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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 9(NESCAVS)

MedGen UID:
1714250
Concept ID:
C5393830
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 9; NESCAV SYNDROME; NESCAVS
 
Gene (location): KIF1A (2q37.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013656
OMIM®: 614255

Definition

NESCAV syndrome (NESCAVS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of features in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with delayed walking or difficulty walking due to progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs and often leading to loss of independent ambulation. There is variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and learning disabilities and/or behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include cortical visual impairment, often associated with optic atrophy, axonal peripheral neuropathy, seizures, dysautonomia, ataxia, and dystonia. Brain imaging often shows progressive cerebellar atrophy and thin corpus callosum. Some patients may show developmental regression, particularly of motor skills. The phenotype and presentation are highly variable (summary by Nemani et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Cerebellar vermis atrophy
MedGen UID:
149271
Concept ID:
C0742028
Disease or Syndrome
Wasting (atrophy) of the vermis of cerebellum.
Peripheral axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
266071
Concept ID:
C1263857
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality characterized by disruption of the normal functioning of peripheral axons.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Appendicular spasticity
MedGen UID:
937224
Concept ID:
C4313257
Finding
A type of spasticity that affects one or more limbs (arms or legs).
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Langhammer F, Maroofian R, Badar R, Gregor A, Rochman M, Ratliff JB, Koopmans M, Herget T, Hempel M, Kortüm F, Heron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Brooks S, Botti C, Ben-Zeev B, Argilli E, Sherr EH, Gowda VK, Srinivasan VM, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Salih MA, Kuechler A, Muller EA, Blocker K, Kuismin O, Park KL, Kochhar A, Brown K, Ramanathan S, Clark RD, Elgizouli M, Melikishvili G, Tabatadze N, Stark Z, Mirzaa GM, Ong J, Grasshoff U, Bevot A, von Wintzingerode L, Jamra RA, Hennig Y, Goldenberg P, Al Alam C, Charif M, Boulouiz R, Bellaoui M, Amrani R, Al Mutairi F, Tamim AM, Abdulwahab F, Alkuraya FS, Khouj EM, Alvi JR, Sultan T, Hashemi N, Karimiani EG, Ashrafzadeh F, Imannezhad S, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Sticht H, Zweier C
Genet Med 2023 Aug;25(8):100885. Epub 2023 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100885. PMID: 37165955
Ng SY, Luk HM, Hau EW, Cheng SS, Yu KP, Ho S, Mok MT, Lo IF
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Milani D, Manzoni FM, Pezzani L, Ajmone P, Gervasini C, Menni F, Esposito S
Ital J Pediatr 2015 Jan 20;41:4. doi: 10.1186/s13052-015-0110-1. PMID: 25599811Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Montoliu-Gaya L, Alcolea D, Ashton NJ, Pegueroles J, Levin J, Bosch B, Lantero-Rodriguez J, Carmona-Iragui M, Wagemann O, Balasa M, Kac PR, Barroeta I, Lladó A, Brum WS, Videla L, Gonzalez-Ortiz F, Benejam B, Arranz Martínez JJ, Karikari TK, Nübling G, Bejanin A, Benedet AL, Blesa R, Lleó A, Blennow K, Sánchez-Valle R, Zetterberg H, Fortea J
EBioMedicine 2023 Apr;90:104547. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2023.104547. PMID: 37002988Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Sheppard SE, Campbell IM, Harr MH, Gold N, Li D, Bjornsson HT, Cohen JS, Fahrner JA, Fatemi A, Harris JR, Nowak C, Stevens CA, Grand K, Au M, Graham JM Jr, Sanchez-Lara PA, Campo MD, Jones MC, Abdul-Rahman O, Alkuraya FS, Bassetti JA, Bergstrom K, Bhoj E, Dugan S, Kaplan JD, Derar N, Gripp KW, Hauser N, Innes AM, Keena B, Kodra N, Miller R, Nelson B, Nowaczyk MJ, Rahbeeni Z, Ben-Shachar S, Shieh JT, Slavotinek A, Sobering AK, Abbott MA, Allain DC, Amlie-Wolf L, Au PYB, Bedoukian E, Beek G, Barry J, Berg J, Bernstein JA, Cytrynbaum C, Chung BH, Donoghue S, Dorrani N, Eaton A, Flores-Daboub JA, Dubbs H, Felix CA, Fong CT, Fung JLF, Gangaram B, Goldstein A, Greenberg R, Ha TK, Hersh J, Izumi K, Kallish S, Kravets E, Kwok PY, Jobling RK, Knight Johnson AE, Kushner J, Lee BH, Levin B, Lindstrom K, Manickam K, Mardach R, McCormick E, McLeod DR, Mentch FD, Minks K, Muraresku C, Nelson SF, Porazzi P, Pichurin PN, Powell-Hamilton NN, Powis Z, Ritter A, Rogers C, Rohena L, Ronspies C, Schroeder A, Stark Z, Starr L, Stoler J, Suwannarat P, Velinov M, Weksberg R, Wilnai Y, Zadeh N, Zand DJ, Falk MJ, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Quintero-Rivera F
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1649-1665. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62124. PMID: 33783954Free PMC Article
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Vogel F
Hum Genet 1979 Nov 1;52(1):1-54. doi: 10.1007/BF00284597. PMID: 393614

Diagnosis

Montoliu-Gaya L, Alcolea D, Ashton NJ, Pegueroles J, Levin J, Bosch B, Lantero-Rodriguez J, Carmona-Iragui M, Wagemann O, Balasa M, Kac PR, Barroeta I, Lladó A, Brum WS, Videla L, Gonzalez-Ortiz F, Benejam B, Arranz Martínez JJ, Karikari TK, Nübling G, Bejanin A, Benedet AL, Blesa R, Lleó A, Blennow K, Sánchez-Valle R, Zetterberg H, Fortea J
EBioMedicine 2023 Apr;90:104547. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2023.104547. PMID: 37002988Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Sheppard SE, Campbell IM, Harr MH, Gold N, Li D, Bjornsson HT, Cohen JS, Fahrner JA, Fatemi A, Harris JR, Nowak C, Stevens CA, Grand K, Au M, Graham JM Jr, Sanchez-Lara PA, Campo MD, Jones MC, Abdul-Rahman O, Alkuraya FS, Bassetti JA, Bergstrom K, Bhoj E, Dugan S, Kaplan JD, Derar N, Gripp KW, Hauser N, Innes AM, Keena B, Kodra N, Miller R, Nelson B, Nowaczyk MJ, Rahbeeni Z, Ben-Shachar S, Shieh JT, Slavotinek A, Sobering AK, Abbott MA, Allain DC, Amlie-Wolf L, Au PYB, Bedoukian E, Beek G, Barry J, Berg J, Bernstein JA, Cytrynbaum C, Chung BH, Donoghue S, Dorrani N, Eaton A, Flores-Daboub JA, Dubbs H, Felix CA, Fong CT, Fung JLF, Gangaram B, Goldstein A, Greenberg R, Ha TK, Hersh J, Izumi K, Kallish S, Kravets E, Kwok PY, Jobling RK, Knight Johnson AE, Kushner J, Lee BH, Levin B, Lindstrom K, Manickam K, Mardach R, McCormick E, McLeod DR, Mentch FD, Minks K, Muraresku C, Nelson SF, Porazzi P, Pichurin PN, Powell-Hamilton NN, Powis Z, Ritter A, Rogers C, Rohena L, Ronspies C, Schroeder A, Stark Z, Starr L, Stoler J, Suwannarat P, Velinov M, Weksberg R, Wilnai Y, Zadeh N, Zand DJ, Falk MJ, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Quintero-Rivera F
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1649-1665. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62124. PMID: 33783954Free PMC Article
Chang FC, Westenberger A, Dale RC, Smith M, Pall HS, Perez-Dueñas B, Grattan-Smith P, Ouvrier RA, Mahant N, Hanna BC, Hunter M, Lawson JA, Max C, Sachdev R, Meyer E, Crimmins D, Pryor D, Morris JG, Münchau A, Grozeva D, Carss KJ, Raymond L, Kurian MA, Klein C, Fung VS
Mov Disord 2016 Jul;31(7):1033-40. Epub 2016 Apr 8 doi: 10.1002/mds.26598. PMID: 27061943Free PMC Article
Islam MP, Roach ES
Handb Clin Neurol 2015;132:97-109. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00006-8. PMID: 26564073

Therapy

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690Free PMC Article
Amudhavalli SM, Hanson R, Angle B, Bontempo K, Gripp KW
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Jul;176(7):1648-1656. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38832. PMID: 30160832
Srivastava S, Cohen JS, Vernon H, Barañano K, McClellan R, Jamal L, Naidu S, Fatemi A
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Jones AC, Daniells CE, Snell RG, Tachataki M, Idziaszczyk SA, Krawczak M, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Hum Mol Genet 1997 Nov;6(12):2155-61. doi: 10.1093/hmg/6.12.2155. PMID: 9328481

Prognosis

Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Chilton I, Okur V, Vitiello G, Selicorni A, Mariani M, Goldenberg A, Husson T, Campion D, Lichtenbelt KD, van Gassen K, Steinraths M, Rice J, Roeder ER, Littlejohn RO, Srour M, Sebire G, Accogli A, Héron D, Heide S, Nava C, Depienne C, Larson A, Niyazov D, Azage M, Hoganson G, Burton J, Rush ET, Jenkins JL, Saunders CJ, Thiffault I, Alaimo JT, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Gripp KW, Chung WK
Am J Med Genet A 2020 May;182(5):962-973. Epub 2020 Feb 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61505. PMID: 32031333
Yamada A, Shimura C, Shinkai Y
J Hum Genet 2018 May;63(5):555-562. Epub 2018 Feb 19 doi: 10.1038/s10038-018-0413-3. PMID: 29459631
Chang FC, Westenberger A, Dale RC, Smith M, Pall HS, Perez-Dueñas B, Grattan-Smith P, Ouvrier RA, Mahant N, Hanna BC, Hunter M, Lawson JA, Max C, Sachdev R, Meyer E, Crimmins D, Pryor D, Morris JG, Münchau A, Grozeva D, Carss KJ, Raymond L, Kurian MA, Klein C, Fung VS
Mov Disord 2016 Jul;31(7):1033-40. Epub 2016 Apr 8 doi: 10.1002/mds.26598. PMID: 27061943Free PMC Article
Bounakis N, Karampalis C, Sharp H, Tsirikos AI
J Med Case Rep 2015 Jan 18;9:10. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-9-10. PMID: 25596810Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Langhammer F, Maroofian R, Badar R, Gregor A, Rochman M, Ratliff JB, Koopmans M, Herget T, Hempel M, Kortüm F, Heron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Brooks S, Botti C, Ben-Zeev B, Argilli E, Sherr EH, Gowda VK, Srinivasan VM, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Salih MA, Kuechler A, Muller EA, Blocker K, Kuismin O, Park KL, Kochhar A, Brown K, Ramanathan S, Clark RD, Elgizouli M, Melikishvili G, Tabatadze N, Stark Z, Mirzaa GM, Ong J, Grasshoff U, Bevot A, von Wintzingerode L, Jamra RA, Hennig Y, Goldenberg P, Al Alam C, Charif M, Boulouiz R, Bellaoui M, Amrani R, Al Mutairi F, Tamim AM, Abdulwahab F, Alkuraya FS, Khouj EM, Alvi JR, Sultan T, Hashemi N, Karimiani EG, Ashrafzadeh F, Imannezhad S, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Sticht H, Zweier C
Genet Med 2023 Aug;25(8):100885. Epub 2023 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100885. PMID: 37165955
Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Sheppard SE, Campbell IM, Harr MH, Gold N, Li D, Bjornsson HT, Cohen JS, Fahrner JA, Fatemi A, Harris JR, Nowak C, Stevens CA, Grand K, Au M, Graham JM Jr, Sanchez-Lara PA, Campo MD, Jones MC, Abdul-Rahman O, Alkuraya FS, Bassetti JA, Bergstrom K, Bhoj E, Dugan S, Kaplan JD, Derar N, Gripp KW, Hauser N, Innes AM, Keena B, Kodra N, Miller R, Nelson B, Nowaczyk MJ, Rahbeeni Z, Ben-Shachar S, Shieh JT, Slavotinek A, Sobering AK, Abbott MA, Allain DC, Amlie-Wolf L, Au PYB, Bedoukian E, Beek G, Barry J, Berg J, Bernstein JA, Cytrynbaum C, Chung BH, Donoghue S, Dorrani N, Eaton A, Flores-Daboub JA, Dubbs H, Felix CA, Fong CT, Fung JLF, Gangaram B, Goldstein A, Greenberg R, Ha TK, Hersh J, Izumi K, Kallish S, Kravets E, Kwok PY, Jobling RK, Knight Johnson AE, Kushner J, Lee BH, Levin B, Lindstrom K, Manickam K, Mardach R, McCormick E, McLeod DR, Mentch FD, Minks K, Muraresku C, Nelson SF, Porazzi P, Pichurin PN, Powell-Hamilton NN, Powis Z, Ritter A, Rogers C, Rohena L, Ronspies C, Schroeder A, Stark Z, Starr L, Stoler J, Suwannarat P, Velinov M, Weksberg R, Wilnai Y, Zadeh N, Zand DJ, Falk MJ, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Quintero-Rivera F
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1649-1665. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62124. PMID: 33783954Free PMC Article
Chilton I, Okur V, Vitiello G, Selicorni A, Mariani M, Goldenberg A, Husson T, Campion D, Lichtenbelt KD, van Gassen K, Steinraths M, Rice J, Roeder ER, Littlejohn RO, Srour M, Sebire G, Accogli A, Héron D, Heide S, Nava C, Depienne C, Larson A, Niyazov D, Azage M, Hoganson G, Burton J, Rush ET, Jenkins JL, Saunders CJ, Thiffault I, Alaimo JT, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Gripp KW, Chung WK
Am J Med Genet A 2020 May;182(5):962-973. Epub 2020 Feb 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61505. PMID: 32031333

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