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Intellectual developmental disorder with seizures and language delay(IDDSELD)

MedGen UID:
1740295
Concept ID:
C5436574
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: IDDSELD
 
Gene (location): SETD1B (12q24.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033559
OMIM®: 619000

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: SETD1B-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder
SETD1B-related neurodevelopmental disorder (SETD1B-NDD) is characterized by developmental delay (mainly affecting speech and language), intellectual disability, seizures, autism spectrum disorder or autism-like behaviors, and additional behavioral concerns. Speech delay and/or language disorder has been reported in most affected individuals. Delay in gross motor skills and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are common. Most affected individuals have seizures with variable onset and seizure type. Behavioral issues including hyperactivity, aggression, anxiety, and sleep disorders have been reported in approximately half of individuals. Less common features include ophthalmologic manifestations and feeding issues. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Alexandra Roston  |  William Gibson   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Intellectual developmental disorder with seizures and language delay (IDDSELD) is characterized by global developmental delay with speech and language impairment and onset of seizures usually in the first few years of life. Seizures tend to be myoclonic, although variable types have been reported. Many patients have accompanying behavioral abnormalities, most commonly autism spectrum disorder and anxiety. Additional features, such as facial dysmorphism, tapering fingers, and pigmentary skin changes may also be observed (summary by Roston et al., 2021).  http://www.omim.org/entry/619000

Clinical features

From HPO
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
98098
Concept ID:
C0426886
Finding
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
892508
Concept ID:
C3161330
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
EEG with polyspike wave complexes
MedGen UID:
867392
Concept ID:
C4021757
Finding
The presence of complexes of repetitive spikes and waves in EEG.
Myoclonic absence seizure
MedGen UID:
869094
Concept ID:
C4023512
Disease or Syndrome
Myoclonic absence seizure is a type of generalized non-motor (absence) seizure characterized by an interruption of ongoing activities, a blank stare and rhythmic three-per-second myoclonic movements, causing ratcheting abduction of the upper limbs leading to progressive arm elevation, and associated with 3 Hz generalized spike-wave discharges on the electroencephalogram. Duration is typically 10-60 s. Whilst impairment of consciousness may not be obvious the ILAE classified this seizure as a generalized non-motor seizure in 2017.
EEG with spike-wave complexes (2.5-3.5 Hz)
MedGen UID:
869260
Concept ID:
C4023685
Finding
The presence of complexes of spikes and waves (2.5-3.5 Hz) in electroencephalography (EEG).
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Increased theta frequency activity in EEG
MedGen UID:
1617724
Concept ID:
C4531060
Finding
Increased frequency of theta wave activity in the electroencephalogram. Theta waves have a frequency of 3.5-7.5 Hertz, and are present in very small amounts in healthy waking adult EEGs. Theta activity is normal in small very amounts in the healthy waking adult EEG in a symmetrical distribution.
Flat occiput
MedGen UID:
332439
Concept ID:
C1837402
Finding
Reduced convexity of the occiput (posterior part of skull).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Square face
MedGen UID:
371253
Concept ID:
C1832127
Finding
Facial contours, as viewed from the front, show a broad upper face/cranium and lower face/mandible, creating a square appearance.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Full cheeks
MedGen UID:
355661
Concept ID:
C1866231
Finding
Increased prominence or roundness of soft tissues between zygomata and mandible.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Ream MA, Lam WKK, Grosse SD, Ojodu J, Jones E, Prosser LA, Rose AM, Comeau AM, Tanksley S, Powell CM, Kemper AR
Pediatrics 2023 Aug 1;152(2) doi: 10.1542/peds.2023-062100. PMID: 37465909Free PMC Article
D'Onofrio G, Accogli A, Severino M, Caliskan H, Kokotović T, Blazekovic A, Jercic KG, Markovic S, Zigman T, Goran K, Barišić N, Duranovic V, Ban A, Borovecki F, Ramadža DP, Barić I, Fazeli W, Herkenrath P, Marini C, Vittorini R, Gowda V, Bouman A, Rocca C, Alkhawaja IA, Murtaza BN, Rehman MMU, Al Alam C, Nader G, Mancardi MM, Giacomini T, Srivastava S, Alvi JR, Tomoum H, Matricardi S, Iacomino M, Riva A, Scala M, Madia F, Pistorio A, Salpietro V, Minetti C, Rivière JB, Srour M, Efthymiou S, Maroofian R, Houlden H, Vernes SC, Zara F, Striano P, Nagy V
Hum Genet 2023 Jul;142(7):909-925. Epub 2023 May 14 doi: 10.1007/s00439-023-02552-2. PMID: 37183190Free PMC Article
Hancock EC, Cross JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Feb 28;2013(2):CD003277. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003277.pub3. PMID: 23450537Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2022 Oct;36(10):1079-1111. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00955-9. PMID: 36194365Free PMC Article
Duncan AR, Vitobello A, Collins SC, Vancollie VE, Lelliott CJ, Rodan L, Shi J, Seman AR, Agolini E, Novelli A, Prontera P, Guillen Sacoto MJ, Santiago-Sim T, Trimouille A, Goizet C, Nizon M, Bruel AL, Philippe C, Grant PE, Wojcik MH, Stoler J, Genetti CA, van Dooren MF, Maas SM, Alders M, Faivre L, Sorlin A, Yoon G, Yalcin B, Agrawal PB
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Dec 3;107(6):1170-1177. Epub 2020 Nov 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.11.001. PMID: 33232677Free PMC Article
Al Shehhi M, Forman EB, Fitzgerald JE, McInerney V, Krawczyk J, Shen S, Betts DR, Ardle LM, Gorman KM, King MD, Green A, Gallagher L, Lynch SA
Eur J Med Genet 2019 Mar;62(3):204-209. Epub 2018 Jul 18 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.07.015. PMID: 30031152
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article
Hancock EC, Cross JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Feb 28;2013(2):CD003277. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003277.pub3. PMID: 23450537Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Weerts MJA, Lanko K, Guzmán-Vega FJ, Jackson A, Ramakrishnan R, Cardona-Londoño KJ, Peña-Guerra KA, van Bever Y, van Paassen BW, Kievit A, van Slegtenhorst M, Allen NM, Kehoe CM, Robinson HK, Pang L, Banu SH, Zaman M, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Järvelä I, Lauronen L, Määttä T, Schrauwen I, Leal SM, Ruivenkamp CAL, Barge-Schaapveld DQCM, Peeters-Scholte CMPCD, Galehdari H, Mazaheri N, Sisodiya SM, Harrison V, Sun A, Thies J, Pedroza LA, Lara-Taranchenko Y, Chinn IK, Lupski JR, Garza-Flores A, McGlothlin J, Yang L, Huang S, Wang X, Jewett T, Rosso G, Lin X, Mohammed S, Merritt JL 2nd, Mirzaa GM, Timms AE, Scheck J, Elting MW, Polstra AM, Schenck L, Ruzhnikov MRZ, Vetro A, Montomoli M, Guerrini R, Koboldt DC, Mosher TM, Pastore MT, McBride KL, Peng J, Pan Z, Willemsen M, Koning S, Turnpenny PD, de Vries BBA, Gilissen C, Pfundt R, Lees M, Braddock SR, Klemp KC, Vansenne F, van Gijn ME, Quindipan C, Deardorff MA, Hamm JA, Putnam AM, Baud R, Walsh L, Lynch SA, Baptista J, Person RE, Monaghan KG, Crunk A, Keller-Ramey J, Reich A, Elloumi HZ, Alders M, Kerkhof J, McConkey H, Haghshenas S; Genomics England Research Consortium, Maroofian R, Sadikovic B, Banka S, Arold ST, Barakat TS
Genet Med 2021 Nov;23(11):2122-2137. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1038/s41436-021-01246-2. PMID: 34345025Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
He H, Guzman RE, Cao D, Sierra-Marquez J, Yin F, Fahlke C, Peng J, Stauber T
Epilepsia 2021 Jun;62(6):1401-1415. Epub 2021 May 5 doi: 10.1111/epi.16906. PMID: 33951195
Glinton KE, Hurst ACE, Bowling KM, Cristian I, Haynes D, Adstamongkonkul D, Schnappauf O, Beck DB, Brewer C, Parikh AS, Shinde DN, Donaldson A, Brautbar A, Koene S, van Haeringen A, Piton A, Capri Y, Furlan M, Gardella E, Møller RS, van de Beek I, Zuurbier L, Lakeman P, Bayat A, Martinez J, Signer R, Torring PM, Engelund MB, Gripp KW, Amlie-Wolf L, Henderson LB, Midro AT, Tarasów E, Stasiewicz-Jarocka B, Moskal-Jasinska D, Vos P, Boschann F, Stoltenburg C, Puk O, Mero IL, Lossius K, Mignot C, Keren B, Acosta Guio JC, Briceño I, Gomez A, Yang Y, Stankiewicz P
Am J Med Genet A 2021 May;185(5):1366-1378. Epub 2021 Jan 31 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62102. PMID: 33522091Free PMC Article
Gibbons R
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 May 4;1:15. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-15. PMID: 16722615Free PMC Article

Therapy

He H, Guzman RE, Cao D, Sierra-Marquez J, Yin F, Fahlke C, Peng J, Stauber T
Epilepsia 2021 Jun;62(6):1401-1415. Epub 2021 May 5 doi: 10.1111/epi.16906. PMID: 33951195
Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jun 14;20(12) doi: 10.3390/ijms20122914. PMID: 31207912Free PMC Article
Johannesen KM, Gardella E, Encinas AC, Lehesjoki AE, Linnankivi T, Petersen MB, Lund ICB, Blichfeldt S, Miranda MJ, Pal DK, Lascelles K, Procopis P, Orsini A, Bonuccelli A, Giacomini T, Helbig I, Fenger CD, Sisodiya SM, Hernandez-Hernandez L, Krithika S, Rumple M, Masnada S, Valente M, Cereda C, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Bürki SE, Mancardi M, Korff C, Guerrini R, von Spiczak S, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mazurczak T, Coppola A, Buono S, Vecchi M, Hammer MF, Varesio C, Veggiotti P, Lal D, Brünger T, Zara F, Striano P, Rubboli G, Møller RS
Epilepsia 2019 May;60(5):830-844. Epub 2019 Apr 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.14705. PMID: 30968951
Hancock EC, Cross JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Feb 28;2013(2):CD003277. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003277.pub3. PMID: 23450537Free PMC Article
Pearson TS, Akman C, Hinton VJ, Engelstad K, De Vivo DC
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2013 Apr;13(4):342. doi: 10.1007/s11910-013-0342-7. PMID: 23443458

Prognosis

He H, Guzman RE, Cao D, Sierra-Marquez J, Yin F, Fahlke C, Peng J, Stauber T
Epilepsia 2021 Jun;62(6):1401-1415. Epub 2021 May 5 doi: 10.1111/epi.16906. PMID: 33951195
den Hoed J, de Boer E, Voisin N, Dingemans AJM, Guex N, Wiel L, Nellaker C, Amudhavalli SM, Banka S, Bena FS, Ben-Zeev B, Bonagura VR, Bruel AL, Brunet T, Brunner HG, Chew HB, Chrast J, Cimbalistienė L, Coon H; DDD Study, Délot EC, Démurger F, Denommé-Pichon AS, Depienne C, Donnai D, Dyment DA, Elpeleg O, Faivre L, Gilissen C, Granger L, Haber B, Hachiya Y, Abedi YH, Hanebeck J, Hehir-Kwa JY, Horist B, Itai T, Jackson A, Jewell R, Jones KL, Joss S, Kashii H, Kato M, Kattentidt-Mouravieva AA, Kok F, Kotzaeridou U, Krishnamurthy V, Kučinskas V, Kuechler A, Lavillaureix A, Liu P, Manwaring L, Matsumoto N, Mazel B, McWalter K, Meiner V, Mikati MA, Miyatake S, Mizuguchi T, Moey LH, Mohammed S, Mor-Shaked H, Mountford H, Newbury-Ecob R, Odent S, Orec L, Osmond M, Palculict TB, Parker M, Petersen AK, Pfundt R, Preikšaitienė E, Radtke K, Ranza E, Rosenfeld JA, Santiago-Sim T, Schwager C, Sinnema M, Snijders Blok L, Spillmann RC, Stegmann APA, Thiffault I, Tran L, Vaknin-Dembinsky A, Vedovato-Dos-Santos JH, Schrier Vergano SA, Vilain E, Vitobello A, Wagner M, Waheeb A, Willing M, Zuccarelli B, Kini U, Newbury DF, Kleefstra T, Reymond A, Fisher SE, Vissers LELM
Am J Hum Genet 2021 Feb 4;108(2):346-356. Epub 2021 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.01.007. PMID: 33513338Free PMC Article
Bend R, Cohen L, Carter MT, Lyons MJ, Niyazov D, Mikati MA, Rojas SK, Person RE, Si Y, Wentzensen IM; Regeneron Genetics Center, Torti E, Lee JA, Boycott KM, Basel-Salmon L, Ferreira CR, Gonzaga-Jauregui C
Eur J Hum Genet 2020 Jan;28(1):76-87. Epub 2019 Aug 8 doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0487-1. PMID: 31395947Free PMC Article
Raspa M, Wheeler AC, Riley C
Pediatrics 2017 Jun;139(Suppl 3):S153-S171. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1159C. PMID: 28814537Free PMC Article
Hancock EC, Cross JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Feb 28;2013(2):CD003277. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003277.pub3. PMID: 23450537Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Kaiyrzhanov R, Rad A, Lin SJ, Bertoli-Avella A, Kallemeijn WW, Godwin A, Zaki MS, Huang K, Lau T, Petree C, Efthymiou S, Karimiani EG, Hempel M, Normand EA, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Schatz UA, Baggelaar MP, Ilyas M, Sultan T, Alvi JR, Ganieva M, Fowler B, Aanicai R, Tayfun GA, Al Saman A, Alswaid A, Amiri N, Asilova N, Shotelersuk V, Yeetong P, Azam M, Babaei M, Monajemi GB, Mohammadi P, Samie S, Banu SH, Pinto Basto J, Kortüm F, Bauer M, Bauer P, Beetz C, Garshasbi M, Issa AH, Eyaid W, Ahmed H, Hashemi N, Hassanpour K, Herman I, Ibrohimov S, Abdul-Majeed BA, Imdad M, Isrofilov M, Kaiyal Q, Khan S, Kirmse B, Koster J, Lourenço CM, Mitani T, Moldovan O, Murphy D, Najafi M, Pehlivan D, Rocha ME, Salpietro V, Schmidts M, Shalata A, Mahroum M, Talbeya JK, Taylor RW, Vazquez D, Vetro A, Waterham HR, Zaman M, Schrader TA, Chung WK, Guerrini R, Lupski JR, Gleeson J, Suri M, Jamshidi Y, Bhatia KP, Vona B, Schrader M, Severino M, Guille M, Tate EW, Varshney GK, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2024 Apr 4;147(4):1436-1456. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad380. PMID: 37951597Free PMC Article
Pavinato L, Delle Vedove A, Carli D, Ferrero M, Carestiato S, Howe JL, Agolini E, Coviello DA, van de Laar I, Au PYB, Di Gregorio E, Fabbiani A, Croci S, Mencarelli MA, Bruno LP, Renieri A, Veltra D, Sofocleous C, Faivre L, Mazel B, Safraou H, Denommé-Pichon AS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Giesbertz N, van Jaarsveld RH, Childers A, Rogers RC, Novelli A, De Rubeis S, Buxbaum JD, Scherer SW, Ferrero GB, Wirth B, Brusco A
Brain 2023 Feb 13;146(2):534-548. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac278. PMID: 35979925Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
den Hoed J, de Boer E, Voisin N, Dingemans AJM, Guex N, Wiel L, Nellaker C, Amudhavalli SM, Banka S, Bena FS, Ben-Zeev B, Bonagura VR, Bruel AL, Brunet T, Brunner HG, Chew HB, Chrast J, Cimbalistienė L, Coon H; DDD Study, Délot EC, Démurger F, Denommé-Pichon AS, Depienne C, Donnai D, Dyment DA, Elpeleg O, Faivre L, Gilissen C, Granger L, Haber B, Hachiya Y, Abedi YH, Hanebeck J, Hehir-Kwa JY, Horist B, Itai T, Jackson A, Jewell R, Jones KL, Joss S, Kashii H, Kato M, Kattentidt-Mouravieva AA, Kok F, Kotzaeridou U, Krishnamurthy V, Kučinskas V, Kuechler A, Lavillaureix A, Liu P, Manwaring L, Matsumoto N, Mazel B, McWalter K, Meiner V, Mikati MA, Miyatake S, Mizuguchi T, Moey LH, Mohammed S, Mor-Shaked H, Mountford H, Newbury-Ecob R, Odent S, Orec L, Osmond M, Palculict TB, Parker M, Petersen AK, Pfundt R, Preikšaitienė E, Radtke K, Ranza E, Rosenfeld JA, Santiago-Sim T, Schwager C, Sinnema M, Snijders Blok L, Spillmann RC, Stegmann APA, Thiffault I, Tran L, Vaknin-Dembinsky A, Vedovato-Dos-Santos JH, Schrier Vergano SA, Vilain E, Vitobello A, Wagner M, Waheeb A, Willing M, Zuccarelli B, Kini U, Newbury DF, Kleefstra T, Reymond A, Fisher SE, Vissers LELM
Am J Hum Genet 2021 Feb 4;108(2):346-356. Epub 2021 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.01.007. PMID: 33513338Free PMC Article
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Nan H, Chu M, Zhang J, Jiang D, Wang Y, Wu L
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2024 Mar;12(3):e2398. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2398. PMID: 38444259Free PMC Article
Raspa M, Wheeler AC, Riley C
Pediatrics 2017 Jun;139(Suppl 3):S153-S171. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1159C. PMID: 28814537Free PMC Article
Hancock EC, Cross JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Feb 28;2013(2):CD003277. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003277.pub3. PMID: 23450537Free PMC Article

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