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Primary ciliary dyskinesia 23(CILD23)

MedGen UID:
815878
Concept ID:
C3809548
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CILD23; CILIARY DYSKINESIA, PRIMARY, 23, WITH OR WITHOUT SITUS INVERSUS
 
Gene (location): ODAD2 (10p12.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014193
OMIM®: 615451

Definition

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-23 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective ciliary motility. Affected individuals have respiratory distress and recurrent upper and lower airway infections, and they often develop bronchiectasis. About 50% of patients have situs inversus or laterality defects. Ultrastructural analysis of respiratory cilia shows defects in the outer dynein arm (summary by Hjeij et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1642262
Concept ID:
C4551493
Congenital Abnormality
A left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs.
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Chronic bronchitis
MedGen UID:
3084
Concept ID:
C0008677
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic inflammation of the bronchi.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
3467
Concept ID:
C0008780
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Productive cough
MedGen UID:
66781
Concept ID:
C0239134
Finding
A cough that produces phlegm or mucus.
Recurrent sinusitis
MedGen UID:
107919
Concept ID:
C0581354
Disease or Syndrome
A recurrent form of sinusitis.
Recurrent pneumonia
MedGen UID:
195802
Concept ID:
C0694550
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to pneumonia as manifested by a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.
Respiratory insufficiency due to defective ciliary clearance
MedGen UID:
765013
Concept ID:
C3552099
Finding
Neonatal respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
924182
Concept ID:
C4281993
Finding
Respiratory difficulty as newborn.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.
Chronic rhinitis
MedGen UID:
3086
Concept ID:
C0008711
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa.

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Schreck LD, Goutaki M, Jörger P, Dexter K, Manion M, Christin-Maitre S, Maitre B; COVID-PCD Patient Advisory Group, Kuehni CE, Pedersen ESL
Pediatr Pulmonol 2024 Feb;59(2):281-290. Epub 2023 Nov 7 doi: 10.1002/ppul.26743. PMID: 37933800
Maglione M, Tosco A, Borrelli M, Santamaria F
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):2-3. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00236-9. PMID: 37660716
Legendre M, Thouvenin G, Taytard J, Baron M, Le Bourgeois M, Tamalet A, Mani R, Jouvion G, Amselem S, Escudier E, Beydon N
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2022 Oct;19(10):1704-1712. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202110-1175OC. PMID: 35622418

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Al Adawi K, Baomar T, Al Riyami M, Al Shamli N, Al Shidhani K, Al Ansari A, Al Kindi H
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2023 Feb;23(1):76-80. Epub 2023 Feb 23 doi: 10.18295/squmj.4.2022.029. PMID: 36865419Free PMC Article
Kinghorn B, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan E, Onchiri F, Ferkol TW, Sagel SD, Dell SD, Milla C, Shapiro AJ, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Mollica F, Tiddens HAWM, Kemner-van de Corput M, Knowles MR, Davis SD, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Apr;20(4):539-547. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-524OC. PMID: 36442147Free PMC Article
Blanter M, Cockx M, Wittebols L, Abouelasrar Salama S, De Bondt M, Berghmans N, Pörtner N, Vanbrabant L, Lorent N, Gouwy M, Boon M, Struyf S
Respir Res 2022 Dec 17;23(1):359. doi: 10.1186/s12931-022-02280-7. PMID: 36528664Free PMC Article
Guo Z, Chen W, Wang L, Qian L
J Pediatr 2020 Oct;225:157-165.e5. Epub 2020 Jun 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.052. PMID: 32502479
Kobbernagel HE, Buchvald FF, Haarman EG, Casaulta C, Collins SA, Hogg C, Kuehni CE, Lucas JS, Moser CE, Quittner AL, Raidt J, Rosthøj S, Sørensen AL, Thomsen K, Werner C, Omran H, Nielsen KG
Lancet Respir Med 2020 May;8(5):493-505. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30058-8. PMID: 32380069

Diagnosis

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Rezaei M, Soheili A, Ziai SA, Fakharian A, Toreyhi H, Pourabdollah M, Ghorbani J, Karimi-Galougahi M, Mahdaviani SA, Hasanzad M, Eslaminejad A, Ghaffaripour HA, Mahmoudian S, Rodafshani Z, Mirenayat MS, Varahram M, Marjani M, Tabarsi P, Mansouri D, Jamaati HR, Velayati AA
Sci Rep 2022 Feb 11;12(1):2375. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-06370-w. PMID: 35149751Free PMC Article
Zawawi F, Shapiro AJ, Dell S, Wolter NE, Marchica CL, Knowles MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Smith M, Gajardo P, Daniel SJ
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Mar;166(3):540-547. Epub 2021 Jun 22 doi: 10.1177/01945998211019320. PMID: 34154450Free PMC Article
Piatti G, De Santi MM, Torretta S, Pignataro L, Soi D, Ambrosetti U
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2017 Apr;126(4):322-327. Epub 2017 Feb 12 doi: 10.1177/0003489417691299. PMID: 28290230
Kurkowiak M, Ziętkiewicz E, Witt M
J Med Genet 2015 Jan;52(1):1-9. Epub 2014 Oct 28 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102755. PMID: 25351953Free PMC Article

Therapy

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Kobbernagel HE, Buchvald FF, Haarman EG, Casaulta C, Collins SA, Hogg C, Kuehni CE, Lucas JS, Moser CE, Quittner AL, Raidt J, Rosthøj S, Sørensen AL, Thomsen K, Werner C, Omran H, Nielsen KG
Lancet Respir Med 2020 May;8(5):493-505. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30058-8. PMID: 32380069
Schlösser TPC, Semple T, Carr SB, Padley S, Loebinger MR, Hogg C, Castelein RM
Eur Spine J 2017 Jun;26(6):1595-1599. Epub 2017 Feb 8 doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-4970-5. PMID: 28180983
Magis-Escurra C, Reijers MH
BMJ Clin Evid 2015 Feb 25;2015 PMID: 25715965Free PMC Article
Selimoglu E
Curr Pharm Des 2005;11(23):3051-60. doi: 10.2174/1381612054865037. PMID: 16178763

Prognosis

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Kinghorn B, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan E, Onchiri F, Ferkol TW, Sagel SD, Dell SD, Milla C, Shapiro AJ, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Mollica F, Tiddens HAWM, Kemner-van de Corput M, Knowles MR, Davis SD, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Apr;20(4):539-547. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-524OC. PMID: 36442147Free PMC Article
Guo Z, Chen W, Wang L, Qian L
J Pediatr 2020 Oct;225:157-165.e5. Epub 2020 Jun 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.052. PMID: 32502479
Kobbernagel HE, Buchvald FF, Haarman EG, Casaulta C, Collins SA, Hogg C, Kuehni CE, Lucas JS, Moser CE, Quittner AL, Raidt J, Rosthøj S, Sørensen AL, Thomsen K, Werner C, Omran H, Nielsen KG
Lancet Respir Med 2020 May;8(5):493-505. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30058-8. PMID: 32380069
Bhatt JM, Muhonen EG, Meier M, Sagel SD, Chan KH
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019 Nov;161(5):877-880. Epub 2019 Sep 10 doi: 10.1177/0194599819874842. PMID: 31500503

Clinical prediction guides

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Kinghorn B, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan E, Onchiri F, Ferkol TW, Sagel SD, Dell SD, Milla C, Shapiro AJ, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Mollica F, Tiddens HAWM, Kemner-van de Corput M, Knowles MR, Davis SD, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Apr;20(4):539-547. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-524OC. PMID: 36442147Free PMC Article
Zawawi F, Shapiro AJ, Dell S, Wolter NE, Marchica CL, Knowles MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Smith M, Gajardo P, Daniel SJ
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Mar;166(3):540-547. Epub 2021 Jun 22 doi: 10.1177/01945998211019320. PMID: 34154450Free PMC Article
Guo Z, Chen W, Wang L, Qian L
J Pediatr 2020 Oct;225:157-165.e5. Epub 2020 Jun 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.052. PMID: 32502479
Kobbernagel HE, Buchvald FF, Haarman EG, Casaulta C, Collins SA, Hogg C, Kuehni CE, Lucas JS, Moser CE, Quittner AL, Raidt J, Rosthøj S, Sørensen AL, Thomsen K, Werner C, Omran H, Nielsen KG
Lancet Respir Med 2020 May;8(5):493-505. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30058-8. PMID: 32380069

Recent systematic reviews

Inaba A, Furuhata M, Morimoto K, Rahman M, Takahashi O, Hijikata M, Knowles MR, Keicho N
BMC Pulm Med 2019 Jul 25;19(1):135. doi: 10.1186/s12890-019-0897-4. PMID: 31345208Free PMC Article
Magis-Escurra C, Reijers MH
BMJ Clin Evid 2015 Feb 25;2015 PMID: 25715965Free PMC Article

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