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Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations(RSTS1)

MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Broad thumbs and great toes, characteristic facies, and mental retardation; Rubinstein syndrome; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome 1; RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME 1, INCOMPLETE
 
Genes (locations): CREBBP (16p13.3); EP300 (22q13.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008393
OMIM®: 180849
Orphanet: ORPHA353277

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Characteristic craniofacial features include downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-related RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Cathy A Stevens   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by mental retardation, postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, broad thumbs and halluces, and dysmorphic facial features. The facial appearance is striking, with highly arched eyebrows, long eyelashes, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal bridge, beaked nose with the nasal septum, highly arched palate, mild micrognathia, and characteristic grimacing or abnormal smile. Affected individuals also have an increased risk of tumor formation (Rubinstein and Taybi, 1963; review by Hennekam, 2006). Floating-Harbor syndrome (136140), which shows phenotypic overlap with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, is caused by mutation in the SRCAP gene (611421), a coactivator for CREBBP. Genetic Heterogeneity of Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1) constitutes about 50 to 70% of patients with the disorder. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-2 (RSTS2; 613684) comprises about 3% of patients and is primarily due to de novo heterozygous mutation in the EP300 gene (602700) on chromosome 22q13 (Bartsch et al., 2010). See also chromosome 16p13.3 deletion syndrome (610543), a severe form of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome resulting from a contiguous gene deletion involving the CREBBP gene as well as other neighboring genes.  http://www.omim.org/entry/180849
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a condition characterized by short stature, moderate to severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and broad thumbs and first toes. Additional features of the disorder can include eye abnormalities, heart and kidney defects, dental problems, and obesity. These signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals. People with this condition have an increased risk of developing particular types of noncancerous brain and skin tumors.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/rubinstein-taybi-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Leukemia
MedGen UID:
9725
Concept ID:
C0023418
Neoplastic Process
A cancer of the blood and bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of leukocytes.
Neoplasm
MedGen UID:
10294
Concept ID:
C0027651
Neoplastic Process
An organ or organ-system abnormality that consists of uncontrolled autonomous cell-proliferation which can occur in any part of the body as a benign or malignant neoplasm (tumor).
Capillary hemangioma
MedGen UID:
64643
Concept ID:
C0206733
Neoplastic Process
The presence of a capillary hemangioma, which are hemangiomas with small endothelial spaces.
Hepatic hemangioma
MedGen UID:
66765
Concept ID:
C0238246
Neoplastic Process
A congenital vascular malformation in the liver composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size.
Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis
MedGen UID:
869791
Concept ID:
C4024221
Neoplastic Process
A cystadenoma, an epithelial tumor, that originates within the head of the epididymis.
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Bilateral cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
96568
Concept ID:
C0431663
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of both testes from the scrotum owing to failure of the testis or testes to descend through the inguinal canal to the scrotum.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Shawl scrotum
MedGen UID:
388088
Concept ID:
C1858539
Congenital Abnormality
Superior margin of the scrotum superior to the base of the penis.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Syndactyly
MedGen UID:
52619
Concept ID:
C0039075
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the fingers or toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the fingers or toes in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "symphalangism".
Polydactyly
MedGen UID:
57774
Concept ID:
C0152427
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary fingers or toes.
Dislocated radial head
MedGen UID:
488814
Concept ID:
C0265563
Congenital Abnormality
A dislocation of the head of the radius from its socket in the elbow joint.
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Broad thumb
MedGen UID:
140880
Concept ID:
C0426891
Finding
Increased thumb width without increased dorso-ventral dimension.
Short thumb
MedGen UID:
98469
Concept ID:
C0431890
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia (congenital reduction in size) of the thumb.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Broad distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
342551
Concept ID:
C1850630
Finding
Abnormally wide (broad) distal phalanx of finger.
Duplication of phalanx of hallux
MedGen UID:
395424
Concept ID:
C1860164
Congenital Abnormality
Partial or complete duplication of one or more phalanx of big toe.
Broad hallux
MedGen UID:
401165
Concept ID:
C1867131
Finding
Visible increase in width of the hallux without an increase in the dorso-ventral dimension.
Broad hallux phalanx
MedGen UID:
866986
Concept ID:
C4021343
Anatomical Abnormality
An increase in width in one or more phalanges of the big toe.
Radial deviation of thumb terminal phalanx
MedGen UID:
870657
Concept ID:
C4025111
Anatomical Abnormality
High axial triradius
MedGen UID:
871318
Concept ID:
C4025806
Anatomical Abnormality
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Mitral valve prolapse
MedGen UID:
7671
Concept ID:
C0026267
Disease or Syndrome
One or both of the leaflets (cusps) of the mitral valve bulges back into the left atrium upon contraction of the left ventricle.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
MedGen UID:
57746
Concept ID:
C0152101
Disease or Syndrome
People with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.\n\nCritical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.\n\nEach of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.
Vascular ring
MedGen UID:
65131
Concept ID:
C0221214
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect of the aortic arch system in which the trachea and esophagus are completely encircled by connected segments of the aortic arch and its branches. This occurs if the normal process of regression and persistence of the bilateral embryonic aortic arches fails.
Persistent left superior vena cava
MedGen UID:
75586
Concept ID:
C0265931
Congenital Abnormality
A rare congenital vascular anomaly that results when the left superior cardinal vein caudal to the innominate vein fails to regress.
Perimembranous ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
87490
Concept ID:
C0344925
Congenital Abnormality
A ventricular septal defect that is confluent with and involves the membranous septum and is bordered by an atrioventricular valve, not including the type 3 VSDs.
Aortic isthmus hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
1814377
Concept ID:
C5676813
Congenital Abnormality
A type of aortic arch hypoplasia whereby the isthmus (arch between the left subclavian and insertion of the patent ductus arteriosus/ligamentum arteriosum) has a diameter of less than 40% of the diameter of the ascending aorta.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Truncal obesity
MedGen UID:
1637490
Concept ID:
C4551560
Finding
Obesity located preferentially in the trunk of the body as opposed to the extremities.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Simple ear
MedGen UID:
140913
Concept ID:
C0431483
Congenital Abnormality
The pinna has fewer folds and grooves than usual.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Impulsivity
MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; having difficulty establishing or following plans; experiencing a sense of urgency and engaging in self-harming behavior when under emotional distress.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Self-mutilation
MedGen UID:
19925
Concept ID:
C0036601
Injury or Poisoning
Deliberate harm to one's body resulting in tissue damage, without a conscious intent to die.
Spina bifida occulta
MedGen UID:
36380
Concept ID:
C0080174
Congenital Abnormality
The closed form of spina bifida with incomplete closure of a vertebral body with intact overlying skin.
Spina bifida
MedGen UID:
38283
Concept ID:
C0080178
Congenital Abnormality
Incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube, whereby some vertebral arches remain unfused and open. The mildest form is spina bifida occulta, followed by meningocele and meningomyelocele.
EEG abnormality
MedGen UID:
56235
Concept ID:
C0151611
Finding
Abnormality observed by electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used to record of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Unsteady gait
MedGen UID:
68544
Concept ID:
C0231686
Finding
A shaky or wobbly manner of walking.
Short attention span
MedGen UID:
82652
Concept ID:
C0262630
Finding
Reduced attention span characterized by distractibility and impulsivity.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
MedGen UID:
101045
Concept ID:
C0520679
Disease or Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common, chronic, complex disease associated with serious cardiovascular and neuropsychologic sequelae and with substantial social and economic costs (Palmer et al., 2003).
Incoordination
MedGen UID:
141714
Concept ID:
C0520966
Finding
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Poor coordination
MedGen UID:
107874
Concept ID:
C0563243
Finding
Phonophobia
MedGen UID:
155864
Concept ID:
C0751466
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An abnormally heightened sensitivity to loud sounds.
Hyperintensity of cerebral white matter on MRI
MedGen UID:
811125
Concept ID:
C2938912
Pathologic Function
A brighter than expected signal on magnetic resonance imaging emanating from the cerebral white matter.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Keloid
MedGen UID:
7197
Concept ID:
C0022548
Acquired Abnormality
An irregularly shaped, elevated mark on the skin caused by deposits of excessive amounts of collagen during wound healing. It extends beyond the original boundaries of the wound and may enlarge progressively.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Delayed cranial suture closure
MedGen UID:
75805
Concept ID:
C0277828
Finding
Infants normally have two fontanels at birth, the diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures, and the posterior fontanelle at the intersection of the occipital and parietal bones. The posterior fontanelle usually closes by the 8th week of life, and the anterior fontanel closes by the 18th month of life on average. This term applies if there is delay of closure of the fontanelles beyond the normal age.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Patellar dislocation
MedGen UID:
253896
Concept ID:
C1135812
Injury or Poisoning
The kneecap normally is located within the groove termed trochlea on the distal femur and can slide up and down in it. Patellar dislocation occurs if the patella fully dislocates out of the groove.
Large foramen magnum
MedGen UID:
336194
Concept ID:
C1844508
Finding
An abnormal increase in the size of the foramen magnum.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Hypoplastic iliac wing
MedGen UID:
351279
Concept ID:
C1865027
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the ilium ala.
Flared iliac wing
MedGen UID:
356097
Concept ID:
C1865841
Finding
Widening of the ilium ala, that is of the wing of the ilium, combined with external rotation, leading to a flared appearance of the iliac wing.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Parietal foramina
MedGen UID:
505331
Concept ID:
CN002451
Finding
The presence of symmetrical and circular openings (foramina) in the parietal bone ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters wide.
Respiratory tract infection
MedGen UID:
11199
Concept ID:
C0035243
Disease or Syndrome
An infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract.
Congenital laryngomalacia
MedGen UID:
120500
Concept ID:
C0264303
Anatomical Abnormality
Laryngomalacia is a congenital abnormality of the laryngeal cartilage in which the cartilage is floppy and prolapses over the larynx during inspiration.
Respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
96907
Concept ID:
C0476273
Sign or Symptom
Respiratory distress is objectively observable as the physical or emotional consequences from the experience of dyspnea. The physical presentation of respiratory distress is generally referred to as labored breathing, while the sensation of respiratory distress is called shortness of breath or dyspnea.
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
MedGen UID:
154380
Concept ID:
C0581381
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections as manifested by a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (running ears - otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis).
Accessory spleen
MedGen UID:
75619
Concept ID:
C0266631
Congenital Abnormality
An accessory spleen is a round, iso-echogenic, homogenic and smooth structure and is seen as a normal variant mostly on the medial contour of the spleen, near the hilus or around the lower pole. This has no pathogenic relevance.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Anatomical Abnormality
Dental malocclusion refers to an abnormality of the occlusion, or alignment, of the teeth and the way the upper and lower teeth fit together, resulting in overcrowding of teeth or in abnormal bite patterns.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
Facial grimacing
MedGen UID:
65891
Concept ID:
C0234853
Finding
Facial grimacing is characterized by a distorted, distressed look. The brow is more wrinkled, as is the area around the mouth. Eyes may be squeezed shut.
Convex nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
66809
Concept ID:
C0240538
Finding
Nasal ridge curving anteriorly to an imaginary line that connects the nasal root and tip. The nose appears often also prominent, and the columella low.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Talon cusp
MedGen UID:
140772
Concept ID:
C0399357
Anatomical Abnormality
Talon cusp is an accessory cusp located near the cingulum (the portion of the lingual or palatal aspect of the tooth that forms a convex protuberance at the cervical third of the anatomic crown).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Prominent nose
MedGen UID:
98423
Concept ID:
C0426415
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Deviated nasal septum
MedGen UID:
154288
Concept ID:
C0549397
Finding
Positioning of the nasal septum to the right or left in contrast to the normal midline position of the nasal septum.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
MedGen UID:
226915
Concept ID:
C1281931
Finding
Blockage of the lacrimal duct.
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Low posterior hairline
MedGen UID:
383755
Concept ID:
C1855728
Finding
Hair on the neck extends more inferiorly than usual.
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Broad eyebrow
MedGen UID:
344657
Concept ID:
C1856121
Finding
Regional increase in the width (height) of the eyebrow.
Short columella
MedGen UID:
341783
Concept ID:
C1857479
Finding
Reduced distance from the anterior border of the naris to the subnasale.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Cafe-au-lait spot
MedGen UID:
113157
Concept ID:
C0221263
Finding
Cafe-au-lait spots are hyperpigmented lesions that can vary in color from light brown to dark brown with smooth borders and having a size of 1.5 cm or more in adults and 0.5 cm or more in children.
Frontal upsweep of hair
MedGen UID:
452910
Concept ID:
C1185616
Finding
Upward and/or sideward growth of anterior hair.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term "persistent fetal fingertip pads" is often used as a synonym, but should better not be used because it implies knowledge of history of the patient which often does not exist.
Frontal hirsutism
MedGen UID:
333413
Concept ID:
C1839830
Finding
Excessive amount of hair growth on forehead.
Facial hypertrichosis
MedGen UID:
342000
Concept ID:
C1851400
Finding
Excessive, increased hair growth located in the facial region.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Plantar crease between first and second toes
MedGen UID:
356702
Concept ID:
C1867132
Finding
The presence of unusually deep creases (ridges/wrinkles) on the skin of sole of foot located between the first and second toe.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Premature thelarche
MedGen UID:
98416
Concept ID:
C0425772
Finding
Premature development of the breasts.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an eye abnormality that occurs before birth. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in one of several parts of the eye, including the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nColobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision. Colobomas affecting the iris, which result in a "keyhole" appearance of the pupil, generally do not lead to vision loss. Colobomas involving the retina result in vision loss in specific parts of the visual field. Large retinal colobomas or those affecting the optic nerve can cause low vision, which means vision loss that cannot be completely corrected with glasses or contact lenses.\n\nSome people with coloboma also have a condition called microphthalmia. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with coloboma may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract), increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma) that can damage the optic nerve, vision problems such as nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), or separation of the retina from the back of the eye (retinal detachment).\n\nColobomas involving the eyeball should be distinguished from gaps that occur in the eyelids. While these eyelid gaps are also called colobomas, they arise from abnormalities in different structures during early development.\n\nSome individuals have coloboma as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When coloboma occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lacombe D, Bloch-Zupan A, Bredrup C, Cooper EB, Houge SD, García-Miñaúr S, Kayserili H, Larizza L, Lopez Gonzalez V, Menke LA, Milani D, Saettini F, Stevens CA, Tooke L, Van der Zee JA, Van Genderen MM, Van-Gils J, Waite J, Adrien JL, Bartsch O, Bitoun P, Bouts AHM, Cueto-González AM, Dominguez-Garrido E, Duijkers FA, Fergelot P, Halstead E, Huisman SA, Meossi C, Mullins J, Nikkel SM, Oliver C, Prada E, Rei A, Riddle I, Rodriguez-Fonseca C, Rodríguez Pena R, Russell J, Saba A, Santos-Simarro F, Simpson BN, Smith DF, Stevens MF, Szakszon K, Taupiac E, Totaro N, Valenzuena Palafoll I, Van Der Kaay DCM, Van Wijk MP, Vyshka K, Wiley S, Hennekam RC
J Med Genet 2024 May 21;61(6):503-519. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2023-109438. PMID: 38471765Free PMC Article
Fergelot P, Van Belzen M, Van Gils J, Afenjar A, Armour CM, Arveiler B, Beets L, Burglen L, Busa T, Collet M, Deforges J, de Vries BB, Dominguez Garrido E, Dorison N, Dupont J, Francannet C, Garciá-Minaúr S, Gabau Vila E, Gebre-Medhin S, Gener Querol B, Geneviève D, Gérard M, Gervasini CG, Goldenberg A, Josifova D, Lachlan K, Maas S, Maranda B, Moilanen JS, Nordgren A, Parent P, Rankin J, Reardon W, Rio M, Roume J, Shaw A, Smigiel R, Sojo A, Solomon B, Stembalska A, Stumpel C, Suarez F, Terhal P, Thomas S, Touraine R, Verloes A, Vincent-Delorme C, Wincent J, Peters DJ, Bartsch O, Larizza L, Lacombe D, Hennekam RC
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Dec;170(12):3069-3082. Epub 2016 Sep 20 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37940. PMID: 27648933
Milani D, Manzoni FM, Pezzani L, Ajmone P, Gervasini C, Menni F, Esposito S
Ital J Pediatr 2015 Jan 20;41:4. doi: 10.1186/s13052-015-0110-1. PMID: 25599811Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lacombe D, Bloch-Zupan A, Bredrup C, Cooper EB, Houge SD, García-Miñaúr S, Kayserili H, Larizza L, Lopez Gonzalez V, Menke LA, Milani D, Saettini F, Stevens CA, Tooke L, Van der Zee JA, Van Genderen MM, Van-Gils J, Waite J, Adrien JL, Bartsch O, Bitoun P, Bouts AHM, Cueto-González AM, Dominguez-Garrido E, Duijkers FA, Fergelot P, Halstead E, Huisman SA, Meossi C, Mullins J, Nikkel SM, Oliver C, Prada E, Rei A, Riddle I, Rodriguez-Fonseca C, Rodríguez Pena R, Russell J, Saba A, Santos-Simarro F, Simpson BN, Smith DF, Stevens MF, Szakszon K, Taupiac E, Totaro N, Valenzuena Palafoll I, Van Der Kaay DCM, Van Wijk MP, Vyshka K, Wiley S, Hennekam RC
J Med Genet 2024 May 21;61(6):503-519. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2023-109438. PMID: 38471765Free PMC Article
Cammarata-Scalisi F, Diociaiuti A, Cárdenas Tadich A, Sandoval X, Oranges T, Filippeschi C, Araya Castillo M, Willoughby CE, Cerri A, Gervasini C, Callea M
Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2023 Aug;158(4):316-320. Epub 2023 Jun 7 doi: 10.23736/S2784-8671.23.07547-3. PMID: 37282850
Tekendo-Ngongang C, Owosela B, Fleischer N, Addissie YA, Malonga B, Badoe E, Gupta N, Moresco A, Huckstadt V, Ashaat EA, Hussen DF, Luk HM, Lo IFM, Hon-Yin Chung B, Fung JLF, Moretti-Ferreira D, Batista LC, Lotz-Esquivel S, Saborio-Rocafort M, Badilla-Porras R, Penon Portmann M, Jones KL, Abdul-Rahman OA, Uwineza A, Prijoles EJ, Ifeorah IK, Llamos Paneque A, Sirisena ND, Dowsett L, Lee S, Cappuccio G, Kitchin CS, Diaz-Kuan A, Thong MK, Obregon MG, Mutesa L, Dissanayake VHW, El Ruby MO, Brunetti-Pierri N, Ekure EN, Stevenson RE, Muenke M, Kruszka P
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Dec;182(12):2939-2950. Epub 2020 Sep 27 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61888. PMID: 32985117
Boot MV, van Belzen MJ, Overbeek LI, Hijmering N, Mendeville M, Waisfisz Q, Wesseling P, Hennekam RC, de Jong D
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Mar;176(3):597-608. Epub 2018 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38603. PMID: 29359884Free PMC Article
Engelkamp D, van Heyningen V
Curr Opin Genet Dev 1996 Jun;6(3):334-42. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(96)80011-6. PMID: 8791518

Diagnosis

Cogan G, Bourgon N, Borghese R, Julien E, Jaquette A, Stos B, Achaiaa A, Chuon S, Nitschke P, Fourrage C, Stirnemann J, Boutaud L, Attie-Bitach T
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Sep;11(9):e2219. Epub 2023 Jun 23 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2219. PMID: 37353886Free PMC Article
Cammarata-Scalisi F, Diociaiuti A, Cárdenas Tadich A, Sandoval X, Oranges T, Filippeschi C, Araya Castillo M, Willoughby CE, Cerri A, Gervasini C, Callea M
Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2023 Aug;158(4):316-320. Epub 2023 Jun 7 doi: 10.23736/S2784-8671.23.07547-3. PMID: 37282850
Van Gils J, Magdinier F, Fergelot P, Lacombe D
Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 24;12(7) doi: 10.3390/genes12070968. PMID: 34202860Free PMC Article
Verhoeven WM, Tuinier S, Kuijpers HJ, Egger JI, Brunner HG
Psychopathology 2010;43(1):63-8. Epub 2009 Nov 20 doi: 10.1159/000260045. PMID: 19940543
Engelkamp D, van Heyningen V
Curr Opin Genet Dev 1996 Jun;6(3):334-42. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(96)80011-6. PMID: 8791518

Therapy

Korzus E
Adv Exp Med Biol 2017;978:39-62. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-53889-1_3. PMID: 28523540Free PMC Article
van Uitert M, Moerland PD, Enquobahrie DA, Laivuori H, van der Post JA, Ris-Stalpers C, Afink GB
PLoS One 2015;10(7):e0132468. Epub 2015 Jul 14 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132468. PMID: 26171964Free PMC Article
Rusconi D, Negri G, Colapietro P, Picinelli C, Milani D, Spena S, Magnani C, Silengo MC, Sorasio L, Curtisova V, Cavaliere ML, Prontera P, Stangoni G, Ferrero GB, Biamino E, Fischetto R, Piccione M, Gasparini P, Salviati L, Selicorni A, Finelli P, Larizza L, Gervasini C
Hum Genet 2015 Jun;134(6):613-26. Epub 2015 Mar 25 doi: 10.1007/s00439-015-1542-9. PMID: 25805166
Park E, Kim Y, Ryu H, Kowall NW, Lee J, Ryu H
Neuromolecular Med 2014 Mar;16(1):16-24. Epub 2014 Jan 1 doi: 10.1007/s12017-013-8285-3. PMID: 24381114Free PMC Article
Shim JH, Greenblatt MB, Singh A, Brady N, Hu D, Drapp R, Ogawa W, Kasuga M, Noda T, Yang SH, Lee SK, Rebel VI, Glimcher LH
J Clin Invest 2012 Jan;122(1):91-106. Epub 2011 Dec 1 doi: 10.1172/JCI59466. PMID: 22133875Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Choi N, Kim HY, Lim BC, Chae JH, Kim SY, Ko JM
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Oct;9(10):e1791. Epub 2021 Aug 24 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1791. PMID: 34427995Free PMC Article
Tekendo-Ngongang C, Owosela B, Fleischer N, Addissie YA, Malonga B, Badoe E, Gupta N, Moresco A, Huckstadt V, Ashaat EA, Hussen DF, Luk HM, Lo IFM, Hon-Yin Chung B, Fung JLF, Moretti-Ferreira D, Batista LC, Lotz-Esquivel S, Saborio-Rocafort M, Badilla-Porras R, Penon Portmann M, Jones KL, Abdul-Rahman OA, Uwineza A, Prijoles EJ, Ifeorah IK, Llamos Paneque A, Sirisena ND, Dowsett L, Lee S, Cappuccio G, Kitchin CS, Diaz-Kuan A, Thong MK, Obregon MG, Mutesa L, Dissanayake VHW, El Ruby MO, Brunetti-Pierri N, Ekure EN, Stevenson RE, Muenke M, Kruszka P
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Dec;182(12):2939-2950. Epub 2020 Sep 27 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61888. PMID: 32985117
Boot MV, van Belzen MJ, Overbeek LI, Hijmering N, Mendeville M, Waisfisz Q, Wesseling P, Hennekam RC, de Jong D
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Mar;176(3):597-608. Epub 2018 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38603. PMID: 29359884Free PMC Article
Hood RL, Lines MA, Nikkel SM, Schwartzentruber J, Beaulieu C, Nowaczyk MJ, Allanson J, Kim CA, Wieczorek D, Moilanen JS, Lacombe D, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Whiteford ML, Quaio CR, Gomy I, Bertola DR, Albrecht B, Platzer K, McGillivray G, Zou R, McLeod DR, Chudley AE, Chodirker BN, Marcadier J; FORGE Canada Consortium, Majewski J, Bulman DE, White SM, Boycott KM
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 10;90(2):308-13. Epub 2012 Jan 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.001. PMID: 22265015Free PMC Article
van Belzen M, Bartsch O, Lacombe D, Peters DJ, Hennekam RC
Eur J Hum Genet 2011 Jan;19(1):preceeding 118-20. Epub 2010 Jul 28 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.124. PMID: 20664634Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Choi N, Kim HY, Lim BC, Chae JH, Kim SY, Ko JM
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Oct;9(10):e1791. Epub 2021 Aug 24 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1791. PMID: 34427995Free PMC Article
López M, García-Oguiza A, Armstrong J, García-Cobaleda I, García-Miñaur S, Santos-Simarro F, Seidel V, Domínguez-Garrido E
BMC Med Genet 2018 Mar 5;19(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s12881-018-0548-2. PMID: 29506490Free PMC Article
Boot MV, van Belzen MJ, Overbeek LI, Hijmering N, Mendeville M, Waisfisz Q, Wesseling P, Hennekam RC, de Jong D
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Mar;176(3):597-608. Epub 2018 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38603. PMID: 29359884Free PMC Article
Hood RL, Lines MA, Nikkel SM, Schwartzentruber J, Beaulieu C, Nowaczyk MJ, Allanson J, Kim CA, Wieczorek D, Moilanen JS, Lacombe D, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Whiteford ML, Quaio CR, Gomy I, Bertola DR, Albrecht B, Platzer K, McGillivray G, Zou R, McLeod DR, Chudley AE, Chodirker BN, Marcadier J; FORGE Canada Consortium, Majewski J, Bulman DE, White SM, Boycott KM
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 10;90(2):308-13. Epub 2012 Jan 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.001. PMID: 22265015Free PMC Article
Verhoeven WM, Tuinier S, Kuijpers HJ, Egger JI, Brunner HG
Psychopathology 2010;43(1):63-8. Epub 2009 Nov 20 doi: 10.1159/000260045. PMID: 19940543

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