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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1(MRD1)

MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 1; MBD5 Haploinsufficiency; MRD1
 
Gene (location): MBD5 (2q23.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007974
OMIM®: 156200

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: MBD5 Haploinsufficiency
MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%). [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Sureni V Mullegama  |  Roberto Mendoza-Londono  |  Sarah H Elsea   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
MBD5-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (MAND) is a condition that affects neurological and physical development.

Children with MAND have mild to severe intellectual disability and developmental delay. They often have poor coordination and do not walk until age 2 or 3. Their walking style (gait) is often unbalanced and wide-based. Language skills, both the production of speech and the ability to understand speech, are very limited in affected individuals. By age 2, most children with MAND develop recurring seizures (epilepsy). Most affected children have feeding problems due to weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Constipation also frequently occurs.

Sleep problems are common in MAND and include night terrors, waking frequently during the night, and waking early in the morning. As a result, many affected individuals are extremely tired during the day due to lack of sleep and poor-quality sleep. Most people with MAND have features similar to autism spectrum disorder, a developmental condition that affects communication and social interaction. They have a short attention span; perform repetitive hand movements (stereotypies), such as clapping, hand licking, and hand sucking; and grind their teeth.

People with MAND tend to have subtle facial features, including a broad forehead, thick and highly arched eyebrows, abnormalities of the outer ear, a short nose, a wide or depressed nasal bridge, downturned corners of the mouth, an upper lip that points outward (called a tented lip), and a full lower lip. Some affected individuals have mild skeletal abnormalities including small hands and feet, short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth-finger clinodactyly), or a wide gap between the first and second toes (known as a sandal gap). Rarely, individuals with MAND have heart abnormalities.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/mbd5-associated-neurodevelopmental-disorder

Clinical features

From HPO
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Pes valgus
MedGen UID:
299028
Concept ID:
C1578482
Anatomical Abnormality
An outward deviation of the foot at the talocalcaneal or subtalar joint.
Sandal gap
MedGen UID:
374376
Concept ID:
C1840069
Finding
A widely spaced gap between the first toe (the great toe) and the second toe.
Short palm
MedGen UID:
334684
Concept ID:
C1843108
Finding
Short palm.
Short middle phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
337690
Concept ID:
C1846950
Finding
Short (hypoplastic) middle phalanx of finger, affecting one or more fingers.
Short foot
MedGen UID:
376415
Concept ID:
C1848673
Finding
A measured foot length that is more than 2 SD below the mean for a newborn of 27 - 41 weeks gestation, or foot that is less than the 3rd centile for individuals from birth to 16 years of age (objective). Alternatively, a foot that appears disproportionately short (subjective).
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Cupped ear
MedGen UID:
335186
Concept ID:
C1845447
Congenital Abnormality
Laterally protruding ear that lacks antihelical folding (including absence of inferior and superior crura).
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Bruxism
MedGen UID:
676
Concept ID:
C0006325
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the teeth including the clenching of the jaw and typically occur during sleep, but also can occur while the affected individual is awake.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Polyphagia
MedGen UID:
9369
Concept ID:
C0020505
Finding
A neurological anomaly with gross overeating associated with an abnormally strong desire or need to eat.
Language disorder
MedGen UID:
44069
Concept ID:
C0023015
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Language impairment is a deficit in comprehension or production of language that includes reduced vocabulary, limited sentence structure, or impairments in written or spoken communication. Language abilities are substantially and quantifiably below age expectations.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Short attention span
MedGen UID:
82652
Concept ID:
C0262630
Finding
Reduced attention span characterized by distractibility and impulsivity.
Inappropriate laughter
MedGen UID:
98407
Concept ID:
C0424304
Finding
Laughing that may be excessive and/or inappropriate in context (e.g., laughing at a funeral while others are crying).
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Reduced eye contact
MedGen UID:
303190
Concept ID:
C1445953
Finding
A reduced frequency or duration of eye contact.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Hypoplasia of the frontal lobes
MedGen UID:
341396
Concept ID:
C1849172
Finding
Underdevelopment of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Recurrent hand flapping
MedGen UID:
867996
Concept ID:
C4022387
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A type of repetitive behavior in which the affected individual repeatedly waves the hands and/or arms rhythmically.
Reduced social responsiveness
MedGen UID:
868342
Concept ID:
C4022736
Finding
A reduced ability to participate in the back-and-forth flow of social interaction appropriate to culture and developmental level, which is normally characterized by an influence of the behavior of one person on the behavior of another person. This results in difficulty interacting with others through emotional, physical, or verbal communication.
Delayed ability to sit
MedGen UID:
1368737
Concept ID:
C4476710
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to sit at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children sit with support at 6 months of age and sit steadily without support at 9 months of age.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Hemivertebrae
MedGen UID:
82720
Concept ID:
C0265677
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of one half of the vertebral body.
Short thorax
MedGen UID:
140876
Concept ID:
C0426789
Finding
Reduced inferior to superior extent of the thorax.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Enlarged posterior fossa
MedGen UID:
340998
Concept ID:
C1855889
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the posterior cranial fossa.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Clavicular pseudarthrosis
MedGen UID:
1814348
Concept ID:
C5676779
Pathologic Function
A developmental defect in a the clavicule leading to bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form a normal bony callus with subsequent fibrous nonunion, leading to the pseudarthrosis (or false joint).
Recurrent ear infections
MedGen UID:
473277
Concept ID:
C0743360
Finding
Increased susceptibility to ear infections, as manifested by recurrent episodes of ear infections.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Macroglossia
MedGen UID:
44236
Concept ID:
C0024421
Disease or Syndrome
Increased length and width of the tongue.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Microdontia
MedGen UID:
66008
Concept ID:
C0240340
Congenital Abnormality
Decreased size of the teeth, which can be defined as a mesiodistal tooth diameter (width) more than 2 SD below mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased maximum width of tooth.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Prominent nose
MedGen UID:
98423
Concept ID:
C0426415
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Depressed nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
334631
Concept ID:
C1842876
Finding
Lack of prominence of the nose resulting from a posteriorly-placed nasal ridge.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Low posterior hairline
MedGen UID:
383755
Concept ID:
C1855728
Finding
Hair on the neck extends more inferiorly than usual.
Short columella
MedGen UID:
341783
Concept ID:
C1857479
Finding
Reduced distance from the anterior border of the naris to the subnasale.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Short chin
MedGen UID:
784514
Concept ID:
C3697248
Finding
Decreased vertical distance from the vermilion border of the lower lip to the inferior-most point of the chin.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Esotropia
MedGen UID:
4550
Concept ID:
C0014877
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes turned inward ('crossed') to a relatively severe degree, usually defined as 10 diopters or more.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVIntellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1
Follow this link to review classifications for Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

D'Onofrio G, Accogli A, Severino M, Caliskan H, Kokotović T, Blazekovic A, Jercic KG, Markovic S, Zigman T, Goran K, Barišić N, Duranovic V, Ban A, Borovecki F, Ramadža DP, Barić I, Fazeli W, Herkenrath P, Marini C, Vittorini R, Gowda V, Bouman A, Rocca C, Alkhawaja IA, Murtaza BN, Rehman MMU, Al Alam C, Nader G, Mancardi MM, Giacomini T, Srivastava S, Alvi JR, Tomoum H, Matricardi S, Iacomino M, Riva A, Scala M, Madia F, Pistorio A, Salpietro V, Minetti C, Rivière JB, Srour M, Efthymiou S, Maroofian R, Houlden H, Vernes SC, Zara F, Striano P, Nagy V
Hum Genet 2023 Jul;142(7):909-925. Epub 2023 May 14 doi: 10.1007/s00439-023-02552-2. PMID: 37183190Free PMC Article
Ng SY, Luk HM, Hau EW, Cheng SS, Yu KP, Ho S, Mok MT, Lo IF
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Oct;65(10):104573. Epub 2022 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104573. PMID: 35918040
Shang S, Mei Y, Wang T, Zheng X, Chen K, Xiong S, Dong Y, Chang Y, Wu X, Kong X, Tan M, Wu L, Zhang Y, Xiao Y, Xie Y, Cai G, Chen X, Li Q
Clin Nephrol 2022 Jun;97(6):328-338. doi: 10.5414/CN110476. PMID: 35142283

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Fortea J, Zaman SH, Hartley S, Rafii MS, Head E, Carmona-Iragui M
Lancet Neurol 2021 Nov;20(11):930-942. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00245-3. PMID: 34687637Free PMC Article
Finetti M, Omenetti A, Federici S, Caorsi R, Gattorno M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 Dec 7;11(1):167. doi: 10.1186/s13023-016-0542-8. PMID: 27927236Free PMC Article
Jones AC, Shyamsundar MM, Thomas MW, Maynard J, Idziaszczyk S, Tomkins S, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Am J Hum Genet 1999 May;64(5):1305-15. doi: 10.1086/302381. PMID: 10205261Free PMC Article
Vogel F
Hum Genet 1979 Nov 1;52(1):1-54. doi: 10.1007/BF00284597. PMID: 393614

Diagnosis

Urakawa T, Sano S, Kawashima S, Nakamura A, Shima H, Ohta M, Yamada Y, Nishida A, Narusawa H, Ohtsu Y, Matsubara K, Dateki S, Maruo Y, Fukami M, Ogata T, Kagami M
Eur J Endocrinol 2023 Dec 6;189(6):590-600. doi: 10.1093/ejendo/lvad163. PMID: 38039118
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Fortea J, Zaman SH, Hartley S, Rafii MS, Head E, Carmona-Iragui M
Lancet Neurol 2021 Nov;20(11):930-942. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00245-3. PMID: 34687637Free PMC Article
Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Uysal SP, Şahin M
Turk J Med Sci 2020 Nov 3;50(SI-2):1665-1676. doi: 10.3906/sag-2002-133. PMID: 32222129Free PMC Article

Therapy

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690Free PMC Article
Hetzelt KLML, Kerling F, Kraus C, Rauch C, Thiel CT, Winterholler M, Reis A, Zweier C
Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jan;64(1):104123. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104123. PMID: 33338668
Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Matevosyan NR
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016 Jan;293(1):87-99. Epub 2015 Jun 11 doi: 10.1007/s00404-015-3770-6. PMID: 26063342
Moreira PI, Honda K, Zhu X, Nunomura A, Casadesus G, Smith MA, Perry G
Neurology 2006 Jan 24;66(2 Suppl 1):S97-101. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000192307.15103.83. PMID: 16432155

Prognosis

Cherian A, K P D, Vijayaraghavan A
Curr Opin Neurol 2023 Aug 1;36(4):292-301. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001167. PMID: 37366140
Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Chilton I, Okur V, Vitiello G, Selicorni A, Mariani M, Goldenberg A, Husson T, Campion D, Lichtenbelt KD, van Gassen K, Steinraths M, Rice J, Roeder ER, Littlejohn RO, Srour M, Sebire G, Accogli A, Héron D, Heide S, Nava C, Depienne C, Larson A, Niyazov D, Azage M, Hoganson G, Burton J, Rush ET, Jenkins JL, Saunders CJ, Thiffault I, Alaimo JT, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Gripp KW, Chung WK
Am J Med Genet A 2020 May;182(5):962-973. Epub 2020 Feb 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61505. PMID: 32031333
Jones AC, Shyamsundar MM, Thomas MW, Maynard J, Idziaszczyk S, Tomkins S, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Am J Hum Genet 1999 May;64(5):1305-15. doi: 10.1086/302381. PMID: 10205261Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Cherian A, K P D, Vijayaraghavan A
Curr Opin Neurol 2023 Aug 1;36(4):292-301. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001167. PMID: 37366140
Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Pavinato L, Delle Vedove A, Carli D, Ferrero M, Carestiato S, Howe JL, Agolini E, Coviello DA, van de Laar I, Au PYB, Di Gregorio E, Fabbiani A, Croci S, Mencarelli MA, Bruno LP, Renieri A, Veltra D, Sofocleous C, Faivre L, Mazel B, Safraou H, Denommé-Pichon AS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Giesbertz N, van Jaarsveld RH, Childers A, Rogers RC, Novelli A, De Rubeis S, Buxbaum JD, Scherer SW, Ferrero GB, Wirth B, Brusco A
Brain 2023 Feb 13;146(2):534-548. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac278. PMID: 35979925Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Jones AC, Shyamsundar MM, Thomas MW, Maynard J, Idziaszczyk S, Tomkins S, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP
Am J Hum Genet 1999 May;64(5):1305-15. doi: 10.1086/302381. PMID: 10205261Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Xin C, Wang C, Wang Y, Zhao J, Wang L, Li R, Liu J
BMC Med Genet 2018 Feb 27;19(1):31. doi: 10.1186/s12881-018-0545-5. PMID: 29482518Free PMC Article

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