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Silver-Russell syndrome 5(SRS5)

MedGen UID:
1713787
Concept ID:
C5394456
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: SRS5
 
Gene (location): HMGA2 (12q14.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020795
OMIM®: 618908

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Silver-Russell Syndrome
Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference ≥1.5 standard deviations [SD] above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is typically followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, growth failure is proportionate and head growth typically normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Howard M Saal  |  Madeleine D Harbison  |  Irene Netchine   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Silver-Russell syndrome-5 (SRS5) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, with feeding difficulties in early childhood and postnatal growth failure. Relative macrocephaly may be present at birth. Other dysmorphic features include triangular face with prominent forehead (De Crescenzo et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Silver-Russell syndrome, see SRS1 (180860).  http://www.omim.org/entry/618908

Clinical features

From HPO
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Birth length less than 3rd percentile
MedGen UID:
340924
Concept ID:
C1855650
Finding
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Relative macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
338607
Concept ID:
C1849075
Congenital Abnormality
A relatively mild degree of macrocephaly in which the head circumference is not above two standard deviations from the mean, but appears dysproportionately large when other factors such as body stature are taken into account.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wakeling EL, Brioude F, Lokulo-Sodipe O, O'Connell SM, Salem J, Bliek J, Canton AP, Chrzanowska KH, Davies JH, Dias RP, Dubern B, Elbracht M, Giabicani E, Grimberg A, Grønskov K, Hokken-Koelega AC, Jorge AA, Kagami M, Linglart A, Maghnie M, Mohnike K, Monk D, Moore GE, Murray PG, Ogata T, Petit IO, Russo S, Said E, Toumba M, Tümer Z, Binder G, Eggermann T, Harbison MD, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Netchine I
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017 Feb;13(2):105-124. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.138. PMID: 27585961
Marsaud C, Rossignol S, Tounian P, Netchine I, Dubern B
Arch Dis Child 2015 Apr;100(4):353-8. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-305864. PMID: 25700540
Eggermann T, Begemann M, Binder G, Spengler S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jun 23;5:19. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-19. PMID: 20573229Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Khetan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Feb 4;384(5):403-416. Epub 2020 Dec 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. PMID: 33378609Free PMC Article
Masunaga Y, Inoue T, Yamoto K, Fujisawa Y, Sato Y, Kawashima-Sonoyama Y, Morisada N, Iijima K, Ohata Y, Namba N, Suzumura H, Kuribayashi R, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshihashi H, Fukami M, Saitsu H, Kagami M, Ogata T
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jan 1;105(1) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz034. PMID: 31544945
Wakeling EL, Brioude F, Lokulo-Sodipe O, O'Connell SM, Salem J, Bliek J, Canton AP, Chrzanowska KH, Davies JH, Dias RP, Dubern B, Elbracht M, Giabicani E, Grimberg A, Grønskov K, Hokken-Koelega AC, Jorge AA, Kagami M, Linglart A, Maghnie M, Mohnike K, Monk D, Moore GE, Murray PG, Ogata T, Petit IO, Russo S, Said E, Toumba M, Tümer Z, Binder G, Eggermann T, Harbison MD, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Netchine I
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017 Feb;13(2):105-124. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.138. PMID: 27585961
Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, McCagg A, White JA, Theroux P, Darius H, Lewis BS, Ophuis TO, Jukema JW, De Ferrari GM, Ruzyllo W, De Lucca P, Im K, Bohula EA, Reist C, Wiviott SD, Tershakovec AM, Musliner TA, Braunwald E, Califf RM; IMPROVE-IT Investigators
N Engl J Med 2015 Jun 18;372(25):2387-97. Epub 2015 Jun 3 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1410489. PMID: 26039521
Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, Cannon CP, Emanuelsson H, Held C, Horrow J, Husted S, James S, Katus H, Mahaffey KW, Scirica BM, Skene A, Steg PG, Storey RF, Harrington RA; PLATO Investigators, Freij A, Thorsén M
N Engl J Med 2009 Sep 10;361(11):1045-57. Epub 2009 Aug 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0904327. PMID: 19717846

Diagnosis

Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Khetan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Feb 4;384(5):403-416. Epub 2020 Dec 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. PMID: 33378609Free PMC Article
Wakeling EL, Brioude F, Lokulo-Sodipe O, O'Connell SM, Salem J, Bliek J, Canton AP, Chrzanowska KH, Davies JH, Dias RP, Dubern B, Elbracht M, Giabicani E, Grimberg A, Grønskov K, Hokken-Koelega AC, Jorge AA, Kagami M, Linglart A, Maghnie M, Mohnike K, Monk D, Moore GE, Murray PG, Ogata T, Petit IO, Russo S, Said E, Toumba M, Tümer Z, Binder G, Eggermann T, Harbison MD, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Netchine I
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017 Feb;13(2):105-124. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.138. PMID: 27585961
Binder G, Begemann M, Eggermann T, Kannenberg K
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;25(1):153-60. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.06.005. PMID: 21396582
Wakeling EL
Arch Dis Child 2011 Dec;96(12):1156-61. Epub 2011 Feb 24 doi: 10.1136/adc.2010.190165. PMID: 21349887
Eggermann T
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010 Aug 15;154C(3):355-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30274. PMID: 20803658

Therapy

El Sahly HM, Baden LR, Essink B, Doblecki-Lewis S, Martin JM, Anderson EJ, Campbell TB, Clark J, Jackson LA, Fichtenbaum CJ, Zervos M, Rankin B, Eder F, Feldman G, Kennelly C, Han-Conrad L, Levin M, Neuzil KM, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Polakowski L, Mascola JR, Ledgerwood JE, Graham BS, August A, Clouting H, Deng W, Han S, Leav B, Manzo D, Pajon R, Schödel F, Tomassini JE, Zhou H, Miller J; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Nov 4;385(19):1774-1785. Epub 2021 Sep 22 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2113017. PMID: 34551225Free PMC Article
Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Khetan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Feb 4;384(5):403-416. Epub 2020 Dec 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. PMID: 33378609Free PMC Article
Wakeling EL, Brioude F, Lokulo-Sodipe O, O'Connell SM, Salem J, Bliek J, Canton AP, Chrzanowska KH, Davies JH, Dias RP, Dubern B, Elbracht M, Giabicani E, Grimberg A, Grønskov K, Hokken-Koelega AC, Jorge AA, Kagami M, Linglart A, Maghnie M, Mohnike K, Monk D, Moore GE, Murray PG, Ogata T, Petit IO, Russo S, Said E, Toumba M, Tümer Z, Binder G, Eggermann T, Harbison MD, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Netchine I
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017 Feb;13(2):105-124. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.138. PMID: 27585961
Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, McCagg A, White JA, Theroux P, Darius H, Lewis BS, Ophuis TO, Jukema JW, De Ferrari GM, Ruzyllo W, De Lucca P, Im K, Bohula EA, Reist C, Wiviott SD, Tershakovec AM, Musliner TA, Braunwald E, Califf RM; IMPROVE-IT Investigators
N Engl J Med 2015 Jun 18;372(25):2387-97. Epub 2015 Jun 3 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1410489. PMID: 26039521
Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, Cannon CP, Emanuelsson H, Held C, Horrow J, Husted S, James S, Katus H, Mahaffey KW, Scirica BM, Skene A, Steg PG, Storey RF, Harrington RA; PLATO Investigators, Freij A, Thorsén M
N Engl J Med 2009 Sep 10;361(11):1045-57. Epub 2009 Aug 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0904327. PMID: 19717846

Prognosis

El Sahly HM, Baden LR, Essink B, Doblecki-Lewis S, Martin JM, Anderson EJ, Campbell TB, Clark J, Jackson LA, Fichtenbaum CJ, Zervos M, Rankin B, Eder F, Feldman G, Kennelly C, Han-Conrad L, Levin M, Neuzil KM, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Polakowski L, Mascola JR, Ledgerwood JE, Graham BS, August A, Clouting H, Deng W, Han S, Leav B, Manzo D, Pajon R, Schödel F, Tomassini JE, Zhou H, Miller J; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Nov 4;385(19):1774-1785. Epub 2021 Sep 22 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2113017. PMID: 34551225Free PMC Article
Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Khetan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Feb 4;384(5):403-416. Epub 2020 Dec 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. PMID: 33378609Free PMC Article
Masunaga Y, Inoue T, Yamoto K, Fujisawa Y, Sato Y, Kawashima-Sonoyama Y, Morisada N, Iijima K, Ohata Y, Namba N, Suzumura H, Kuribayashi R, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshihashi H, Fukami M, Saitsu H, Kagami M, Ogata T
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jan 1;105(1) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz034. PMID: 31544945
Goedegebuure WJ, Smeets CCJ, Renes JS, de Rijke YB, Hokken-Koelega ACS
Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 1;33(11):2122-2130. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey286. PMID: 30252068
Wakeling EL
Arch Dis Child 2011 Dec;96(12):1156-61. Epub 2011 Feb 24 doi: 10.1136/adc.2010.190165. PMID: 21349887

Clinical prediction guides

El Sahly HM, Baden LR, Essink B, Doblecki-Lewis S, Martin JM, Anderson EJ, Campbell TB, Clark J, Jackson LA, Fichtenbaum CJ, Zervos M, Rankin B, Eder F, Feldman G, Kennelly C, Han-Conrad L, Levin M, Neuzil KM, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Polakowski L, Mascola JR, Ledgerwood JE, Graham BS, August A, Clouting H, Deng W, Han S, Leav B, Manzo D, Pajon R, Schödel F, Tomassini JE, Zhou H, Miller J; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Nov 4;385(19):1774-1785. Epub 2021 Sep 22 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2113017. PMID: 34551225Free PMC Article
Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Khetan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T; COVE Study Group
N Engl J Med 2021 Feb 4;384(5):403-416. Epub 2020 Dec 30 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. PMID: 33378609Free PMC Article
Masunaga Y, Inoue T, Yamoto K, Fujisawa Y, Sato Y, Kawashima-Sonoyama Y, Morisada N, Iijima K, Ohata Y, Namba N, Suzumura H, Kuribayashi R, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshihashi H, Fukami M, Saitsu H, Kagami M, Ogata T
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jan 1;105(1) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz034. PMID: 31544945
Binder G, Begemann M, Eggermann T, Kannenberg K
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;25(1):153-60. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.06.005. PMID: 21396582
Eggermann T
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010 Aug 15;154C(3):355-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30274. PMID: 20803658

Recent systematic reviews

Cortessis VK, Azadian M, Buxbaum J, Sanogo F, Song AY, Sriprasert I, Wei PC, Yu J, Chung K, Siegmund KD
J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Jun;35(6):943-952. Epub 2018 Apr 25 doi: 10.1007/s10815-018-1173-x. PMID: 29696471Free PMC Article

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