Szeinberg A, Aldhalaan HM, Hashem M, Al Tenaiji A, Ismayl O, Al Nuaimi AE, Maher K, Ibrahim S, Khan F, Houlden H, Ramakumaran VS, Pagnamenta AT, Posey JE, Lupski JR, Tan WH, ElGhazali G, Herman I, Muñoz T, Repetto GM, Seitz A, Krumbiegel M, Poli MC, Kini U, Efthymiou S, Meiler J, Maroofian R, Alkuraya FS, Abou Jamra R, Popp B, Ben-Zeev B, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Hum Mutat 2021 Jun;42(6):762-776. Epub 2021 May 11 doi: 10.1002/humu.24206. PMID: 33847017
Montalva L, Raffler G, Riccio A, Lauriti G, Zani A
J Pediatr Surg 2020 Apr;55(4):625-634. Epub 2019 Jun 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.05.021. PMID: 31227219
Kolevzon A, Delaby E, Berry-Kravis E, Buxbaum JD, Betancur C
Mol Autism 2019;10:50. Epub 2019 Dec 24 doi: 10.1186/s13229-019-0291-3. PMID: 31879555Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...