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Hereditary spastic paraplegia 2(SPG2)

MedGen UID:
374177
Concept ID:
C1839264
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Spastic paraplegia 2; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA 2, X-LINKED; SPG2
SNOMED CT: X-linked spastic paraplegia type 2 (723622007); Spastic gait type 2 (723622007); Spastic paraparesis type 2 (723622007); Spastic paraplegia type 2 (723622007)
Modes of inheritance:
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Gene (location): PLP1 (Xq22.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010733
OMIM®: 312920
Orphanet: ORPHA99015

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: PLP1 Disorders
PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Nicole I Wolf  |  Rosalina ML van Spaendonk  |  Grace M Hobson, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Some forms of SPG are considered 'uncomplicated,' i.e., progressive spasticity occurs in isolation; others are considered 'complicated,' i.e., progressive spasticity occurs with other neurologic features. X-linked, autosomal dominant (see 182600), and autosomal recessive (see 270800) forms of SPG have been described. For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of X-linked SPG, see 303350.  http://www.omim.org/entry/312920
From MedlinePlus Genetics
People with the pure form of spastic paraplegia type 2 experience spasticity in the lower limbs, usually without any additional features. People with the complex form of spastic paraplegia type 2 have lower limb spasticity and can also experience problems with movement and balance (ataxia); involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus); mild intellectual disability; involuntary, rhythmic shaking (tremor); and degeneration (atrophy) of the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Symptoms usually become apparent between the ages of 1 and 5 years; those affected are typically able to walk and have a normal lifespan.

Spastic paraplegia type 2 is part of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. These disorders are characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity) and the development of paralysis of the lower limbs (paraplegia). Hereditary spastic paraplegias are divided into two types: pure and complex. The pure types involve the lower limbs. The complex types involve the lower limbs and can also affect the upper limbs to a lesser degree; the structure or functioning of the brain; and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system). Spastic paraplegia type 2 can occur in either the pure or complex form.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/spastic-paraplegia-type-2

Clinical features

From HPO
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Lower limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
324478
Concept ID:
C1836296
Finding
Weakness of the muscles of the legs.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Dysmetria
MedGen UID:
68583
Concept ID:
C0234162
Finding
A type of ataxia characterized by the inability to carry out movements with the correct range and motion across the plane of more than one joint related to incorrect estimation of the distances required for targeted movements.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Loss of ambulation
MedGen UID:
332305
Concept ID:
C1836843
Finding
Inability to walk in a person who previous had the ability to walk.
Degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts
MedGen UID:
375921
Concept ID:
C1846566
Finding
Deterioration of the tissues of the lateral corticospinal tracts.
Abnormal cerebellum morphology
MedGen UID:
400925
Concept ID:
C1866129
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural abnormality of the cerebellum.
Spinocerebellar tract degeneration
MedGen UID:
401075
Concept ID:
C1866751
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary spastic paraplegia 2
Follow this link to review classifications for Hereditary spastic paraplegia 2 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

de Boer EMJ, van Rheenen W, Goedee HS, Kamsteeg EJ, Brilstra EH, Veldink JH, van Den Berg LH, van Es MA
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2021 Nov;22(7-8):561-570. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1080/21678421.2021.1907412. PMID: 33829936
Döring JH, Schröter J, Jüngling J, Biskup S, Klotz KA, Bast T, Dietel T, Korenke GC, Christoph S, Brennenstuhl H, Rubboli G, Møller RS, Lesca G, Chaix Y, Kölker S, Hoffmann GF, Lemke JR, Syrbe S
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 10;22(6) doi: 10.3390/ijms22062824. PMID: 33802230Free PMC Article
de Niet M, de Bot ST, van de Warrenburg BP, Weerdesteyn V, Geurts AC
J Rehabil Med 2015 Feb;47(2):147-53. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1909. PMID: 25325386

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Teinert J, Behne R, Wimmer M, D'Amore A, Eberhardt K, Brechmann B, Ziegler M, Jensen DM, Nagabhyrava P, Geisel G, Carmody E, Shamshad U, Dies KA, Yuskaitis CJ, Salussolia CL, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Pearson TS, Saffari A, Ziegler A, Kölker S, Volkmann J, Wiesener A, Bearden DR, Lakhani S, Segal D, Udwadia-Hegde A, Martinuzzi A, Hirst J, Perlman S, Takiyama Y, Xiromerisiou G, Vill K, Walker WO, Shukla A, Dubey Gupta R, Dahl N, Aksoy A, Verhelst H, Delgado MR, Kremlikova Pourova R, Sadek AA, Elkhateeb NM, Blumkin L, Brea-Fernández AJ, Dacruz-Álvarez D, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Miguel D, Heine C, Schlump JU, Langen H, Baets J, Bulk S, Darvish H, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Lim-Melia E, Aydinli N, Alanay Y, El-Rashidy O, Nampoothiri S, Patel C, Beetz C, Bauer P, Yoon G, Guillot M, Miller SP, Bourinaris T, Houlden H, Robelin L, Anheim M, Alamri AS, Mahmoud AAH, Inaloo S, Habibzadeh P, Faghihi MA, Jansen AC, Brock S, Roubertie A, Darras BT, Agrawal PB, Santorelli FM, Gleeson J, Zaki MS, Sheikh SI, Bennett JT, Sahin M
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2929-2944. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz307. PMID: 32979048Free PMC Article
Shribman S, Reid E, Crosby AH, Houlden H, Warner TT
Lancet Neurol 2019 Dec;18(12):1136-1146. Epub 2019 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30235-2. PMID: 31377012
Nicolas A, Kenna KP, Renton AE, Ticozzi N, Faghri F, Chia R, Dominov JA, Kenna BJ, Nalls MA, Keagle P, Rivera AM, van Rheenen W, Murphy NA, van Vugt JJFA, Geiger JT, Van der Spek RA, Pliner HA, Shankaracharya, Smith BN, Marangi G, Topp SD, Abramzon Y, Gkazi AS, Eicher JD, Kenna A; ITALSGEN Consortium, Mora G, Calvo A, Mazzini L, Riva N, Mandrioli J, Caponnetto C, Battistini S, Volanti P, La Bella V, Conforti FL, Borghero G, Messina S, Simone IL, Trojsi F, Salvi F, Logullo FO, D'Alfonso S, Corrado L, Capasso M, Ferrucci L; Genomic Translation for ALS Care (GTAC) Consortium, Moreno CAM, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB; ALS Sequencing Consortium, Gitler AD, Harris T, Myers RM; NYGC ALS Consortium, Phatnani H, Musunuri RL, Evani US, Abhyankar A, Zody MC; Answer ALS Foundation, Kaye J, Finkbeiner S, Wyman SK, LeNail A, Lima L, Fraenkel E, Svendsen CN, Thompson LM, Van Eyk JE, Berry JD, Miller TM, Kolb SJ, Cudkowicz M, Baxi E; Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium, Benatar M, Taylor JP, Rampersaud E, Wu G, Wuu J; SLAGEN Consortium, Lauria G, Verde F, Fogh I, Tiloca C, Comi GP, Sorarù G, Cereda C; French ALS Consortium, Corcia P, Laaksovirta H, Myllykangas L, Jansson L, Valori M, Ealing J, Hamdalla H, Rollinson S, Pickering-Brown S, Orrell RW, Sidle KC, Malaspina A, Hardy J, Singleton AB, Johnson JO, Arepalli S, Sapp PC, McKenna-Yasek D, Polak M, Asress S, Al-Sarraj S, King A, Troakes C, Vance C, de Belleroche J, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, Muñoz-Blanco JL, Hernandez DG, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Scholz SW, Floeter MK, Campbell RH, Landi F, Bowser R, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, MacGowan DJL, Kirby J, Pioro EP, Pamphlett R, Broach J, Gerhard G, Dunckley TL, Brady CB, Kowall NW, Troncoso JC, Le Ber I, Mouzat K, Lumbroso S, Heiman-Patterson TD, Kamel F, Van Den Bosch L, Baloh RH, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Shatunov A, Van Eijk KR, de Carvalho M, Kooyman M, Middelkoop B, Moisse M, McLaughlin RL, Van Es MA, Weber M, Boylan KB, Van Blitterswijk M, Rademakers R, Morrison KE, Basak AN, Mora JS, Drory VE, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Hardiman O, Williams KL, Fifita JA, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Rouleau GA, Esteban-Pérez J, García-Redondo A, Al-Chalabi A; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium, Rogaeva E, Zinman L, Ostrow LW, Maragakis NJ, Rothstein JD, Simmons Z, Cooper-Knock J, Brice A, Goutman SA, Feldman EL, Gibson SB, Taroni F, Ratti A, Gellera C, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Fratta P, Sabatelli M, Lunetta C, Ludolph AC, Andersen PM, Weishaupt JH, Camu W, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Brown RH Jr, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Harms MB, Glass JD, Stone DJ, Tienari P, Silani V, Chiò A, Shaw CE, Traynor BJ, Landers JE
Neuron 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1267-1288. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.027. PMID: 29566793Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320
Fink JK
Acta Neuropathol 2013 Sep;126(3):307-28. Epub 2013 Jul 30 doi: 10.1007/s00401-013-1115-8. PMID: 23897027Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Pellerin D, Danzi MC, Wilke C, Renaud M, Fazal S, Dicaire MJ, Scriba CK, Ashton C, Yanick C, Beijer D, Rebelo A, Rocca C, Jaunmuktane Z, Sonnen JA, Larivière R, Genís D, Molina Porcel L, Choquet K, Sakalla R, Provost S, Robertson R, Allard-Chamard X, Tétreault M, Reiling SJ, Nagy S, Nishadham V, Purushottam M, Vengalil S, Bardhan M, Nalini A, Chen Z, Mathieu J, Massie R, Chalk CH, Lafontaine AL, Evoy F, Rioux MF, Ragoussis J, Boycott KM, Dubé MP, Duquette A, Houlden H, Ravenscroft G, Laing NG, Lamont PJ, Saporta MA, Schüle R, Schöls L, La Piana R, Synofzik M, Zuchner S, Brais B
N Engl J Med 2023 Jan 12;388(2):128-141. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2207406. PMID: 36516086Free PMC Article
Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Teinert J, Behne R, Wimmer M, D'Amore A, Eberhardt K, Brechmann B, Ziegler M, Jensen DM, Nagabhyrava P, Geisel G, Carmody E, Shamshad U, Dies KA, Yuskaitis CJ, Salussolia CL, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Pearson TS, Saffari A, Ziegler A, Kölker S, Volkmann J, Wiesener A, Bearden DR, Lakhani S, Segal D, Udwadia-Hegde A, Martinuzzi A, Hirst J, Perlman S, Takiyama Y, Xiromerisiou G, Vill K, Walker WO, Shukla A, Dubey Gupta R, Dahl N, Aksoy A, Verhelst H, Delgado MR, Kremlikova Pourova R, Sadek AA, Elkhateeb NM, Blumkin L, Brea-Fernández AJ, Dacruz-Álvarez D, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Miguel D, Heine C, Schlump JU, Langen H, Baets J, Bulk S, Darvish H, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Lim-Melia E, Aydinli N, Alanay Y, El-Rashidy O, Nampoothiri S, Patel C, Beetz C, Bauer P, Yoon G, Guillot M, Miller SP, Bourinaris T, Houlden H, Robelin L, Anheim M, Alamri AS, Mahmoud AAH, Inaloo S, Habibzadeh P, Faghihi MA, Jansen AC, Brock S, Roubertie A, Darras BT, Agrawal PB, Santorelli FM, Gleeson J, Zaki MS, Sheikh SI, Bennett JT, Sahin M
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2929-2944. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz307. PMID: 32979048Free PMC Article
Shribman S, Reid E, Crosby AH, Houlden H, Warner TT
Lancet Neurol 2019 Dec;18(12):1136-1146. Epub 2019 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30235-2. PMID: 31377012
Nicolas A, Kenna KP, Renton AE, Ticozzi N, Faghri F, Chia R, Dominov JA, Kenna BJ, Nalls MA, Keagle P, Rivera AM, van Rheenen W, Murphy NA, van Vugt JJFA, Geiger JT, Van der Spek RA, Pliner HA, Shankaracharya, Smith BN, Marangi G, Topp SD, Abramzon Y, Gkazi AS, Eicher JD, Kenna A; ITALSGEN Consortium, Mora G, Calvo A, Mazzini L, Riva N, Mandrioli J, Caponnetto C, Battistini S, Volanti P, La Bella V, Conforti FL, Borghero G, Messina S, Simone IL, Trojsi F, Salvi F, Logullo FO, D'Alfonso S, Corrado L, Capasso M, Ferrucci L; Genomic Translation for ALS Care (GTAC) Consortium, Moreno CAM, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB; ALS Sequencing Consortium, Gitler AD, Harris T, Myers RM; NYGC ALS Consortium, Phatnani H, Musunuri RL, Evani US, Abhyankar A, Zody MC; Answer ALS Foundation, Kaye J, Finkbeiner S, Wyman SK, LeNail A, Lima L, Fraenkel E, Svendsen CN, Thompson LM, Van Eyk JE, Berry JD, Miller TM, Kolb SJ, Cudkowicz M, Baxi E; Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium, Benatar M, Taylor JP, Rampersaud E, Wu G, Wuu J; SLAGEN Consortium, Lauria G, Verde F, Fogh I, Tiloca C, Comi GP, Sorarù G, Cereda C; French ALS Consortium, Corcia P, Laaksovirta H, Myllykangas L, Jansson L, Valori M, Ealing J, Hamdalla H, Rollinson S, Pickering-Brown S, Orrell RW, Sidle KC, Malaspina A, Hardy J, Singleton AB, Johnson JO, Arepalli S, Sapp PC, McKenna-Yasek D, Polak M, Asress S, Al-Sarraj S, King A, Troakes C, Vance C, de Belleroche J, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, Muñoz-Blanco JL, Hernandez DG, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Scholz SW, Floeter MK, Campbell RH, Landi F, Bowser R, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, MacGowan DJL, Kirby J, Pioro EP, Pamphlett R, Broach J, Gerhard G, Dunckley TL, Brady CB, Kowall NW, Troncoso JC, Le Ber I, Mouzat K, Lumbroso S, Heiman-Patterson TD, Kamel F, Van Den Bosch L, Baloh RH, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Shatunov A, Van Eijk KR, de Carvalho M, Kooyman M, Middelkoop B, Moisse M, McLaughlin RL, Van Es MA, Weber M, Boylan KB, Van Blitterswijk M, Rademakers R, Morrison KE, Basak AN, Mora JS, Drory VE, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Hardiman O, Williams KL, Fifita JA, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Rouleau GA, Esteban-Pérez J, García-Redondo A, Al-Chalabi A; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium, Rogaeva E, Zinman L, Ostrow LW, Maragakis NJ, Rothstein JD, Simmons Z, Cooper-Knock J, Brice A, Goutman SA, Feldman EL, Gibson SB, Taroni F, Ratti A, Gellera C, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Fratta P, Sabatelli M, Lunetta C, Ludolph AC, Andersen PM, Weishaupt JH, Camu W, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Brown RH Jr, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Harms MB, Glass JD, Stone DJ, Tienari P, Silani V, Chiò A, Shaw CE, Traynor BJ, Landers JE
Neuron 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1267-1288. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.027. PMID: 29566793Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Therapy

Chen X, Dong T, Hu Y, De Pace R, Mattera R, Eberhardt K, Ziegler M, Pirovolakis T, Sahin M, Bonifacino JS, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Gray SJ
J Clin Invest 2023 May 15;133(10) doi: 10.1172/JCI164575. PMID: 36951961Free PMC Article
Dodge JC, Treleaven CM, Pacheco J, Cooper S, Bao C, Abraham M, Cromwell M, Sardi SP, Chuang WL, Sidman RL, Cheng SH, Shihabuddin LS
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Prognosis

Eckhardt M
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Mar 3;24(5) doi: 10.3390/ijms24054908. PMID: 36902339Free PMC Article
Méreaux JL, Banneau G, Papin M, Coarelli G, Valter R, Raymond L, Kol B, Ariste O, Parodi L, Tissier L, Mairey M, Ait Said S, Gautier C, Guillaud-Bataille M; French SPATAX clinical network, Forlani S, de la Grange P, Brice A, Vazza G, Durr A, Leguern E, Stevanin G
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):1029-1037. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab386. PMID: 34983064
Döring JH, Schröter J, Jüngling J, Biskup S, Klotz KA, Bast T, Dietel T, Korenke GC, Christoph S, Brennenstuhl H, Rubboli G, Møller RS, Lesca G, Chaix Y, Kölker S, Hoffmann GF, Lemke JR, Syrbe S
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Clinical prediction guides

Paprocka J, Jezela-Stanek A, Śmigiel R, Walczak A, Mierzewska H, Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak A, Płoski R, Emich-Widera E, Steinborn B
Genes (Basel) 2023 Apr 25;14(5) doi: 10.3390/genes14050972. PMID: 37239332Free PMC Article
Chen X, Dong T, Hu Y, De Pace R, Mattera R, Eberhardt K, Ziegler M, Pirovolakis T, Sahin M, Bonifacino JS, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Gray SJ
J Clin Invest 2023 May 15;133(10) doi: 10.1172/JCI164575. PMID: 36951961Free PMC Article
Méreaux JL, Banneau G, Papin M, Coarelli G, Valter R, Raymond L, Kol B, Ariste O, Parodi L, Tissier L, Mairey M, Ait Said S, Gautier C, Guillaud-Bataille M; French SPATAX clinical network, Forlani S, de la Grange P, Brice A, Vazza G, Durr A, Leguern E, Stevanin G
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):1029-1037. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab386. PMID: 34983064
Servelhere KR, Casseb RF, de Lima FD, Rezende TJR, Ramalho LP, França MC Jr
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Eur Spine J 2014 Jun;23 Suppl 3:S305-14. Epub 2013 Jul 25 doi: 10.1007/s00586-013-2903-5. PMID: 23884550

Recent systematic reviews

Fereshtehnejad SM, Saleh PA, Oliveira LM, Patel N, Bhowmick S, Saranza G, Kalia LV
Neurol Sci 2023 Mar;44(3):947-959. Epub 2022 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06516-8. PMID: 36441344Free PMC Article
Vecchia SD, Tessa A, Dosi C, Baldacci J, Pasquariello R, Antenora A, Astrea G, Bassi MT, Battini R, Casali C, Cioffi E, Conti G, De Michele G, Ferrari AR, Filla A, Fiorillo C, Fusco C, Gallone S, Germiniasi C, Guerrini R, Haggiag S, Lopergolo D, Martinuzzi A, Melani F, Mignarri A, Panzeri E, Pini A, Pinto AM, Pochiero F, Primiano G, Procopio E, Renieri A, Romaniello R, Sancricca C, Servidei S, Spagnoli C, Ticci C, Rubegni A, Santorelli FM
J Neurol 2022 Jan;269(1):437-450. Epub 2021 Sep 6 doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10792-3. PMID: 34487232
Tranchant C, Koob M, Anheim M
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2017 Jun;39:4-16. Epub 2017 Feb 22 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.02.025. PMID: 28256436
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
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