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Primary ciliary dyskinesia 14(CILD14)

MedGen UID:
462486
Concept ID:
C3151136
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CILIARY DYSKINESIA, PRIMARY, 14, WITH OR WITHOUT SITUS INVERSUS; Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia14: CCDC39-Related Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
 
Gene (location): CCDC39 (3q26.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013434
OMIM®: 613807

Definition

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-14 (CILD14) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (Merveille et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.

Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.

Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.

Some individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.

In the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia

Clinical features

From HPO
Male infertility
MedGen UID:
5796
Concept ID:
C0021364
Disease or Syndrome
The inability of the male to effect fertilization of an ovum after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Immotile sperm
MedGen UID:
701339
Concept ID:
C1278278
Finding
A lack of mobility of ejaculated sperm.
Reduced sperm motility
MedGen UID:
907698
Concept ID:
C4082176
Finding
An abnormal reduction in the mobility of ejaculated sperm.
Situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1642262
Concept ID:
C4551493
Congenital Abnormality
A left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs.
Heterotaxy
MedGen UID:
75620
Concept ID:
C0266642
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body.
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Chronic bronchitis
MedGen UID:
3084
Concept ID:
C0008677
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic inflammation of the bronchi.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
3467
Concept ID:
C0008780
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Cough
MedGen UID:
41325
Concept ID:
C0010200
Sign or Symptom
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation.
Wheezing
MedGen UID:
21917
Concept ID:
C0043144
Sign or Symptom
A high-pitched whistling sound associated with labored breathing.
Recurrent pneumonia
MedGen UID:
195802
Concept ID:
C0694550
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to pneumonia as manifested by a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.
Rhinorrhea
MedGen UID:
226777
Concept ID:
C1260880
Sign or Symptom
Increased discharge of mucus from the nose.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Abnormal ciliary motility
MedGen UID:
868584
Concept ID:
C4022983
Anatomical Abnormality
Any anomaly of the normal motility of motile cilia. Evaluation of ciliary beat frequency and ciliary beat pattern requires high-speed videomicroscopy of freshly obtained ciliary biopsies that are maintained in culture media under controlled conditions.
Abnormal axonemal organization of respiratory motile cilia
MedGen UID:
868588
Concept ID:
C4022987
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal arrangement of the structures of the axoneme, which is the cytoskeletal structure that forms the inner core of the motile cilium and displays a canonical 9+2 microtubular pattern of motile cilia studded with dynein arms.
Absent inner dynein arms
MedGen UID:
868589
Concept ID:
C4022988
Finding
Absence of the inner dynein arms of respiratory motile cilia, which normally are situated within the peripheral microtubules of motile cilia. This feature is usually appreciated by electron microscopy.
Neonatal respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
924182
Concept ID:
C4281993
Finding
Respiratory difficulty as newborn.
Otitis media
MedGen UID:
45253
Concept ID:
C0029882
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation or infection of the middle ear.
Chronic sinusitis
MedGen UID:
101751
Concept ID:
C0149516
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic form of sinusitis.
Polysplenia
MedGen UID:
383959
Concept ID:
C1856659
Congenital Abnormality
Polysplenia is a congenital disease manifested by multiple small accessory spleens.

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gatt D, Shaw M, Waters V, Kritzinger F, Solomon M, Dell S, Ratjen F
Pediatr Pulmonol 2023 Oct;58(10):2857-2864. Epub 2023 Jul 14 doi: 10.1002/ppul.26599. PMID: 37449771
Behan L, Leigh MW, Dell SD, Quittner AL, Hogg C, Lucas JS
Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Dec;54(12):2011-2020. Epub 2019 Sep 1 doi: 10.1002/ppul.24507. PMID: 31475479Free PMC Article
Mata M, Milian L, Armengot M, Carda C
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2014 Mar;14(3):420. doi: 10.1007/s11882-014-0420-1. PMID: 24459089

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Guan Y, Yang H, Yao X, Xu H, Liu H, Tang X, Hao C, Zhang X, Zhao S, Ge W, Ni X
Chest 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. PMID: 33577779Free PMC Article
Abitbul R, Amirav I, Blau H, Alkrinawi S, Aviram M, Shoseyov D, Bentur L, Avital A, Springer C, Lavie M, Prais D, Dabbah H, Elias N, Elizur A, Goldberg S, Hevroni A, Kerem E, Luder A, Roth Y, Cohen-Cymberknoh M, Ben Ami M, Mandelberg A, Livnat G, Picard E, Rivlin J, Rotschild M, Soferman R, Loges NT, Olbrich H, Werner C, Wolter A, Herting M, Wallmeier J, Raidt J, Omran H, Mussaffi H
Respir Med 2016 Oct;119:41-47. Epub 2016 Aug 23 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.08.015. PMID: 27692146
Leigh MW, Ferkol TW, Davis SD, Lee HS, Rosenfeld M, Dell SD, Sagel SD, Milla C, Olivier KN, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Shapiro AJ, Carson JL, Krischer J, Hazucha MJ, Knowles MR
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016 Aug;13(8):1305-13. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201511-748OC. PMID: 27070726Free PMC Article
Santamaria F, Esposito M, Montella S, Cantone E, Mollica C, De Stefano S, Mirra V, Carotenuto M
Respirology 2014 May;19(4):570-5. Epub 2014 Mar 24 doi: 10.1111/resp.12273. PMID: 24661455

Diagnosis

Guan Y, Yang H, Yao X, Xu H, Liu H, Tang X, Hao C, Zhang X, Zhao S, Ge W, Ni X
Chest 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. PMID: 33577779Free PMC Article
Aksamit TR, O'Donnell AE, Barker A, Olivier KN, Winthrop KL, Daniels MLA, Johnson M, Eden E, Griffith D, Knowles M, Metersky M, Salathe M, Thomashow B, Tino G, Turino G, Carretta B, Daley CL; Bronchiectasis Research Registry Consortium
Chest 2017 May;151(5):982-992. Epub 2016 Nov 23 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.10.055. PMID: 27889361Free PMC Article
Abitbul R, Amirav I, Blau H, Alkrinawi S, Aviram M, Shoseyov D, Bentur L, Avital A, Springer C, Lavie M, Prais D, Dabbah H, Elias N, Elizur A, Goldberg S, Hevroni A, Kerem E, Luder A, Roth Y, Cohen-Cymberknoh M, Ben Ami M, Mandelberg A, Livnat G, Picard E, Rivlin J, Rotschild M, Soferman R, Loges NT, Olbrich H, Werner C, Wolter A, Herting M, Wallmeier J, Raidt J, Omran H, Mussaffi H
Respir Med 2016 Oct;119:41-47. Epub 2016 Aug 23 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.08.015. PMID: 27692146
Mirra V, Caffarelli C, Maglione M, Valentino R, Perruolo G, Mazzarella C, Di Micco LL, Montella S, Santamaria F
Ital J Pediatr 2015 Feb 22;41:14. doi: 10.1186/s13052-015-0119-5. PMID: 25887861Free PMC Article
Santamaria F, Esposito M, Montella S, Cantone E, Mollica C, De Stefano S, Mirra V, Carotenuto M
Respirology 2014 May;19(4):570-5. Epub 2014 Mar 24 doi: 10.1111/resp.12273. PMID: 24661455

Therapy

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Abitbul R, Amirav I, Blau H, Alkrinawi S, Aviram M, Shoseyov D, Bentur L, Avital A, Springer C, Lavie M, Prais D, Dabbah H, Elias N, Elizur A, Goldberg S, Hevroni A, Kerem E, Luder A, Roth Y, Cohen-Cymberknoh M, Ben Ami M, Mandelberg A, Livnat G, Picard E, Rivlin J, Rotschild M, Soferman R, Loges NT, Olbrich H, Werner C, Wolter A, Herting M, Wallmeier J, Raidt J, Omran H, Mussaffi H
Respir Med 2016 Oct;119:41-47. Epub 2016 Aug 23 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.08.015. PMID: 27692146
Leigh MW, Ferkol TW, Davis SD, Lee HS, Rosenfeld M, Dell SD, Sagel SD, Milla C, Olivier KN, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Shapiro AJ, Carson JL, Krischer J, Hazucha MJ, Knowles MR
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016 Aug;13(8):1305-13. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201511-748OC. PMID: 27070726Free PMC Article
Brower KS, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC
BMC Pediatr 2014 Dec 10;14:4. doi: 10.1186/s12887-014-0299-y. PMID: 25492164Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Cheng L, Dong Y, Liu S
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2023 Jun;37(6):1021-1025. Epub 2023 Feb 3 doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2023.01.033. PMID: 36849313
Sagel SD, Kupfer O, Wagner BD, Davis SD, Dell SD, Ferkol TW, Hoppe JE, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan KM, Tiddens HAWM, Knowles MR, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Jan;20(1):67-74. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202204-314OC. PMID: 35984413Free PMC Article
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Leigh MW, Ferkol TW, Davis SD, Lee HS, Rosenfeld M, Dell SD, Sagel SD, Milla C, Olivier KN, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Shapiro AJ, Carson JL, Krischer J, Hazucha MJ, Knowles MR
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016 Aug;13(8):1305-13. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201511-748OC. PMID: 27070726Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Sagel SD, Kupfer O, Wagner BD, Davis SD, Dell SD, Ferkol TW, Hoppe JE, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan KM, Tiddens HAWM, Knowles MR, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Jan;20(1):67-74. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202204-314OC. PMID: 35984413Free PMC Article
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Guan Y, Yang H, Yao X, Xu H, Liu H, Tang X, Hao C, Zhang X, Zhao S, Ge W, Ni X
Chest 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. PMID: 33577779Free PMC Article
Santamaria F, Esposito M, Montella S, Cantone E, Mollica C, De Stefano S, Mirra V, Carotenuto M
Respirology 2014 May;19(4):570-5. Epub 2014 Mar 24 doi: 10.1111/resp.12273. PMID: 24661455

Recent systematic reviews

Cheng L, Dong Y, Liu S
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2023 Jun;37(6):1021-1025. Epub 2023 Feb 3 doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2023.01.033. PMID: 36849313
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Inaba A, Furuhata M, Morimoto K, Rahman M, Takahashi O, Hijikata M, Knowles MR, Keicho N
BMC Pulm Med 2019 Jul 25;19(1):135. doi: 10.1186/s12890-019-0897-4. PMID: 31345208Free PMC Article
Behan L, Rubbo B, Lucas JS, Dunn Galvin A
Qual Life Res 2017 Sep;26(9):2265-2285. Epub 2017 Mar 30 doi: 10.1007/s11136-017-1564-y. PMID: 28361274Free PMC Article
Brower KS, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC
BMC Pediatr 2014 Dec 10;14:4. doi: 10.1186/s12887-014-0299-y. PMID: 25492164Free PMC Article

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