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Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1(GAMOS1)

MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: GAMOS1
 
Gene (location): WDR73 (15q25.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033005
OMIM®: 251300

Clinical features

From HPO
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
MedGen UID:
4904
Concept ID:
C0017668
Disease or Syndrome
Segmental accumulation of scar tissue in individual (but not all) glomeruli.
Nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
10308
Concept ID:
C0027726
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of findings resulting from glomerular dysfunction with an increase in glomerular capillary wall permeability associated with pronounced proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome refers to the constellation of clinical findings that result from severe renal loss of protein, with Proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia.
Proteinuria
MedGen UID:
10976
Concept ID:
C0033687
Finding
Increased levels of protein in the urine.
Diffuse mesangial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
78698
Concept ID:
C0268747
Disease or Syndrome
Diffuse sclerosis of the mesangium, as manifestated by diffuse mesangial matrix expansion.
Renal insufficiency
MedGen UID:
332529
Concept ID:
C1565489
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the level of performance of the kidneys in areas of function comprising the concentration of urine, removal of wastes, the maintenance of electrolyte balance, homeostasis of blood pressure, and calcium metabolism.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Hand clenching
MedGen UID:
65994
Concept ID:
C0239815
Finding
An abnormal hand posture in which the hands are clenched to fists. All digits held completely flexed at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. In prenatal sonography of the fetal clenched hand, the index finger overlaps a clenched fist formed by the other digits. The proximal interphalangeal articulation of the index finger is flexed and ulnarly deviated, and the thumb is adducted.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Slender finger
MedGen UID:
387832
Concept ID:
C1857482
Finding
Fingers that are disproportionately narrow (reduced girth) for the hand/foot size or build of the individual.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Sleep abnormality
MedGen UID:
52372
Concept ID:
C0037317
Finding
An abnormal pattern in the quality, quantity, or characteristics of sleep.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Macrogyria
MedGen UID:
120579
Concept ID:
C0266483
Congenital Abnormality
Pachygyria is a malformation of cortical development with abnormally wide gyri with sulci 1,5-3 cm apart and abnormally thick cortex measuring more than 5 mm (radiological definition). See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Abnormality of neuronal migration
MedGen UID:
324748
Concept ID:
C1837249
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality resulting from an anomaly of neuronal migration, i.e., of the process by which neurons travel from their origin to their final position in the brain.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Flat occiput
MedGen UID:
332439
Concept ID:
C1837402
Finding
Reduced convexity of the occiput (posterior part of skull).
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Hiatus hernia
MedGen UID:
483347
Concept ID:
C3489393
Acquired Abnormality
The presence of a hernia in which the upper part of the stomach, i.e., mainly the gastric cardia protrudes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
68694
Concept ID:
C0239981
Finding
Reduction in the concentration of albumin in the blood.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Prominent nose
MedGen UID:
98423
Concept ID:
C0426415
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Narrow nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
373404
Concept ID:
C1837761
Finding
Decreased width of the nasal ridge.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Hypopigmentation of the skin
MedGen UID:
102477
Concept ID:
C0162835
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction of skin color related to a decrease in melanin production and deposition.
Small nail
MedGen UID:
537942
Concept ID:
C0263523
Finding
A nail that is diminished in length and width, i.e., underdeveloped nail.
Oligohydramnios
MedGen UID:
86974
Concept ID:
C0079924
Pathologic Function
Diminished amniotic fluid volume in pregnancy.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Hypoplasia of the iris
MedGen UID:
91029
Concept ID:
C0344539
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital underdevelopment of the iris.
Opacification of the corneal stroma
MedGen UID:
602191
Concept ID:
C0423250
Finding
Reduced transparency of the stroma of cornea.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Licht C, Eifinger F, Gharib M, Offner G, Michalk DV, Querfeld U
Pediatr Nephrol 2000 Oct;14(12):1077-82. doi: 10.1007/s004670000386. PMID: 11045390

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chen Y, Yang Y, Yang Y, Rao J, Bai H
BMC Nephrol 2023 Feb 8;24(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12882-022-03000-5. PMID: 36755238Free PMC Article
Sinha R, Vasudevan A, Agarwal I, Sethi SK, Saha A, Pradhan S, Ekambaram S, Thaker N, Matnani M, Banerjee S, Sharma J, Singhal J, Ashraf S, Mandal K
Nephron 2020;144(1):21-29. Epub 2019 Oct 25 doi: 10.1159/000503303. PMID: 31655822
Lin PY, Tseng MH, Zenker M, Rao J, Hildebrandt F, Lin SH, Lin CC, Chang JH, Hsu CH, Lee MD, Lin SP, Tsai JD
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 Dec 17;13(1):226. doi: 10.1186/s13023-018-0961-9. PMID: 30558655Free PMC Article
Al-Rakan MA, Abothnain MD, Alrifai MT, Alfadhel M
BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Jun 22;18(1):147. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0820-4. PMID: 29929488Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Chen Y, Yang Y, Yang Y, Rao J, Bai H
BMC Nephrol 2023 Feb 8;24(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12882-022-03000-5. PMID: 36755238Free PMC Article
Racine J, Golden R
Doc Ophthalmol 2021 Aug;143(1):75-83. Epub 2021 Feb 6 doi: 10.1007/s10633-021-09820-4. PMID: 33548032
Lin PY, Tseng MH, Zenker M, Rao J, Hildebrandt F, Lin SH, Lin CC, Chang JH, Hsu CH, Lee MD, Lin SP, Tsai JD
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 Dec 17;13(1):226. doi: 10.1186/s13023-018-0961-9. PMID: 30558655Free PMC Article
Al-Rakan MA, Abothnain MD, Alrifai MT, Alfadhel M
BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Jun 22;18(1):147. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0820-4. PMID: 29929488Free PMC Article
Cooperstone BG, Friedman A, Kaplan BS
Am J Med Genet 1993 Aug 15;47(2):250-4. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320470221. PMID: 8213914

Therapy

Licht C, Eifinger F, Gharib M, Offner G, Michalk DV, Querfeld U
Pediatr Nephrol 2000 Oct;14(12):1077-82. doi: 10.1007/s004670000386. PMID: 11045390

Prognosis

Domingo-Gallego A, Furlano M, Pybus M, Barraca D, Martínez AB, Mora Muñoz E, Torra R, Ars E
BMC Nephrol 2019 Apr 11;20(1):126. doi: 10.1186/s12882-019-1317-y. PMID: 30975089Free PMC Article
Al-Rakan MA, Abothnain MD, Alrifai MT, Alfadhel M
BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Jun 22;18(1):147. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0820-4. PMID: 29929488Free PMC Article
Cooperstone BG, Friedman A, Kaplan BS
Am J Med Genet 1993 Aug 15;47(2):250-4. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320470221. PMID: 8213914

Clinical prediction guides

Braun DA, Shril S, Sinha A, Schneider R, Tan W, Ashraf S, Hermle T, Jobst-Schwan T, Widmeier E, Majmundar AJ, Daga A, Warejko JK, Nakayama M, Schapiro D, Chen J, Airik M, Rao J, Schmidt JM, Hoogstraten CA, Hugo H, Meena J, Lek M, Laricchia KM, Bagga A, Hildebrandt F
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Nov;176(11):2460-2465. Epub 2018 Aug 6 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.40489. PMID: 30079490Free PMC Article

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