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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 31(DEE31A)

MedGen UID:
894942
Concept ID:
C4225357
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE31A; DEVELOPMENTAL AND EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY 31A; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 31
 
Gene (location): DNM1 (9q34.11)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014598
OMIM®: 616346

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31A (DEE31A) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by the global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Most individuals have onset of various types of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life, which exacerbates the psychomotor deficits. Patients have hypotonia and profound intellectual disability with absent speech and inability to walk or ataxic gait. Some patients may have additional features, including dysmorphic features or cortical visual impairment (summary by the EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium et al., 2014 and Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Atonic seizure
MedGen UID:
78735
Concept ID:
C0270846
Disease or Syndrome
Atonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by a sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone without apparent preceding myoclonic or tonic event lasting about 1 to 2 seconds, involving head, trunk, jaw, or limb musculature.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Atypical absence seizure
MedGen UID:
108888
Concept ID:
C0595948
Disease or Syndrome
An atypical absence seizure is a type of generalized non-motor (absence) seizure characterized by interruption of ongoing activities and reduced responsiveness. In comparison to a typical absence seizure, changes in tone may be more pronounced, onset and/or cessation may be less abrupt, and the duration of the ictus and post-ictal recovery may be longer. Although not always available, an EEG often demonstrates slow (<3 Hz), irregular, generalized spike-wave activity.
Diffuse cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
108958
Concept ID:
C0598275
Finding
Diffuse unlocalised atrophy affecting the cerebrum.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Atypical absence status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
869093
Concept ID:
C4023511
Disease or Syndrome
Atypical absence status epilepticus is a type of generalized non-convulsive status epilepticus without coma that is semiologically a prolonged atypical absence seizure.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Difficulty walking
MedGen UID:
86319
Concept ID:
C0311394
Finding
Reduced ability to walk (ambulate).
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Nickels K, Kossoff EH, Eschbach K, Joshi C
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):120-127. Epub 2020 Nov 14 doi: 10.1111/epi.16752. PMID: 33190223

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Muhle R, Trentacoste SV, Rapin I
Pediatrics 2004 May;113(5):e472-86. doi: 10.1542/peds.113.5.e472. PMID: 15121991
Raymond AA, Fish DR, Sisodiya SM, Alsanjari N, Stevens JM, Shorvon SD
Brain 1995 Jun;118 ( Pt 3):629-60. doi: 10.1093/brain/118.3.629. PMID: 7600083

Diagnosis

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Muhle R, Trentacoste SV, Rapin I
Pediatrics 2004 May;113(5):e472-86. doi: 10.1542/peds.113.5.e472. PMID: 15121991
Raymond AA, Fish DR, Sisodiya SM, Alsanjari N, Stevens JM, Shorvon SD
Brain 1995 Jun;118 ( Pt 3):629-60. doi: 10.1093/brain/118.3.629. PMID: 7600083

Therapy

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Vazquez B, Tomson T, Dobrinsky C, Schuck E, O'Brien TJ
Epilepsia 2021 Mar;62(3):698-708. doi: 10.1111/epi.16821. PMID: 33666943Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Hamanaka K, Miyake N, Mizuguchi T, Miyatake S, Uchiyama Y, Tsuchida N, Sekiguchi F, Mitsuhashi S, Tsurusaki Y, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Yamada K, Sakamoto M, Fukuda H, Ohori S, Saida K, Itai T, Azuma Y, Koshimizu E, Fujita A, Erturk B, Hiraki Y, Ch'ng GS, Kato M, Okamoto N, Takata A, Matsumoto N
Genome Med 2022 Apr 26;14(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s13073-022-01042-w. PMID: 35468861Free PMC Article
Vazquez B, Tomson T, Dobrinsky C, Schuck E, O'Brien TJ
Epilepsia 2021 Mar;62(3):698-708. doi: 10.1111/epi.16821. PMID: 33666943Free PMC Article
Aaberg KM, Gunnes N, Bakken IJ, Lund Søraas C, Berntsen A, Magnus P, Lossius MI, Stoltenberg C, Chin R, Surén P
Pediatrics 2017 May;139(5) Epub 2017 Apr 5 doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3908. PMID: 28557750
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Hamanaka K, Miyake N, Mizuguchi T, Miyatake S, Uchiyama Y, Tsuchida N, Sekiguchi F, Mitsuhashi S, Tsurusaki Y, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Yamada K, Sakamoto M, Fukuda H, Ohori S, Saida K, Itai T, Azuma Y, Koshimizu E, Fujita A, Erturk B, Hiraki Y, Ch'ng GS, Kato M, Okamoto N, Takata A, Matsumoto N
Genome Med 2022 Apr 26;14(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s13073-022-01042-w. PMID: 35468861Free PMC Article
Vazquez B, Tomson T, Dobrinsky C, Schuck E, O'Brien TJ
Epilepsia 2021 Mar;62(3):698-708. doi: 10.1111/epi.16821. PMID: 33666943Free PMC Article
Aaberg KM, Gunnes N, Bakken IJ, Lund Søraas C, Berntsen A, Magnus P, Lossius MI, Stoltenberg C, Chin R, Surén P
Pediatrics 2017 May;139(5) Epub 2017 Apr 5 doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3908. PMID: 28557750

Recent systematic reviews

Rondão MBA, Hsu BRRHS, Centeno RS, de Aguiar PHP
Seizure 2023 Aug;110:58-68. Epub 2023 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.04.020. PMID: 37327751
Goyal A, Fernandes-Torres J, Flemming KD, Williams LN, Daniels DJ
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Jun;39(6):1545-1554. Epub 2023 Mar 14 doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-05903-6. PMID: 36917267
Englman C, Malpas CB, Harvey AS, Maixner WJ, Yang JY
J Clin Neurosci 2021 Sep;91:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2021.06.035. PMID: 34373012
Zhang L, Li W, Wang C
Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Apr;143(4):339-348. Epub 2020 Dec 17 doi: 10.1111/ane.13387. PMID: 33336426
Jansson JS, Hallböök T, Reilly C
Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul;108:107079. Epub 2020 Apr 22 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107079. PMID: 32334365

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