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Long QT syndrome 11(LQT11)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: LQT11
Gene (location): AKAP9 (7q21.2)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012738
OMIM®: 611820

Alexander J Groffen  |  Hennie Bikker  |  Imke Christiaans   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews Overview
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Congenital long QT syndrome is electrocardiographically characterized by a prolonged QT interval and polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias (torsade de pointes). These cardiac arrhythmias may result in recurrent syncope, seizure, or sudden death (Jongbloed et al., 1999).  http://www.omim.org/entry/611820

Clinical features

From HPO
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
Syncope is a syndrome in which loss of consciousness is of relatively sudden onset, temporary (usually less than 1 to 2 minutes), self-terminating, and of usually rapid recovery. Syncope leads to a generalized weakness of muscles with loss of postural tone, inability to stand upright, and loss of consciousness. Once the patient is in a horizontal position, blood flow to the brain is no longer hindered by gravitation and consciousness is regained. Unconsciousness usually lasts for seconds to minutes. Headache and drowsiness (which usually follow seizures) do not follow a syncopal attack. Syncope results from a sudden impairment of brain metabolism usually due to a reduction in cerebral blood flow.
Prolonged QTc interval
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
A longer than normal interval (corrected for heart rate) between the Q and T waves in the heart's cycle. Prolonged QTc can cause premature action potentials during late phase depolarizations thereby leading to ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular fibrillations.

Professional guidelines


Conte G, Scherr D, Lenarczyk R, Gandjbachkh E, Boulé S, Spartalis MD, Behr ER, Wilde A, Potpara T
Europace 2020 Dec 23;22(12):1904-1910. doi: 10.1093/europace/euaa223. PMID: 33367591

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