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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 53(EIEE53; DEE53)

MedGen UID:
1374886
Concept ID:
C4479313
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 53
 
Gene (location): SYNJ1 (21q22.11)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033362
OMIM®: 617389

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-53 (DEE53) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia and very poor or absent global development, resulting in severe intellectual disability and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may die in childhood (summary by Hardies et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Convulsive status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
137148
Concept ID:
C0311335
Disease or Syndrome
A type of status epilepticus characterized by a prolonged bilateral tonic-clonic seizure, or repeated bilateral tonic-clonic seizures without recovery between.
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Progressive neurologic deterioration
MedGen UID:
381506
Concept ID:
C1854838
Finding
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
892508
Concept ID:
C3161330
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Elevated circulating creatine kinase concentration
MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
An elevation of the level of the enzyme creatine kinase (also known as creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in the blood. CK levels can be elevated in a number of clinical disorders such as myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, and muscular dystrophy.
Increased circulating lactate concentration
MedGen UID:
332209
Concept ID:
C1836440
Finding
Abnormally increased level of blood lactate (2-hydroxypropanoic acid). Lactate is produced from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase during normal metabolism. The terms lactate and lactic acid are often used interchangeably but lactate (the component measured in blood) is strictly a weak base whereas lactic acid is the corresponding acid. Lactic acidosis is often used clinically to describe elevated lactate but should be reserved for cases where there is a corresponding acidosis (pH below 7.35).
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Hofmeister B, von Stülpnagel C, Betzler C, Mari F, Renieri A, Baldassarri M, Haberlandt E, Jansen K, Schilling S, Weber P, Ahlbory K, Tang S, Berweck S, Kluger G
Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr;52(2):109-122. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1722878. PMID: 33578439
DiBacco ML, Pop A, Salomons GS, Hanson E, Roullet JB, Gibson KM, Pearl PL
Neurology 2020 Nov 10;95(19):e2675-e2682. Epub 2020 Sep 4 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010730. PMID: 32887777Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bonardi CM, Heyne HO, Fiannacca M, Fitzgerald MP, Gardella E, Gunning B, Olofsson K, Lesca G, Verbeek N, Stamberger H, Striano P, Zara F, Mancardi MM, Nava C, Syrbe S, Buono S, Baulac S, Coppola A, Weckhuysen S, Schoonjans AS, Ceulemans B, Sarret C, Baumgartner T, Muhle H, Portes VD, Toulouse J, Nougues MC, Rossi M, Demarquay G, Ville D, Hirsch E, Maurey H, Willems M, de Bellescize J, Altuzarra CD, Villeneuve N, Bartolomei F, Picard F, Hornemann F, Koolen DA, Kroes HY, Reale C, Fenger CD, Tan WH, Dibbens L, Bearden DR, Møller RS, Rubboli G
Brain 2021 Dec 31;144(12):3635-3650. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab219. PMID: 34114611
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article
Blumcke I, Spreafico R, Haaker G, Coras R, Kobow K, Bien CG, Pfäfflin M, Elger C, Widman G, Schramm J, Becker A, Braun KP, Leijten F, Baayen JC, Aronica E, Chassoux F, Hamer H, Stefan H, Rössler K, Thom M, Walker MC, Sisodiya SM, Duncan JS, McEvoy AW, Pieper T, Holthausen H, Kudernatsch M, Meencke HJ, Kahane P, Schulze-Bonhage A, Zentner J, Heiland DH, Urbach H, Steinhoff BJ, Bast T, Tassi L, Lo Russo G, Özkara C, Oz B, Krsek P, Vogelgesang S, Runge U, Lerche H, Weber Y, Honavar M, Pimentel J, Arzimanoglou A, Ulate-Campos A, Noachtar S, Hartl E, Schijns O, Guerrini R, Barba C, Jacques TS, Cross JH, Feucht M, Mühlebner A, Grunwald T, Trinka E, Winkler PA, Gil-Nagel A, Toledano Delgado R, Mayer T, Lutz M, Zountsas B, Garganis K, Rosenow F, Hermsen A, von Oertzen TJ, Diepgen TL, Avanzini G; EEBB Consortium
N Engl J Med 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1648-1656. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1703784. PMID: 29069555
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Berg AT, Palac H, Wilkening G, Zelko F, Schust Meyer L
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):258-268. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.16750. PMID: 33236786
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article
Blumcke I, Spreafico R, Haaker G, Coras R, Kobow K, Bien CG, Pfäfflin M, Elger C, Widman G, Schramm J, Becker A, Braun KP, Leijten F, Baayen JC, Aronica E, Chassoux F, Hamer H, Stefan H, Rössler K, Thom M, Walker MC, Sisodiya SM, Duncan JS, McEvoy AW, Pieper T, Holthausen H, Kudernatsch M, Meencke HJ, Kahane P, Schulze-Bonhage A, Zentner J, Heiland DH, Urbach H, Steinhoff BJ, Bast T, Tassi L, Lo Russo G, Özkara C, Oz B, Krsek P, Vogelgesang S, Runge U, Lerche H, Weber Y, Honavar M, Pimentel J, Arzimanoglou A, Ulate-Campos A, Noachtar S, Hartl E, Schijns O, Guerrini R, Barba C, Jacques TS, Cross JH, Feucht M, Mühlebner A, Grunwald T, Trinka E, Winkler PA, Gil-Nagel A, Toledano Delgado R, Mayer T, Lutz M, Zountsas B, Garganis K, Rosenow F, Hermsen A, von Oertzen TJ, Diepgen TL, Avanzini G; EEBB Consortium
N Engl J Med 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1648-1656. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1703784. PMID: 29069555
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Szymanski KM, Adams CM, Alkawaldeh MY, Austin PF, Bowman RM, Castillo H, Castillo J, Chu DI, Estrada CR, Fascelli M, Frimberger DC, Gargollo PC, Hamdan DG, Hecht SL, Hopson B, Husmann DA, Jacobs MA, MacNeily AE, McLeod DJ, Metcalfe PD, Meyer T, Misseri R, O'Neil J, Rensing AJ, Routh JC, Rove KO, Sawin KJ, Schlomer BJ, Shamblin I, Sherlock RL, Slobodov G, Stout J, Tanaka ST, Weiss DA, Wiener JS, Wood HM, Yerkes EB, Blount J
J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2023;16(4):605-619. doi: 10.3233/PRM-220086. PMID: 38073338Free PMC Article
Peariso K, Arya R, Glauser T, Abend NS, Barcia Aguilar C, Amengual-Gual M, Anderson A, Appavu BL, Brenton JN, Carpenter J, Chapman KE, Clark J, Gaillard WD, Gaínza-Lein M, Goldstein J, Goodkin H, Grinspan Z, Guerriero RM, Horn PS, Huh L, Kahoud R, Kelley SA, Kossoff EH, Kapur K, Lai YC, Marquis BO, McDonough T, Mikati MA, Morgan L, Novotny E, Ostendorf AP, Payne ET, Piantino J, Riviello J, Sands T, Stafstrom CE, Tasker RC, Tchapyjnikov D, Vasquez A, Wainwright MS, Wilfong A, Williams K, Loddenkemper T; for Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG)
Neurology 2023 Aug 1;101(5):e546-e557. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207472. PMID: 37295955Free PMC Article
Berg AT, Palac H, Wilkening G, Zelko F, Schust Meyer L
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):258-268. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.16750. PMID: 33236786
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Szymanski KM, Adams CM, Alkawaldeh MY, Austin PF, Bowman RM, Castillo H, Castillo J, Chu DI, Estrada CR, Fascelli M, Frimberger DC, Gargollo PC, Hamdan DG, Hecht SL, Hopson B, Husmann DA, Jacobs MA, MacNeily AE, McLeod DJ, Metcalfe PD, Meyer T, Misseri R, O'Neil J, Rensing AJ, Routh JC, Rove KO, Sawin KJ, Schlomer BJ, Shamblin I, Sherlock RL, Slobodov G, Stout J, Tanaka ST, Weiss DA, Wiener JS, Wood HM, Yerkes EB, Blount J
J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2023;16(4):605-619. doi: 10.3233/PRM-220086. PMID: 38073338Free PMC Article
D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Peariso K, Arya R, Glauser T, Abend NS, Barcia Aguilar C, Amengual-Gual M, Anderson A, Appavu BL, Brenton JN, Carpenter J, Chapman KE, Clark J, Gaillard WD, Gaínza-Lein M, Goldstein J, Goodkin H, Grinspan Z, Guerriero RM, Horn PS, Huh L, Kahoud R, Kelley SA, Kossoff EH, Kapur K, Lai YC, Marquis BO, McDonough T, Mikati MA, Morgan L, Novotny E, Ostendorf AP, Payne ET, Piantino J, Riviello J, Sands T, Stafstrom CE, Tasker RC, Tchapyjnikov D, Vasquez A, Wainwright MS, Wilfong A, Williams K, Loddenkemper T; for Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG)
Neurology 2023 Aug 1;101(5):e546-e557. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207472. PMID: 37295955Free PMC Article
Sánchez Fernández I, Morales-Quezada JL, Law S, Kim P
J Child Neurol 2017 Nov;32(13):1065-1073. Epub 2017 Sep 19 doi: 10.1177/0883073817726681. PMID: 28925315
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Bonardi CM, Heyne HO, Fiannacca M, Fitzgerald MP, Gardella E, Gunning B, Olofsson K, Lesca G, Verbeek N, Stamberger H, Striano P, Zara F, Mancardi MM, Nava C, Syrbe S, Buono S, Baulac S, Coppola A, Weckhuysen S, Schoonjans AS, Ceulemans B, Sarret C, Baumgartner T, Muhle H, Portes VD, Toulouse J, Nougues MC, Rossi M, Demarquay G, Ville D, Hirsch E, Maurey H, Willems M, de Bellescize J, Altuzarra CD, Villeneuve N, Bartolomei F, Picard F, Hornemann F, Koolen DA, Kroes HY, Reale C, Fenger CD, Tan WH, Dibbens L, Bearden DR, Møller RS, Rubboli G
Brain 2021 Dec 31;144(12):3635-3650. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab219. PMID: 34114611
Berg AT, Palac H, Wilkening G, Zelko F, Schust Meyer L
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):258-268. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.16750. PMID: 33236786
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