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Meckel syndrome, type 8(MKS8)

MedGen UID:
854220
Concept ID:
C3836857
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: TCTN2-Related Meckel Syndrome
 
Gene (location): TCTN2 (12q24.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013482
OMIM®: 613885

Definition

Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive ciliopathy classically defined by the triad of encephalocele, polydactyly, and renal and biliary ductal dysplasia. Clinical heterogeneity exists even within families (summary by Shaheen et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Because of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure.

Other signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.

Meckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/meckel-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Polycystic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
9639
Concept ID:
C0022680
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys.
Ambiguous genitalia
MedGen UID:
78596
Concept ID:
C0266362
Congenital Abnormality
A genital phenotype that is not clearly assignable to a single gender. Ambiguous genitalia can be evaluated using the Prader scale
Enlarged kidney
MedGen UID:
108156
Concept ID:
C0542518
Finding
An abnormal increase in the size of the kidney.
Hyperechogenic kidneys
MedGen UID:
477530
Concept ID:
C3275899
Finding
An increase in amplitude of waves returned in ultrasonography of the kidney, which is generally displayed as increased brightness of the signal.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Polydactyly
MedGen UID:
57774
Concept ID:
C0152427
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary fingers or toes.
Pericardial effusion
MedGen UID:
10653
Concept ID:
C0031039
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of fluid within the pericardium.
Abdominal distention
MedGen UID:
34
Concept ID:
C0000731
Finding
Distention of the abdomen.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Occipital encephalocele
MedGen UID:
4935
Concept ID:
C0014067
Congenital Abnormality
A type of encephalocele (that is, a a protrusion of part of the cranial contents including brain tissue through a congenital opening in the cranium, typically covered with skin or mucous membrane) in the occipital region of the skull. Occipital encephalocele presents as a midline swelling over the occipital bone. It is usually covered with normal full-thickness scalp.
Encephalocele
MedGen UID:
1646412
Concept ID:
C4551722
Congenital Abnormality
A neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull.
Narrow chest
MedGen UID:
96528
Concept ID:
C0426790
Finding
Reduced width of the chest from side to side, associated with a reduced distance from the sternal notch to the tip of the shoulder.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Depressed nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
334631
Concept ID:
C1842876
Finding
Lack of prominence of the nose resulting from a posteriorly-placed nasal ridge.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Anhydramnios
MedGen UID:
676568
Concept ID:
C0730379
Disease or Syndrome
A complete or near-complete lack of amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus. This finding can be observed sonographically in the third trimesters if the deepest pocket of amniotic fluid is less than or equal to 2 cm.
Anophthalmia
MedGen UID:
314
Concept ID:
C0003119
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the globe or eyeball.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dąbkowska S, Kucińska-Chahwan A, Beneturska A, Ilnicka A, Nowakowska B, Panek G, Roszkowski T, Bijok J
Prenat Diagn 2020 Apr;40(5):612-617. Epub 2020 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/pd.5654. PMID: 32003477
Erger F, Brüchle NO, Gembruch U, Zerres K
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Apr;295(4):897-906. Epub 2017 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4336-6. PMID: 28283827
Barisic I, Boban L, Loane M, Garne E, Wellesley D, Calzolari E, Dolk H, Addor MC, Bergman JE, Braz P, Draper ES, Haeusler M, Khoshnood B, Klungsoyr K, Pierini A, Queisser-Luft A, Rankin J, Rissmann A, Verellen-Dumoulin C
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Jun;23(6):746-52. Epub 2014 Sep 3 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.174. PMID: 25182137Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Simonini C, Floeck A, Strizek B, Mueller A, Gembruch U, Geipel A
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 Jul;306(1):71-83. Epub 2021 Oct 1 doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-06265-7. PMID: 34596737Free PMC Article
Dąbkowska S, Kucińska-Chahwan A, Beneturska A, Ilnicka A, Nowakowska B, Panek G, Roszkowski T, Bijok J
Prenat Diagn 2020 Apr;40(5):612-617. Epub 2020 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/pd.5654. PMID: 32003477
Bruechle NO, Steuernagel P, Zerres K, Kurth I, Eggermann T, Knopp C
Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Oct;32(10):1989-1992. Epub 2017 Jun 15 doi: 10.1007/s00467-017-3710-8. PMID: 28620746
Erger F, Brüchle NO, Gembruch U, Zerres K
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Apr;295(4):897-906. Epub 2017 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4336-6. PMID: 28283827
Abdelhamed ZA, Natarajan S, Wheway G, Inglehearn CF, Toomes C, Johnson CA, Jagger DJ
Dis Model Mech 2015 Jun;8(6):527-41. Epub 2015 Apr 7 doi: 10.1242/dmm.019083. PMID: 26035863Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Simonini C, Fröschen EM, Nadal J, Strizek B, Berg C, Geipel A, Gembruch U
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2023 Oct;308(4):1287-1300. Epub 2022 Oct 31 doi: 10.1007/s00404-022-06814-8. PMID: 36310336Free PMC Article
Hong Z, He X, Yu F, Liu H, Zhang X, Zhang Y
Reprod Sci 2022 Aug;29(8):2322-2332. Epub 2022 Jan 3 doi: 10.1007/s43032-021-00835-5. PMID: 34981460Free PMC Article
Simonini C, Floeck A, Strizek B, Mueller A, Gembruch U, Geipel A
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 Jul;306(1):71-83. Epub 2021 Oct 1 doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-06265-7. PMID: 34596737Free PMC Article
Dąbkowska S, Kucińska-Chahwan A, Beneturska A, Ilnicka A, Nowakowska B, Panek G, Roszkowski T, Bijok J
Prenat Diagn 2020 Apr;40(5):612-617. Epub 2020 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/pd.5654. PMID: 32003477
Barny I, Perrault I, Michel C, Soussan M, Goudin N, Rio M, Thomas S, Attié-Bitach T, Hamel C, Dollfus H, Kaplan J, Rozet JM, Gerard X
Hum Mol Genet 2018 Aug 1;27(15):2689-2702. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddy179. PMID: 29771326

Prognosis

Dąbkowska S, Kucińska-Chahwan A, Beneturska A, Ilnicka A, Nowakowska B, Panek G, Roszkowski T, Bijok J
Prenat Diagn 2020 Apr;40(5):612-617. Epub 2020 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/pd.5654. PMID: 32003477
Khurana S, Saini V, Wadhwa V, Kaur H
J Ultrasound 2017 Jun;20(2):167-170. Epub 2017 Jan 4 doi: 10.1007/s40477-016-0231-4. PMID: 28593008Free PMC Article
Erger F, Brüchle NO, Gembruch U, Zerres K
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Apr;295(4):897-906. Epub 2017 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4336-6. PMID: 28283827
Zhang D, Aravind L
Cell Cycle 2012 Oct 15;11(20):3861-75. Epub 2012 Sep 14 doi: 10.4161/cc.22068. PMID: 22983010Free PMC Article
Cakir M, Mungan I, Makuloglu M, Okten A
Indian J Pediatr 2006 Aug;73(8):731-3. doi: 10.1007/BF02898455. PMID: 16936370

Clinical prediction guides

Simonini C, Fröschen EM, Nadal J, Strizek B, Berg C, Geipel A, Gembruch U
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2023 Oct;308(4):1287-1300. Epub 2022 Oct 31 doi: 10.1007/s00404-022-06814-8. PMID: 36310336Free PMC Article
Simonini C, Floeck A, Strizek B, Mueller A, Gembruch U, Geipel A
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 Jul;306(1):71-83. Epub 2021 Oct 1 doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-06265-7. PMID: 34596737Free PMC Article
Erger F, Brüchle NO, Gembruch U, Zerres K
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Apr;295(4):897-906. Epub 2017 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4336-6. PMID: 28283827
Barisic I, Boban L, Loane M, Garne E, Wellesley D, Calzolari E, Dolk H, Addor MC, Bergman JE, Braz P, Draper ES, Haeusler M, Khoshnood B, Klungsoyr K, Pierini A, Queisser-Luft A, Rankin J, Rissmann A, Verellen-Dumoulin C
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Jun;23(6):746-52. Epub 2014 Sep 3 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.174. PMID: 25182137Free PMC Article
Zhang D, Aravind L
Cell Cycle 2012 Oct 15;11(20):3861-75. Epub 2012 Sep 14 doi: 10.4161/cc.22068. PMID: 22983010Free PMC Article

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