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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 24(DEE24)

MedGen UID:
862968
Concept ID:
C4014531
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE24; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 24
 
Gene (location): HCN1 (5p12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014377
OMIM®: 615871

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-24 (DEE24) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in infancy, severely impaired global development, intellectual disability, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have onset of variable types of seizures between 4 and 13 months of age, but earlier onset in the first days of life has also been reported. Seizures are often triggered by fever, at least initially; status epilepticus may occur (summary by Nava et al., 2014 and Marini et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
66708
Concept ID:
C0234535
Disease or Syndrome
A clonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking, that is regularly repetitive.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Generalized non-motor (absence) seizure
MedGen UID:
1385688
Concept ID:
C4316903
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized non-motor (absence) seizure is a type of a type of dialeptic seizure that is of electrographically generalized onset. It is a generalized seizure characterized by an interruption of activities, a blank stare, and usually the person will be unresponsive when spoken to. Any ictal motor phenomena are minor in comparison to these non-motor features.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Tomson T, Battino D, Bromley R, Kochen S, Meador KJ, Pennell PB, Thomas SV
Epileptic Disord 2022 Dec 1;24(6):1020-1032. doi: 10.1684/epd.2022.1492. PMID: 36193017
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Pop-Jordanova N
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2019 May 1;40(1):5-40. doi: 10.2478/prilozi-2019-0001. PMID: 31152643

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Strzelczyk A, Zuberi SM, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Mar 1;18(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02626-4. PMID: 36859290Free PMC Article
Xian J, Parthasarathy S, Ruggiero SM, Balagura G, Fitch E, Helbig K, Gan J, Ganesan S, Kaufman MC, Ellis CA, Lewis-Smith D, Galer P, Cunningham K, O'Brien M, Cosico M, Baker K, Darling A, Veiga de Goes F, El Achkar CM, Doering JH, Furia F, García-Cazorla Á, Gardella E, Geertjens L, Klein C, Kolesnik-Taylor A, Lammertse H, Lee J, Mackie A, Misra-Isrie M, Olson H, Sexton E, Sheidley B, Smith L, Sotero L, Stamberger H, Syrbe S, Thalwitzer KM, van Berkel A, van Haelst M, Yuskaitis C, Weckhuysen S, Prosser B, Son Rigby C, Demarest S, Pierce S, Zhang Y, Møller RS, Bruining H, Poduri A, Zara F, Verhage M, Striano P, Helbig I
Brain 2022 Jun 3;145(5):1668-1683. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab327. PMID: 35190816Free PMC Article
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Symonds JD, Elliott KS, Shetty J, Armstrong M, Brunklaus A, Cutcutache I, Diver LA, Dorris L, Gardiner S, Jollands A, Joss S, Kirkpatrick M, McLellan A, MacLeod S, O'Regan M, Page M, Pilley E, Pilz DT, Stephen E, Stewart K, Ashrafian H, Knight JC, Zuberi SM
Brain 2021 Oct 22;144(9):2879-2891. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab162. PMID: 34687210Free PMC Article
Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Benbadis SR, Joshi C, Lyons PD, Taylor A, Roberts C, Sommerville K; GWPCARE4 Study Group
Lancet 2018 Mar 17;391(10125):1085-1096. Epub 2018 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30136-3. PMID: 29395273

Diagnosis

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Symonds JD, Elliott KS, Shetty J, Armstrong M, Brunklaus A, Cutcutache I, Diver LA, Dorris L, Gardiner S, Jollands A, Joss S, Kirkpatrick M, McLellan A, MacLeod S, O'Regan M, Page M, Pilley E, Pilz DT, Stephen E, Stewart K, Ashrafian H, Knight JC, Zuberi SM
Brain 2021 Oct 22;144(9):2879-2891. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab162. PMID: 34687210Free PMC Article
Scheffer IE, Liao J
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:11-14. Epub 2019 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.023. PMID: 31926847
O'Callaghan FJ, Edwards SW, Alber FD, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Likeman M, Lux AL, Mackay M, Mallick AA, Newton RW, Nolan M, Pressler R, Rating D, Schmitt B, Verity CM, Osborne JP; participating investigators
Lancet Neurol 2017 Jan;16(1):33-42. Epub 2016 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30294-0. PMID: 27838190

Therapy

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Patel AD, Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska M, Chin RF, Gil-Nagel A, Gunning B, Halford JJ, Mitchell W, Scott Perry M, Thiele EA, Weinstock A, Dunayevich E, Checketts D, Devinsky O
Epilepsia 2021 Sep;62(9):2228-2239. Epub 2021 Jul 20 doi: 10.1111/epi.17000. PMID: 34287833
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Benbadis SR, Joshi C, Lyons PD, Taylor A, Roberts C, Sommerville K; GWPCARE4 Study Group
Lancet 2018 Mar 17;391(10125):1085-1096. Epub 2018 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30136-3. PMID: 29395273

Prognosis

Schoeler NE, Marston L, Lyons L, Halsall S, Jain R, Titre-Johnson S, Balogun M, Heales SJR, Eaton S, Orford M, Neal E, Reilly C, Eltze C, Stephen E, Mallick AA, O'Callaghan F, Agrawal S, Parker A, Kirkpatrick M, Brunklaus A, McLellan A, McCullagh H, Samanta R, Kneen R, Tan HJ, Devlin A, Prasad M, Rattihalli R, Basu H, Desurkar A, Williams R, Fallon P, Nazareth I, Freemantle N, Cross JH; KIWE study group
Lancet Neurol 2023 Dec;22(12):1113-1124. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00370-8. PMID: 37977712
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Symonds JD, Elliott KS, Shetty J, Armstrong M, Brunklaus A, Cutcutache I, Diver LA, Dorris L, Gardiner S, Jollands A, Joss S, Kirkpatrick M, McLellan A, MacLeod S, O'Regan M, Page M, Pilley E, Pilz DT, Stephen E, Stewart K, Ashrafian H, Knight JC, Zuberi SM
Brain 2021 Oct 22;144(9):2879-2891. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab162. PMID: 34687210Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505
O'Callaghan FJ, Edwards SW, Alber FD, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Likeman M, Lux AL, Mackay M, Mallick AA, Newton RW, Nolan M, Pressler R, Rating D, Schmitt B, Verity CM, Osborne JP; participating investigators
Lancet Neurol 2017 Jan;16(1):33-42. Epub 2016 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30294-0. PMID: 27838190

Clinical prediction guides

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Symonds JD, Elliott KS, Shetty J, Armstrong M, Brunklaus A, Cutcutache I, Diver LA, Dorris L, Gardiner S, Jollands A, Joss S, Kirkpatrick M, McLellan A, MacLeod S, O'Regan M, Page M, Pilley E, Pilz DT, Stephen E, Stewart K, Ashrafian H, Knight JC, Zuberi SM
Brain 2021 Oct 22;144(9):2879-2891. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab162. PMID: 34687210Free PMC Article
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505
Pop-Jordanova N
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2019 May 1;40(1):5-40. doi: 10.2478/prilozi-2019-0001. PMID: 31152643

Recent systematic reviews

Fang C, Yang L, Xiao F, Yan K, Zhou W
Epilepsy Res 2024 May;202:107363. Epub 2024 Apr 17 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2024.107363. PMID: 38636407
Strzelczyk A, Zuberi SM, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Mar 1;18(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02626-4. PMID: 36859290Free PMC Article
Tomson T, Battino D, Bromley R, Kochen S, Meador KJ, Pennell PB, Thomas SV
Epileptic Disord 2022 Dec 1;24(6):1020-1032. doi: 10.1684/epd.2022.1492. PMID: 36193017
Sheidley BR, Malinowski J, Bergner AL, Bier L, Gloss DS, Mu W, Mulhern MM, Partack EJ, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2022 Feb;63(2):375-387. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17141. PMID: 34893972
Rantanen K, Eriksson K, Nieminen P
Epilepsy Behav 2012 Jul;24(3):295-303. Epub 2012 May 16 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.04.117. PMID: 22595143

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