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Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism(DEDDFA)

MedGen UID:
1679263
Concept ID:
C5193106
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEDDFA; DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY WITH OR WITHOUT DYSMORPHIC FACIES AND AUTISM
 
Gene (location): TRRAP (7q22.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032760
OMIM®: 618454

Definition

Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism (DEDDFA) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder apparent from infancy or early childhood and associated with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may be severely affected with no speech and inability to walk, whereas others may be able to attend special schools or have normal intellectual function associated with autism spectrum disorder and mild speech delay. Genetic analysis has suggested that the phenotype can be broadly categorized into 2 main groups. Patients with TRRAP mutations affecting residues 1031-1159 have a more severe disorder, often with multisystem involvement, including renal, cardiac, and genitourinary systems, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Patients with mutations outside of that region tend to have a less severe phenotype with a higher incidence of autism and usually no systemic involvement. Patients in both groups usually have somewhat similar dysmorphic facial features, such as upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and broad or depressed nasal bridge, although these features are highly variable (summary by Cogne et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Vesicoureteral reflux
MedGen UID:
21852
Concept ID:
C0042580
Disease or Syndrome
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys. It is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency (summary by Lu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vesicoureteral Reflux A locus designated VUR1 maps to chromosome 1p13. VUR2 (610878) is caused by mutation in the ROBO2 gene (602431) on chromosome 3p12; VUR3 (613674) is caused by mutation in the SOX17 gene (610928) on chromosome 8q11; VUR4 (614317) maps to chromosome 5; VUR5 (614318) maps to chromosome 13; VUR6 (614319) maps to chromosome 18; VUR7 (615390) maps to chromosome 12; and VUR8 (615963) is caused by mutation in the TNXB gene (600985) on chromosome 6p21. A possible X-linked form has been reported (VURX; 314550).
Microphallus
MedGen UID:
66816
Concept ID:
C0240701
Finding
Length of penis more than 2 SD below the mean for age accompanied by hypospadias.
Renal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120571
Concept ID:
C0266295
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia of the kidney.
Small scrotum
MedGen UID:
141577
Concept ID:
C0455792
Finding
Apparently small scrotum for age.
Renal cyst
MedGen UID:
854361
Concept ID:
C3887499
Disease or Syndrome
A fluid filled sac in the kidney.
2-3 toe cutaneous syndactyly
MedGen UID:
98470
Concept ID:
C0432040
Congenital Abnormality
Short foot
MedGen UID:
376415
Concept ID:
C1848673
Finding
A measured foot length that is more than 2 SD below the mean for a newborn of 27 - 41 weeks gestation, or foot that is less than the 3rd centile for individuals from birth to 16 years of age (objective). Alternatively, a foot that appears disproportionately short (subjective).
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Hallucinations
MedGen UID:
6709
Concept ID:
C0018524
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Perceptions in a conscious and awake state that, in the absence of external stimuli, have qualities of real perception. These perceptions are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space.
Psychotic disorder
MedGen UID:
19568
Concept ID:
C0033975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A condition characterized by changes in personality and thought patterns, often accompanied by hallucinations and delusional beliefs, is known as psychosis.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Compulsive behaviors
MedGen UID:
109373
Concept ID:
C0600104
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Behavior that consists of repetitive acts, characterized by the feeling that one "has to" perform them, while being aware that these acts are not in line with one's overall goal.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Lower limb hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
322973
Concept ID:
C1836696
Finding
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Delayed fine motor development
MedGen UID:
869257
Concept ID:
C4023681
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the fingers and hands.
Atrophy/Degeneration affecting the brainstem
MedGen UID:
870454
Concept ID:
C4024900
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
MedGen UID:
68625
Concept ID:
C0235833
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of a hernia of the diaphragm present at birth.
Congenital omphalocele
MedGen UID:
162756
Concept ID:
C0795690
Congenital Abnormality
An omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect limited to an open umbilical ring, and is characterized by the herniation of membrane-covered internal organs into the open base of the umbilical cord. Omphalocele is distinguished from gastroschisis (230750), in which the abdominal wall defect is located laterally to a normally closed umbilical ring with herniation of organs that are uncovered by membranes (summary by Bugge, 2010). On the basis of clinical manifestations, epidemiologic characteristics, and the presence of additional malformations, Yang et al. (1992) concluded that omphalocele and gastroschisis are casually and pathogenetically distinct abdominal wall defects. Omphalocele can be a feature of genetic disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (130650) and the Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (182210).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Laryngotracheomalacia
MedGen UID:
107947
Concept ID:
C0585984
Anatomical Abnormality
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Narrow nose
MedGen UID:
98086
Concept ID:
C0426422
Finding
Interalar distance more than 2 SD below the mean for age, or alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the nasal base and alae.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Lacrimal duct aplasia
MedGen UID:
870330
Concept ID:
C4024773
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital defect resulting in absence of the lacrimal duct.
Cleft lip
MedGen UID:
1370297
Concept ID:
C4321245
Anatomical Abnormality
A gap in the lip or lips.
Small nail
MedGen UID:
537942
Concept ID:
C0263523
Finding
A nail that is diminished in length and width, i.e., underdeveloped nail.
Nail dysplasia
MedGen UID:
331737
Concept ID:
C1834405
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the nail.
Supernumerary nipple
MedGen UID:
120564
Concept ID:
C0266011
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of more than two nipples.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Coloboma of optic nerve
MedGen UID:
57832
Concept ID:
C0155299
Disease or Syndrome
A cleft of the optic nerve that extends inferiorly.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Faraone SV, Banaschewski T, Coghill D, Zheng Y, Biederman J, Bellgrove MA, Newcorn JH, Gignac M, Al Saud NM, Manor I, Rohde LA, Yang L, Cortese S, Almagor D, Stein MA, Albatti TH, Aljoudi HF, Alqahtani MMJ, Asherson P, Atwoli L, Bölte S, Buitelaar JK, Crunelle CL, Daley D, Dalsgaard S, Döpfner M, Espinet S, Fitzgerald M, Franke B, Gerlach M, Haavik J, Hartman CA, Hartung CM, Hinshaw SP, Hoekstra PJ, Hollis C, Kollins SH, Sandra Kooij JJ, Kuntsi J, Larsson H, Li T, Liu J, Merzon E, Mattingly G, Mattos P, McCarthy S, Mikami AY, Molina BSG, Nigg JT, Purper-Ouakil D, Omigbodun OO, Polanczyk GV, Pollak Y, Poulton AS, Rajkumar RP, Reding A, Reif A, Rubia K, Rucklidge J, Romanos M, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Schellekens A, Scheres A, Schoeman R, Schweitzer JB, Shah H, Solanto MV, Sonuga-Barke E, Soutullo C, Steinhausen HC, Swanson JM, Thapar A, Tripp G, van de Glind G, van den Brink W, Van der Oord S, Venter A, Vitiello B, Walitza S, Wang Y
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep;128:789-818. Epub 2021 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.01.022. PMID: 33549739Free PMC Article
Kajdic N, Spazzapan P, Velnar T
Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2018 May 20;18(2):110-116. doi: 10.17305/bjbms.2017.2083. PMID: 28623672Free PMC Article
Miller DT, Adam MP, Aradhya S, Biesecker LG, Brothman AR, Carter NP, Church DM, Crolla JA, Eichler EE, Epstein CJ, Faucett WA, Feuk L, Friedman JM, Hamosh A, Jackson L, Kaminsky EB, Kok K, Krantz ID, Kuhn RM, Lee C, Ostell JM, Rosenberg C, Scherer SW, Spinner NB, Stavropoulos DJ, Tepperberg JH, Thorland EC, Vermeesch JR, Waggoner DJ, Watson MS, Martin CL, Ledbetter DH
Am J Hum Genet 2010 May 14;86(5):749-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.006. PMID: 20466091Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cogné B, Ehresmann S, Beauregard-Lacroix E, Rousseau J, Besnard T, Garcia T, Petrovski S, Avni S, McWalter K, Blackburn PR, Sanders SJ, Uguen K, Harris J, Cohen JS, Blyth M, Lehman A, Berg J, Li MH, Kini U, Joss S, von der Lippe C, Gordon CT, Humberson JB, Robak L, Scott DA, Sutton VR, Skraban CM, Johnston JJ, Poduri A, Nordenskjöld M, Shashi V, Gerkes EH, Bongers EMHF, Gilissen C, Zarate YA, Kvarnung M, Lally KP, Kulch PA, Daniels B, Hernandez-Garcia A, Stong N, McGaughran J, Retterer K, Tveten K, Sullivan J, Geisheker MR, Stray-Pedersen A, Tarpinian JM, Klee EW, Sapp JC, Zyskind J, Holla ØL, Bedoukian E, Filippini F, Guimier A, Picard A, Busk ØL, Punetha J, Pfundt R, Lindstrand A, Nordgren A, Kalb F, Desai M, Ebanks AH, Jhangiani SN, Dewan T, Coban Akdemir ZH, Telegrafi A, Zackai EH, Begtrup A, Song X, Toutain A, Wentzensen IM, Odent S, Bonneau D, Latypova X, Deb W; CAUSES Study, Redon S, Bilan F, Legendre M, Troyer C, Whitlock K, Caluseriu O, Murphree MI, Pichurin PN, Agre K, Gavrilova R, Rinne T, Park M, Shain C, Heinzen EL, Xiao R, Amiel J, Lyonnet S, Isidor B, Biesecker LG, Lowenstein D, Posey JE, Denommé-Pichon AS; Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, Férec C, Yang XJ, Rosenfeld JA, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Audebert-Bellanger S, Redon R, Stessman HAF, Nellaker C, Yang Y, Lupski JR, Goldstein DB, Eichler EE, Bolduc F, Bézieau S, Küry S, Campeau PM
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Mar 7;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010. PMID: 30827496Free PMC Article
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Henry L, Farmer C, Manwaring SS, Swineford L, Thurm A
Res Dev Disabil 2018 Oct;81:65-72. Epub 2018 Apr 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.04.005. PMID: 29699725Free PMC Article
Malak R, Kostiukow A, Krawczyk-Wasielewska A, Mojs E, Samborski W
Med Sci Monit 2015 Jul 1;21:1904-10. doi: 10.12659/MSM.893377. PMID: 26132100Free PMC Article
Alfieri P, Piccini G, Caciolo C, Perrino F, Gambardella ML, Mallardi M, Cesarini L, Leoni C, Leone D, Fossati C, Selicorni A, Digilio MC, Tartaglia M, Mercuri E, Zampino G, Vicari S
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Apr;164A(4):934-42. Epub 2014 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36374. PMID: 24458522

Diagnosis

Boniel S, Szymańska K, Śmigiel R, Szczałuba K
Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;12(4) doi: 10.3390/genes12040468. PMID: 33805950Free PMC Article
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Saldarriaga W, Tassone F, González-Teshima LY, Forero-Forero JV, Ayala-Zapata S, Hagerman R
Colomb Med (Cali) 2014 Oct-Dec;45(4):190-8. Epub 2014 Dec 30 PMID: 25767309Free PMC Article
McLaughlin MR
Am Fam Physician 2011 May 15;83(10):1183-8. PMID: 21568252
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Therapy

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Makris EA, Gomoll AH, Malizos KN, Hu JC, Athanasiou KA
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Prognosis

Litt JS, Campbell DE
Clin Perinatol 2023 Mar;50(1):225-238. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2022.11.004. PMID: 36868707
Robledo KP, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Rieger I, Suresh P, Martin A, Yeung C, Ghadge A, Liley HG, Osborn D, Morris J, Hague W, Kluckow M, Lui K, Soll R, Cruz M, Keech A, Kirby A, Simes J; APTS Childhood Follow-up Study collaborators
Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2022 Mar;6(3):150-157. Epub 2021 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00373-4. PMID: 34895510
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Neoreviews 2021 Mar;22(3):e163-e176. doi: 10.1542/neo.22-3-e163. PMID: 33649089
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Clinical prediction guides

Perochon S, Di Martino JM, Carpenter KLH, Compton S, Davis N, Eichner B, Espinosa S, Franz L, Krishnappa Babu PR, Sapiro G, Dawson G
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Recent systematic reviews

Finsterer J
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Oh DL, Jerman P, Silvério Marques S, Koita K, Purewal Boparai SK, Burke Harris N, Bucci M
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Lamberink HJ, Otte WM, Geerts AT, Pavlovic M, Ramos-Lizana J, Marson AG, Overweg J, Sauma L, Specchio LM, Tennison M, Cardoso TMO, Shinnar S, Schmidt D, Geleijns K, Braun KPJ
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Law J, Garrett Z, Nye C
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