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Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 1(IECEE1; DEE91)

MedGen UID:
1626137
Concept ID:
C4540199
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 91
 
Gene (location): PPP3CA (4q24)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020630
OMIM®: 617711

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-91 (DEE91) is characterized by delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy and resulting in severely to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Most patients never achieve independent walking. Patients typically have onset of refractory multifocal seizures between the first weeks and years of life, and some may show developmental regression. Additional features, such as hypotonia and cortical visual impairment, are more variable (summary by Myers et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Focal motor seizure
MedGen UID:
5237
Concept ID:
C0016399
Disease or Syndrome
A type of focal-onset seizure characterized by a motor sign as its initial semiological manifestation.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Unsteady gait
MedGen UID:
68544
Concept ID:
C0231686
Finding
A shaky or wobbly manner of walking.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Atypical absence seizure
MedGen UID:
108888
Concept ID:
C0595948
Disease or Syndrome
An atypical absence seizure is a type of generalized non-motor (absence) seizure characterized by interruption of ongoing activities and reduced responsiveness. In comparison to a typical absence seizure, changes in tone may be more pronounced, onset and/or cessation may be less abrupt, and the duration of the ictus and post-ictal recovery may be longer. Although not always available, an EEG often demonstrates slow (<3 Hz), irregular, generalized spike-wave activity.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Multifocal epileptiform discharges
MedGen UID:
866864
Concept ID:
C4021219
Finding
An abnormality in cerebral electrical activity recorded along the scalp by electroencephalography (EEG) and being identified at multiple locations (foci).
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Reduced cerebral white matter volume
MedGen UID:
1815057
Concept ID:
C5706151
Finding
An abnormally low volume of the white matter of the brain.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Hoarse voice
MedGen UID:
5602
Concept ID:
C0019825
Sign or Symptom
Hoarseness refers to a change in the pitch or quality of the voice, with the voice sounding weak, very breathy, scratchy, or husky.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Prominent nasal tip
MedGen UID:
383839
Concept ID:
C1856118
Finding
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Katyayan A, Diaz-Medina G
Neurol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002. PMID: 34215386

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Leitinger M, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Matricardi S, Brigo F, Meletti S, Trinka E
Eur J Neurol 2022 Feb;29(2):626-647. Epub 2021 Nov 2 doi: 10.1111/ene.15149. PMID: 34661330Free PMC Article
Gaston TE, Szaflarski JP
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Sep 8;18(11):73. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0882-y. PMID: 30194563
Hirsch LJ, Gaspard N, van Baalen A, Nabbout R, Demeret S, Loddenkemper T, Navarro V, Specchio N, Lagae L, Rossetti AO, Hocker S, Gofton TE, Abend NS, Gilmore EJ, Hahn C, Khosravani H, Rosenow F, Trinka E
Epilepsia 2018 Apr;59(4):739-744. Epub 2018 Feb 5 doi: 10.1111/epi.14016. PMID: 29399791

Diagnosis

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Samanta D
Epilepsy Behav 2022 May;130:108678. Epub 2022 Apr 14 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2022.108678. PMID: 35429726
Myers KA
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):339-362. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001077. PMID: 35393962
Koch H, Weber YG
Epilepsy Behav 2019 Feb;91:90-93. Epub 2018 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.06.010. PMID: 30076047
Gaston TE, Szaflarski JP
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Sep 8;18(11):73. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0882-y. PMID: 30194563

Therapy

Elkommos S, Mula M
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 Dec;23(18):2023-2034. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1080/14656566.2022.2128670. PMID: 36154780
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2022 Mar;36(3):217-237. Epub 2022 Feb 14 doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00898-1. PMID: 35156171Free PMC Article
Gaston TE, Szaflarski JP
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Sep 8;18(11):73. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0882-y. PMID: 30194563
Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, Fernandez-Ruiz J, French J, Hill C, Katz R, Di Marzo V, Jutras-Aswad D, Notcutt WG, Martinez-Orgado J, Robson PJ, Rohrback BG, Thiele E, Whalley B, Friedman D
Epilepsia 2014 Jun;55(6):791-802. Epub 2014 May 22 doi: 10.1111/epi.12631. PMID: 24854329Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Myers KA
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):339-362. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001077. PMID: 35393962
Katyayan A, Diaz-Medina G
Neurol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002. PMID: 34215386
Pavone P, Polizzi A, Marino SD, Corsello G, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Ruggieri M
Neurol Sci 2020 Dec;41(12):3547-3562. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04600-5. PMID: 32827285Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505

Clinical prediction guides

Hong W, Haviland I, Pestana-Knight E, Weisenberg JL, Demarest S, Marsh ED, Olson HE
CNS Drugs 2022 Jun;36(6):591-604. Epub 2022 May 28 doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00921-5. PMID: 35633486Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Leitinger M, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Matricardi S, Brigo F, Meletti S, Trinka E
Eur J Neurol 2022 Feb;29(2):626-647. Epub 2021 Nov 2 doi: 10.1111/ene.15149. PMID: 34661330Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505
Epi4K Consortium; Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project, Allen AS, Berkovic SF, Cossette P, Delanty N, Dlugos D, Eichler EE, Epstein MP, Glauser T, Goldstein DB, Han Y, Heinzen EL, Hitomi Y, Howell KB, Johnson MR, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, Lu YF, Madou MR, Marson AG, Mefford HC, Esmaeeli Nieh S, O'Brien TJ, Ottman R, Petrovski S, Poduri A, Ruzzo EK, Scheffer IE, Sherr EH, Yuskaitis CJ, Abou-Khalil B, Alldredge BK, Bautista JF, Berkovic SF, Boro A, Cascino GD, Consalvo D, Crumrine P, Devinsky O, Dlugos D, Epstein MP, Fiol M, Fountain NB, French J, Friedman D, Geller EB, Glauser T, Glynn S, Haut SR, Hayward J, Helmers SL, Joshi S, Kanner A, Kirsch HE, Knowlton RC, Kossoff EH, Kuperman R, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, McGuire SM, Motika PV, Novotny EJ, Ottman R, Paolicchi JM, Parent JM, Park K, Poduri A, Scheffer IE, Shellhaas RA, Sherr EH, Shih JJ, Singh R, Sirven J, Smith MC, Sullivan J, Lin Thio L, Venkat A, Vining EP, Von Allmen GK, Weisenberg JL, Widdess-Walsh P, Winawer MR
Nature 2013 Sep 12;501(7466):217-21. Epub 2013 Aug 11 doi: 10.1038/nature12439. PMID: 23934111Free PMC Article
Jambaqué I, Pinabiaux C, Lassonde M
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:691-5. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00071-3. PMID: 23622216

Recent systematic reviews

Sandbank M, Bottema-Beutel K, Crowley LaPoint S, Feldman JI, Barrett DJ, Caldwell N, Dunham K, Crank J, Albarran S, Woynaroski T
BMJ 2023 Nov 14;383:e076733. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2023-076733. PMID: 37963634Free PMC Article
Tang J, Xue P, Huang X, Lin C, Liu S
Nutrients 2022 Nov 24;14(23) doi: 10.3390/nu14235004. PMID: 36501034Free PMC Article
Lam PPY, Chua H, Ekambaram M, Lo ECM, Yiu CKY
J Evid Based Dent Pract 2022 Sep;22(3):101732. Epub 2022 Apr 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jebdp.2022.101732. PMID: 36162891
Fang K, Mu M, Liu K, He Y
Child Care Health Dev 2019 Sep;45(5):744-753. Epub 2019 Jul 24 doi: 10.1111/cch.12701. PMID: 31270831
Bleich SN, Vercammen KA, Zatz LY, Frelier JM, Ebbeling CB, Peeters A
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 Apr;6(4):332-346. Epub 2017 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30358-3. PMID: 29066096

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