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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 14(DEE14)

MedGen UID:
767109
Concept ID:
C3554195
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE14; Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 14
 
Gene (location): KCNT1 (9q34.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013989
OMIM®: 614959

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: KCNT1-Related Epilepsy
KCNT1-related epilepsy is most often associated with two phenotypes: epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). EIMFS is characterized by seizures, typically focal and asynchronous, beginning in the first six months of life with associated developmental plateau or regression. Autonomic manifestations (e.g., perioral cyanosis, flushing, apnea) are common. Seizures are intractable to multiple anticonvulsants and progress to become nearly continuous by age six to nine months. ADNFLE is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures that vary from simple arousals to hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Individuals with KCNT1-related ADNFLE are more likely to develop seizures at a younger age, have cognitive comorbidity, and display psychiatric and behavioral problems than individuals with ADNFLE resulting from other causes. Less common seizure phenotypes in individuals with KCNT1-related epilepsy include West syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, leukodystrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy, focal epilepsy, and multifocal epilepsy. Additional neurologic features include hypotonia, microcephaly developing by age 12 months, strabismus, profound developmental delay, and additional movement disorders. Other systemic manifestations including pulmonary hemorrhage caused by prominent systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries or cardiac arrhythmia have been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Tracy Gertler  |  David Bearden  |  Arin Bhattacharjee, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-14 (DEE14) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first 6 months of life of refractory focal seizures and arrest of psychomotor development. Ictal EEG shows discharges that arise randomly from various areas of both hemispheres and migrate from one brain region to another. The disorder presents as 'malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy' (MMPSI), a clinical designation (summary by Barcia et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.  http://www.omim.org/entry/614959
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy (MMPSI) is a severe form of epilepsy that begins very early in life. Recurrent seizures begin before the age of 6 months but commonly start within a few weeks of birth. The seizures do not respond well to treatment. Although affected individuals may develop normally at first, progression stalls and skills decline when seizures begin; as a result, affected individuals have profound developmental delay.

The seizures in MMPSI are described as partial (or focal) because the seizure activity occurs in regions of the brain rather than affecting the entire brain. Seizure activity can appear in multiple locations in the brain or move (migrate) from one region to another during an episode. Depending on the region affected, seizures can involve sudden redness and warmth (flushing) of the face; drooling; short pauses in breathing (apnea); movement of the head or eyes to one side; twitches in the eyelids or tongue; chewing motions; or jerking of an arm, leg, or both on one side of the body. If seizure activity spreads to affect the entire brain, it causes a loss of consciousness, muscle stiffening, and rhythmic jerking (tonic-clonic seizure). Episodes that begin as partial seizures and spread throughout the brain are known as secondarily generalized seizures.

Initially, the seizures associated with MMPSI are relatively infrequent, occurring every few weeks. Within a few months of the seizures starting, though, the frequency increases. Affected individuals can have clusters of five to 30 seizures several times a day. Each seizure typically lasts seconds to a couple of minutes, but they can be prolonged (classified as status epilepticus). In some cases, the seizure activity may be almost continuous for several days. After a year or more of persistent seizures, the episodes become less frequent.

Seizures can affect growth of the brain and lead to a small head size (microcephaly). The problems with brain development can also cause profound developmental delay and intellectual impairment. Affected babies often lose the mental and motor skills they developed after birth, such as the ability to make eye contact and control their head movement. Many have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and become "floppy." If seizures can be controlled for a short period, development may improve. Some affected children learn to reach for objects or walk. However, most children with this condition do not develop language skills.

Because of the serious health problems caused by MMPSI, many affected individuals do not survive past infancy or early childhood.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/malignant-migrating-partial-seizures-of-infancy

Clinical features

From HPO
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Focal motor seizure
MedGen UID:
5237
Concept ID:
C0016399
Disease or Syndrome
A type of focal-onset seizure characterized by a motor sign as its initial semiological manifestation.
Gliosis
MedGen UID:
4899
Concept ID:
C0017639
Pathologic Function
Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the central nervous system.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
19617
Concept ID:
C0034372
Disease or Syndrome
Paralysis of all four limbs, and trunk of the body below the level of an associated injury to the spinal cord. The etiology of quadriplegia is similar to that of paraplegia except that the lesion is in the cervical spinal cord rather than in the thoracic or lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Focal clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
155749
Concept ID:
C0752323
Disease or Syndrome
A focal clonic seizure is a type of focal motor seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking, that is regularly repetitive.
Focal tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
199867
Concept ID:
C0752324
Disease or Syndrome
A type of focal motor seizure characterized by sustained increase in muscle contraction, lasting a few seconds to minutes.
Reduced eye contact
MedGen UID:
303190
Concept ID:
C1445953
Finding
A reduced frequency or duration of eye contact.
Generalized tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
322935
Concept ID:
C1836508
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized tonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening without a subsequent clonic phase. The tonic activity can be a sustained abnormal posture, either in extension or flexion, sometimes accompanied by tremor of the extremities.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Neuronal loss in central nervous system
MedGen UID:
342515
Concept ID:
C1850496
Finding
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Inability to walk by childhood/adolescence
MedGen UID:
395200
Concept ID:
C1859200
Finding
Profound global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
766364
Concept ID:
C3553450
Disease or Syndrome
A profound delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Interictal epileptiform activity
MedGen UID:
869073
Concept ID:
C4023491
Finding
Epileptiform activity refers to distinctive EEG waves or complexes distinguished from background activity found in in a proportion of human subjects with epilepsy, but which can also be found in subjects without seizures. Interictal epileptiform activity refers to such activity that occurs in the absence of a clinical or subclinical seizure.
Generalized clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
869081
Concept ID:
C4023499
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized clonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by sustained bilateral jerking, either symmetric or asymmetric, that is regularly repetitive and involves the same muscle groups.
Focal autonomic seizure
MedGen UID:
869091
Concept ID:
C4023509
Disease or Syndrome
An autonomic seizure is a type of focal non-motor seizure characterized by alteration of autonomic nervous system function as the initial semiological feature.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1643639
Concept ID:
C4551584
Disease or Syndrome
Partial or complete wasting (loss) of brain tissue that was once present.
Focal autonomic seizure with palpitations/tachycardia/bradycardia/asystole
MedGen UID:
1712446
Concept ID:
C5397783
Disease or Syndrome
A type of focal autonomic seizure characterized by changes in heart rate as the initial semiological feature.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Generalized-onset motor seizure
MedGen UID:
1841580
Concept ID:
C5779702
Sign or Symptom
A generalized motor seizure is a type of generalized-onset seizure with predominantly motor (involving musculature) signs. The motor event could consist of an increase (positive) or decrease (negative) in muscle contraction to produce a movement.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

D'Onofrio G, Accogli A, Severino M, Caliskan H, Kokotović T, Blazekovic A, Jercic KG, Markovic S, Zigman T, Goran K, Barišić N, Duranovic V, Ban A, Borovecki F, Ramadža DP, Barić I, Fazeli W, Herkenrath P, Marini C, Vittorini R, Gowda V, Bouman A, Rocca C, Alkhawaja IA, Murtaza BN, Rehman MMU, Al Alam C, Nader G, Mancardi MM, Giacomini T, Srivastava S, Alvi JR, Tomoum H, Matricardi S, Iacomino M, Riva A, Scala M, Madia F, Pistorio A, Salpietro V, Minetti C, Rivière JB, Srour M, Efthymiou S, Maroofian R, Houlden H, Vernes SC, Zara F, Striano P, Nagy V
Hum Genet 2023 Jul;142(7):909-925. Epub 2023 May 14 doi: 10.1007/s00439-023-02552-2. PMID: 37183190Free PMC Article
Johannesen KM, Liu Y, Koko M, Gjerulfsen CE, Sonnenberg L, Schubert J, Fenger CD, Eltokhi A, Rannap M, Koch NA, Lauxmann S, Krüger J, Kegele J, Canafoglia L, Franceschetti S, Mayer T, Rebstock J, Zacher P, Ruf S, Alber M, Sterbova K, Lassuthová P, Vlckova M, Lemke JR, Platzer K, Krey I, Heine C, Wieczorek D, Kroell-Seger J, Lund C, Klein KM, Au PYB, Rho JM, Ho AW, Masnada S, Veggiotti P, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Hoei-Hansen CE, Striano P, Zara F, Verhelst H, Verhoeven JS, Braakman HMH, van der Zwaag B, Harder AVE, Brilstra E, Pendziwiat M, Lebon S, Vaccarezza M, Le NM, Christensen J, Grønborg S, Scherer SW, Howe J, Fazeli W, Howell KB, Leventer R, Stutterd C, Walsh S, Gerard M, Gerard B, Matricardi S, Bonardi CM, Sartori S, Berger A, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mastrangelo M, Darra F, Vøllo A, Motazacker MM, Lakeman P, Nizon M, Betzler C, Altuzarra C, Caume R, Roubertie A, Gélisse P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Bilan F, Tibussek D, Koch-Hogrebe M, Perry MS, Ichikawa S, Dadali E, Sharkov A, Mishina I, Abramov M, Kanivets I, Korostelev S, Kutsev S, Wain KE, Eisenhauer N, Wagner M, Savatt JM, Müller-Schlüter K, Bassan H, Borovikov A, Nassogne MC, Destrée A, Schoonjans AS, Meuwissen M, Buzatu M, Jansen A, Scalais E, Srivastava S, Tan WH, Olson HE, Loddenkemper T, Poduri A, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Fitzgerald MP, Goldberg EM, Roser T, Borggraefe I, Brünger T, May P, Lal D, Lederer D, Rubboli G, Heyne HO, Lesca G, Hedrich UBS, Benda J, Gardella E, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article
Pop-Jordanova N
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2019 May 1;40(1):5-40. doi: 10.2478/prilozi-2019-0001. PMID: 31152643

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
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JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Bonardi CM, Heyne HO, Fiannacca M, Fitzgerald MP, Gardella E, Gunning B, Olofsson K, Lesca G, Verbeek N, Stamberger H, Striano P, Zara F, Mancardi MM, Nava C, Syrbe S, Buono S, Baulac S, Coppola A, Weckhuysen S, Schoonjans AS, Ceulemans B, Sarret C, Baumgartner T, Muhle H, Portes VD, Toulouse J, Nougues MC, Rossi M, Demarquay G, Ville D, Hirsch E, Maurey H, Willems M, de Bellescize J, Altuzarra CD, Villeneuve N, Bartolomei F, Picard F, Hornemann F, Koolen DA, Kroes HY, Reale C, Fenger CD, Tan WH, Dibbens L, Bearden DR, Møller RS, Rubboli G
Brain 2021 Dec 31;144(12):3635-3650. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab219. PMID: 34114611
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Devinsky O, Patel AD, Cross JH, Villanueva V, Wirrell EC, Privitera M, Greenwood SM, Roberts C, Checketts D, VanLandingham KE, Zuberi SM; GWPCARE3 Study Group
N Engl J Med 2018 May 17;378(20):1888-1897. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1714631. PMID: 29768152

Diagnosis

Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Russo E, Del Giovane C, Matricardi S, Meletti S, Striano P, Damavandi PT, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
Drugs 2023 Oct;83(15):1409-1424. Epub 2023 Sep 11 doi: 10.1007/s40265-023-01936-y. PMID: 37695433Free PMC Article
Vezyroglou A, Akilapa R, Barwick K, Koene S, Brownstein CA, Holder-Espinasse M, Fry AE, Németh AH, Tofaris GK, Hay E, Hughes I, Mansour S, Mordekar SR, Splitt M, Turnpenny PD, Demetriou D, Koopmann TT, Ruivenkamp CAL, Agrawal PB, Carr L, Clowes V, Ghali N, Holder SE, Radley J, Male A, Sisodiya SM, Kurian MA, Cross JH, Balasubramanian M
Neurology 2022 Oct 4;99(14):e1511-e1526. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200927. PMID: 36192182Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Devinsky O, Patel AD, Cross JH, Villanueva V, Wirrell EC, Privitera M, Greenwood SM, Roberts C, Checketts D, VanLandingham KE, Zuberi SM; GWPCARE3 Study Group
N Engl J Med 2018 May 17;378(20):1888-1897. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1714631. PMID: 29768152

Prognosis

Hamanaka K, Miyake N, Mizuguchi T, Miyatake S, Uchiyama Y, Tsuchida N, Sekiguchi F, Mitsuhashi S, Tsurusaki Y, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Yamada K, Sakamoto M, Fukuda H, Ohori S, Saida K, Itai T, Azuma Y, Koshimizu E, Fujita A, Erturk B, Hiraki Y, Ch'ng GS, Kato M, Okamoto N, Takata A, Matsumoto N
Genome Med 2022 Apr 26;14(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s13073-022-01042-w. PMID: 35468861Free PMC Article
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Vetro A, Nielsen HN, Holm R, Hevner RF, Parrini E, Powis Z, Møller RS, Bellan C, Simonati A, Lesca G, Helbig KL, Palmer EE, Mei D, Ballardini E, Van Haeringen A, Syrbe S, Leuzzi V, Cioni G, Curry CJ, Costain G, Santucci M, Chong K, Mancini GMS, Clayton-Smith J, Bigoni S, Scheffer IE, Dobyns WB, Vilsen B, Guerrini R; ATP1A2/A3-collaborators
Brain 2021 Jun 22;144(5):1435-1450. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab052. PMID: 33880529
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2020 Nov;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16679. PMID: 32954514
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Vezyroglou A, Akilapa R, Barwick K, Koene S, Brownstein CA, Holder-Espinasse M, Fry AE, Németh AH, Tofaris GK, Hay E, Hughes I, Mansour S, Mordekar SR, Splitt M, Turnpenny PD, Demetriou D, Koopmann TT, Ruivenkamp CAL, Agrawal PB, Carr L, Clowes V, Ghali N, Holder SE, Radley J, Male A, Sisodiya SM, Kurian MA, Cross JH, Balasubramanian M
Neurology 2022 Oct 4;99(14):e1511-e1526. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200927. PMID: 36192182Free PMC Article
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