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Bailey-Bloch congenital myopathy(CMYP13)

MedGen UID:
340586
Concept ID:
C1850625
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CMYP13; CONGENITAL MYOPATHY 13; Congenital myopathy cleft palate and malignant hyperthermia; Native American myopathy; STAC3 disorder
SNOMED CT: Congenital myopathy, cleft palate. malignant hyperthermia syndrome (723439002); Native American myopathy (723439002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): STAC3 (12q13.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009722
OMIM®: 255995
Orphanet: ORPHA168572

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: STAC3 Disorder
STAC3 disorder is characterized by congenital myopathy, musculoskeletal involvement of the trunk and extremities, feeding difficulties, and delayed motor milestones. Most affected individuals have weakness with myopathic facies, scoliosis, kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis, and contractures. Other common findings are ptosis, abnormalities of the palate (including cleft palate), and short stature. Risk for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and restrictive lung disease are increased. Intellect is typically normal. Originally described in individuals from the Lumbee Native American tribe (an admixture of Cheraw Indian, English, and African American ancestry) in the state of North Carolina and reported as Native American myopathy, STAC3 disorder has now been identified in numerous other populations worldwide. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Bryn D Webb  |  Irini Manoli  |  Ethylin Wang Jabs   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Congenital myopathy-13 (CMYO13), also known as Bailey-Bloch congenital myopathy and Native American myopathy (NAM), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital weakness and arthrogryposis, cleft palate, ptosis, myopathic facies, short stature, kyphoscoliosis, talipes deformities, and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia provoked by anesthesia. It was first reported in the Lumbee Indian tribe in North Carolina (summary by Stamm et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYO1A (117000).  http://www.omim.org/entry/255995
From MedlinePlus Genetics
STAC3 disorder (formerly known as Native American myopathy) is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. People with STAC3 disorder have muscle weakness (myopathy) and poor muscle tone (hypotonia) throughout the body that typically begins at birth.

Muscle weakness underlies many of the characteristic features of STAC3 disorder. Affected individuals may have feeding and swallowing difficulties in infancy. They usually have delayed development of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, standing, and walking. Many have facial features described as "myopathic facies", which include drooping eyelids (ptosis), sunken cheeks, and a mouth often held in an open position and with the corners turned downward. Other distinctive facial features in people with STAC3 disorder can include a small lower jaw (micrognathia), an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), low-set ears that slant backward, eye openings that are shorter than average or that point downward (short or downslanting palpebral fissures), or an increased distance between the inner corners of the eyes (ocular telecanthus).

Individuals with STAC3 disorder may also be born with joint deformities that restrict movement (contractures) or develop an abnormal side-to-side or back-to-front curvature of the spine (scoliosis or kyphosis, often called kyphoscoliosis when they occur together). Affected individuals tend to be shorter than their peers and others in their family.

People with STAC3 disorder also have an increased risk of developing a severe reaction to certain drugs used during surgery and other invasive procedures. This reaction is called malignant hyperthermia. Malignant hyperthermia occurs in response to some anesthetic drugs, which are used to block the sensation of pain, either given alone or in combination with a particular type of muscle relaxant. If given these drugs, people at risk of malignant hyperthermia may experience muscle rigidity, breakdown of muscle fibers (rhabdomyolysis), a high fever (hyperthermia), increased acid levels in the blood and other tissues (acidosis), and a rapid heart rate. The complications of malignant hyperthermia can be life-threatening unless the drugs are stopped and the symptoms are treated promptly.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/stac3-disorder

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Bilateral talipes equinovarus
MedGen UID:
332956
Concept ID:
C1837835
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral clubfoot deformity.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Proximal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
113169
Concept ID:
C0221629
Finding
A lack of strength of the proximal muscles.
Gowers sign
MedGen UID:
65865
Concept ID:
C0234182
Finding
A phenomenon whereby patients are not able to stand up without the use of the hands owing to weakness of the proximal muscles of the lower limbs.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Weakness of facial musculature
MedGen UID:
98103
Concept ID:
C0427055
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced strength of one or more muscles innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve).
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Kyphoscoliosis
MedGen UID:
154361
Concept ID:
C0575158
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal (lateral) and sagittal (back-to-front) plane.
Fatty replacement of skeletal muscle
MedGen UID:
866735
Concept ID:
C4021082
Finding
Muscle fibers degeneration resulting in fatty replacement of skeletal muscle fibers
Multiple skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
870684
Concept ID:
C4025138
Finding
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Hypercapnia
MedGen UID:
9359
Concept ID:
C0020440
Sign or Symptom
Abnormally elevated blood carbon dioxide (CO2) level.
Hypoxemia
MedGen UID:
152145
Concept ID:
C0700292
Finding
An abnormally low level of blood oxygen.
Restrictive ventilatory defect
MedGen UID:
478856
Concept ID:
C3277226
Finding
A functional defect characterized by reduced total lung capacity (TLC) not associated with abnormalities of expiratory airflow or airway resistance. Spirometrically, a restrictive defect is defined as FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and FVC (forced vital capacity) less than 80 per cent. Restrictive lung disease may be caused by alterations in lung parenchyma or because of a disease of the pleura, chest wall, or neuromuscular apparatus.
Increased intramyocellular lipid droplets
MedGen UID:
866481
Concept ID:
C4020730
Finding
An abnormal increase in intracellular lipid droplets In a muscle. The number and size of these drops can increase with somd disorders of lipid metabolism affecting muscle. See PMID 20691590 for histological images.
Malignant hyperthermia
MedGen UID:
1830388
Concept ID:
C5779784
Pathologic Function
Malignant hyperthermia is characterized by a rapid increase in temperature to 39-42 degrees C. Malignant hyperthermia may occur in response to either inhalational anesthetics such as halothane, to muscle relaxants such as succinylcholine, or to exercise.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Anatomical Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Myopathic facies
MedGen UID:
90695
Concept ID:
C0332615
Finding
A facial appearance characteristic of myopathic conditions. The face appears expressionless with sunken cheeks, bilateral ptosis, and inability to elevate the corners of the mouth, due to muscle weakness.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Gromand M, Gueguen P, Pervillé A, Ferroul F, Morel G, Harouna A, Doray B, Urtizberea JA, Alessandri JL, Robin S
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Oct;65(10):104598. Epub 2022 Aug 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104598. PMID: 36030003

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