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Hearing impairment

MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hearing Impairment; Hearing Loss; Hypoacuses; Hypoacusis; Loss, Hearing
SNOMED CT: Decreased hearing (103276001); Hearing loss (15188001); Impaired hearing (15188001); HOH - Hard of hearing (15188001); Hard of hearing (15188001); Hearing impairment (15188001); Difficulty hearing (15188001); Hypoacusis (15188001); HL - Hearing loss (15188001); HI - Hearing impairment (15188001); Hearing impaired (15188001)
 
HPO: HP:0000365
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005365

Definition

A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Conditions with this feature

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract.
Imperforate anus
MedGen UID:
1997
Concept ID:
C0003466
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence of the anus, i.e., the opening at the bottom end of the intestinal tract.
Cleidocranial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
3486
Concept ID:
C0008928
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) spectrum disorder is a skeletal dysplasia that represents a clinical continuum ranging from classic CCD (triad of delayed closure of the cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, and dental abnormalities) to mild CCD to isolated dental anomalies without the skeletal features. Most individuals come to diagnosis because they have classic features. At birth, affected individuals typically have abnormally large, wide-open fontanelles that may remain open throughout life. Clavicular hypoplasia can result in narrow, sloping shoulders that can be opposed at the midline. Moderate short stature may be observed, with most affected individuals being shorter than their unaffected sibs. Dental anomalies may include supernumerary teeth, eruption failure of the permanent teeth, and presence of the second permanent molar with the primary dentition. Individuals with CCD spectrum disorder are at increased risk of developing recurrent sinus infections, recurrent ear infections leading to conductive hearing loss, and upper-airway obstruction. Intelligence is typically normal.
5p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents.
Diaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
4268
Concept ID:
C0011989
Finding
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is characterized by hyperostosis of the long bones and the skull, proximal muscle weakness, limb pain, a wide-based, waddling gait, and joint contractures. Facial features such as macrocephaly, frontal bossing, enlargement of the mandible, proptosis, and cranial nerve impingement resulting in facial palsy are seen in severely affected individuals later in life.
Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Glycogen storage disease, type II
MedGen UID:
5340
Concept ID:
C0017921
Disease or Syndrome
Pompe disease is classified by age of onset, organ involvement, severity, and rate of progression. Infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD; individuals with onset before age 12 months with cardiomyopathy) may be apparent in utero but more typically onset is at the median age of four months with hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Without treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), IOPD commonly results in death by age two years from progressive left ventricular outflow obstruction and respiratory insufficiency. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD; including: (a) individuals with onset before age 12 months without cardiomyopathy; and (b) all individuals with onset after age 12 months) is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency; clinically significant cardiac involvement is uncommon.
Langer-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
6009
Concept ID:
C0023003
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
44131
Concept ID:
C0023521
Disease or Syndrome
Krabbe disease comprises a spectrum ranging from infantile-onset disease (i.e., onset of extreme irritability, spasticity, and developmental delay before age 12 months) to later-onset disease (i.e., onset of manifestations after age 12 months and as late as the seventh decade). Although historically 85%-90% of symptomatic individuals with Krabbe disease diagnosed by enzyme activity alone have infantile-onset Krabbe disease and 10%-15% have later-onset Krabbe disease, the experience with newborn screening (NBS) suggests that the proportion of individuals with possible later-onset Krabbe disease is higher than previously thought. Infantile-onset Krabbe disease is characterized by normal development in the first few months followed by rapid severe neurologic deterioration; the average age of death is 24 months (range 8 months to 9 years). Later-onset Krabbe disease is much more variable in its presentation and disease course.
Multiple symmetric lipomatosis
MedGen UID:
7349
Concept ID:
C0023804
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of adipose tissue with predilection for the cervical and thoracic regions. The lipoma growth is striking and disfiguring, and growth around the neck may cause difficulty swallowing or breathing. The age at onset ranges from childhood to young adulthood. Most, but not all, patients develop axonal peripheral neuropathy, which can appear at any age and varies in severity. Laboratory studies in MSL show low leptin (164160), low adiponectin (605441), variably increased lactate, and increased FGF21 (609436). Some patients may have insulin resistance. The disorder is exclusively associated with a particular MFN2 mutation (R707W; 608507.0013), usually in the homozygous state, but sometimes in the compound heterozygous state (Rocha et al., 2017; Capel et al., 2018).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type I
MedGen UID:
9799
Concept ID:
C0023931
Disease or Syndrome
COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV).
Meniere disease
MedGen UID:
7530
Concept ID:
C0025281
Disease or Syndrome
Meniere disease is a chronic illness characterized by intermittent episodes of vertigo lasting from minutes to hours, with fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural pressure (Sajjadi and Paparella, 2008).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-II
MedGen UID:
7734
Concept ID:
C0026705
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; also known as Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked multisystem disorder characterized by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation. The vast majority of affected individuals are male; on rare occasion heterozygous females manifest findings. Age of onset, disease severity, and rate of progression vary significantly among affected males. In those with early progressive disease, CNS involvement (manifest primarily by progressive cognitive deterioration), progressive airway disease, and cardiac disease usually result in death in the first or second decade of life. In those with slowly progressive disease, the CNS is not (or is minimally) affected, although the effect of GAG accumulation on other organ systems may be early progressive to the same degree as in those who have progressive cognitive decline. Survival into the early adult years with normal intelligence is common in the slowly progressing form of the disease. Additional findings in both forms of MPS II include: short stature; macrocephaly with or without communicating hydrocephalus; macroglossia; hoarse voice; conductive and sensorineural hearing loss; hepatosplenomegaly; dysostosis multiplex; spinal stenosis; and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6
MedGen UID:
44514
Concept ID:
C0026709
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS6) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Clinical features and severity are variable, but usually include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism. Intelligence is usually normal (Azevedo et al., 2004).
Neurofibromatosis, type 2
MedGen UID:
18014
Concept ID:
C0027832
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas with associated symptoms of tinnitus, hearing loss, and balance dysfunction. The average age of onset is 18 to 24 years. Almost all affected individuals develop bilateral vestibular schwannomas by age 30 years. Affected individuals may also develop schwannomas of other cranial and peripheral nerves, meningiomas, ependymomas, and, very rarely, astrocytomas. Because NF2 is considered an adult-onset disease, it may be underrecognized in children, in whom skin tumors and ocular findings (retinal hamartoma, thickened optic nerves, cortical wedge cataracts, third cranial nerve palsy) may be the first manifestations. Mononeuropathy that occurs in childhood is an increasingly recognized finding; it frequently presents as a persistent facial palsy or hand/foot drop.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7
MedGen UID:
43108
Concept ID:
C0085132
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS7) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the inability to degrade glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from severe lethal hydrops fetalis to mild forms with survival into adulthood. Most patients with the intermediate phenotype show hepatomegaly, skeletal anomalies, coarse facies, and variable degrees of mental impairment (Shipley et al., 1993). MPS VII was the first autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis for which chromosomal assignment was achieved.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-A
MedGen UID:
39264
Concept ID:
C0086647
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-B
MedGen UID:
88601
Concept ID:
C0086648
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-C
MedGen UID:
39477
Concept ID:
C0086649
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D
MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A
MedGen UID:
43375
Concept ID:
C0086651
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA typically have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum (knock-knee), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence, often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly. Compression of the spinal cord is a common complication that results in neurologic impairment. Children with MPS IVA have normal intellectual abilities at the outset of the disease.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-B
MedGen UID:
43376
Concept ID:
C0086652
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Cyclical vomiting syndrome
MedGen UID:
57509
Concept ID:
C0152164
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by recurrent, self-limiting episodes of vomiting associated with intense nausea, pallor, and lethargy. It is commonly a migraine precursor.
Exostosis of external ear canal
MedGen UID:
56363
Concept ID:
C0155411
Disease or Syndrome
A benign bony growth projecting outward from a bone surface within the external auditory canal.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
MedGen UID:
57837
Concept ID:
C0155502
Disease or Syndrome
Benign recurrent vertigo (BRV), also known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), is a common disorder affecting up to 2% of the adult population. The majority of individuals with chronic recurrent vertigo have no identifiable cause, no progression of the disorder, and no other neurologic or auditory signs. Many families have multiple affected individuals, suggesting familial transmission of the disorder with moderate to high penetrance (summary by Lee et al., 2006).
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention-deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within six months to two years. Most individuals have impaired adrenocortical function at the time that neurologic disturbances are first noted. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in an individual in his twenties or middle age as progressive stiffness and weakness of the legs, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops by middle age. More than 20% of female carriers develop mild-to-moderate spastic paraparesis in middle age or later. Adrenal function is usually normal.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described.
Saethre-Chotzen syndrome
MedGen UID:
64221
Concept ID:
C0175699
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is characterized by coronal synostosis (unilateral or bilateral), facial asymmetry (particularly in individuals with unicoronal synostosis), strabismus, ptosis, and characteristic appearance of the ear (small pinna with a prominent superior and/or inferior crus). Syndactyly of digits two and three of the hand is variably present. Cognitive development is usually normal, although those with a large genomic deletion are at an increased risk for intellectual challenges. Less common manifestations of SCS include other skeletal findings (parietal foramina, vertebral segmentation defects, radioulnar synostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, hallux valgus, duplicated or curved distal hallux), hypertelorism, palatal anomalies, obstructive sleep apnea, increased intracranial pressure, short stature, and congenital heart malformations.
Larsen syndrome
MedGen UID:
104500
Concept ID:
C0175778
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
MedGen UID:
61440
Concept ID:
C0205711
Disease or Syndrome
PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease.
Spongy degeneration of central nervous system
MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals.
Diastrophic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
113103
Concept ID:
C0220726
Disease or Syndrome
Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is characterized by limb shortening, normal-sized head, hitchhiker thumbs, spinal deformities (scoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, cervical kyphosis), and contractures of the large joints with deformities and early-onset osteoarthritis. Other typical findings are ulnar deviation of the fingers, gap between the first and second toes, and clubfoot. On occasion, the disease can be lethal at birth, but most affected individuals survive the neonatal period and develop physical limitations with normal intelligence.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia
MedGen UID:
65123
Concept ID:
C0221026
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in affected males in the first two years of life. Recurrent otitis is the most common infection prior to diagnosis. Conjunctivitis, sinopulmonary infections, diarrhea, and skin infections are also frequently seen. Approximately 60% of individuals with XLA are recognized as having immunodeficiency when they develop a severe, life-threatening infection such as pneumonia, empyema, meningitis, sepsis, cellulitis, or septic arthritis. S pneumoniae and H influenzae are the most common organisms found prior to diagnosis and may continue to cause sinusitis and otitis after diagnosis and the initiation of gammaglobulin substitution therapy. Severe, difficult-to-treat enteroviral infections (often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis) can be prevented by this treatment. The prognosis for individuals with XLA has improved markedly in the last 25 years as a result of earlier diagnosis, the development of preparations of gammaglobulin that allow normal concentrations of serum IgG to be achieved, and more liberal use of antibiotics.
McCune-Albright syndrome
MedGen UID:
69164
Concept ID:
C0242292
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrous dysplasia / McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS), the result of an early embryonic postzygotic somatic activating pathogenic variant in GNAS (encoding the cAMP pathway-associated G-protein, Gsa), is characterized by involvement of the skin, skeleton, and certain endocrine organs. However, because Gsa signaling is ubiquitous, additional tissues may be affected. Café au lait skin macules are common and are usually the first manifestation of the disease, apparent at or shortly after birth. Fibrous dysplasia (FD), which can involve any part and combination of the craniofacial, axial, and/or appendicular skeleton, can range from an isolated, asymptomatic monostotic lesion discovered incidentally to severe disabling polyostotic disease involving practically the entire skeleton and leading to progressive scoliosis, facial deformity, and loss of mobility, vision, and/or hearing. Endocrinopathies include: Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty resulting from recurrent ovarian cysts in girls and autonomous testosterone production in boys; Testicular lesions with or without associated gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty; Thyroid lesions with or without non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism; Growth hormone excess; FGF23-mediated phosphate wasting with or without hypophosphatemia in association with fibrous dysplasia; and Neonatal hypercortisolism. The prognosis for individuals with FD/MAS is based on disease location and severity.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Wildervanck syndrome
MedGen UID:
120518
Concept ID:
C0265239
Disease or Syndrome
Wildervanck syndrome is characterized by the triad of cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil anomaly, see this term), bilateral abducens palsy with retracted eyes (Duane syndrome, see this term) and congenital perceptive deafness.
Nager syndrome
MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Disease or Syndrome
Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hypoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distinguishing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012).
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males.
Child syndrome
MedGen UID:
82697
Concept ID:
C0265267
Disease or Syndrome
The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Jansen type
MedGen UID:
120529
Concept ID:
C0265295
Disease or Syndrome
The Murk Jansen type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is characterized by severe short stature, short bowed limbs, clinodactyly, prominent upper face, and small mandible. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia occur despite the lack of parathyroid abnormalities (summary by Cohen, 2002).
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Cat eye syndrome
MedGen UID:
120543
Concept ID:
C0265493
Disease or Syndrome
Cat eye syndrome (CES) is characterized clinically by the combination of coloboma of the iris and anal atresia with fistula, downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular tags and/or pits, frequent occurrence of heart and renal malformations, and normal or near-normal mental development. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited, and represents an inv dup(22)(q11).
Mutilating keratoderma
MedGen UID:
78579
Concept ID:
C0265964
Congenital Abnormality
Classic Vohwinkel syndrome is characterized by papular and honeycomb keratoderma associated with constrictions of digits leading to autoamputation, distinctive starfish-like acral keratoses, and moderate degrees of sensorineural deafness (summary by Maestrini et al., 1999) A variant form of Vohwinkel syndrome, mutilating keratoderma with ichthyosis (604117), is caused by mutation in the gene for loricrin (LOR; 152445) on chromosome 1q21. A form of mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma with periorificial keratotic plaques (Olmsted syndrome; 614594) is caused by mutation in the TRPV3 gene (607066) on chromosome 17p13.2.
Knuckle pads, deafness AND leukonychia syndrome
MedGen UID:
82727
Concept ID:
C0266004
Disease or Syndrome
Bart-Pumphrey syndrome (BAPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, palmoplantar keratoderma, knuckle pads, and leukonychia, which shows considerable phenotypic variability (summary by Richard et al., 2004).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group F
MedGen UID:
120612
Concept ID:
C0268140
Congenital Abnormality
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Combined deficiency of sialidase AND beta galactosidase
MedGen UID:
82779
Concept ID:
C0268233
Disease or Syndrome
Galactosialidosis (GSL) is a lysosomal storage disease associated with a combined deficiency of beta-galactosidase (611458) and neuraminidase (608272), secondary to a defect in protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA). All patients have clinical manifestations typical of a lysosomal disorder, such as coarse facies, cherry red spots, vertebral changes, foam cells in the bone marrow, and vacuolated lymphocytes. Three phenotypic subtypes are recognized. The early infantile form is associated with fetal hydrops, edema, ascites, visceromegaly, skeletal dysplasia, and early death. The late infantile type is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, growth retardation, cardiac involvement, and rare occurrence of neurologic signs. The juvenile/adult form is characterized by myoclonus, ataxia, angiokeratoma, mental retardation, neurologic deterioration, absence of visceromegaly, and long survival. The majority of reported patients belong to the juvenile/adult group and are mainly of Japanese origin (summary by d'Azzo et al., 2001).
Multiple sulfatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75664
Concept ID:
C0268263
Disease or Syndrome
Initial symptoms of multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) can develop from infancy through early childhood, and presentation is widely variable. Some individuals display the multisystemic features characteristic of mucopolysaccharidosis disorders (e.g., developmental regression, organomegaly, skeletal deformities) while other individuals present primarily with neurologic regression (associated with leukodystrophy). Based on age of onset, rate of progression, and disease severity, several different clinical subtypes of MSD have been described: Neonatal MSD is the most severe with presentation in the prenatal period or at birth with rapid progression and death occurring within the first two years of life. Infantile MSD is the most common variant and may be characterized as attenuated (slower clinical course with cognitive disability and neurodegeneration identified in the 2nd year of life) or severe (loss of the majority of developmental milestones by age 5 years). Juvenile MSD is the rarest subtype with later onset of symptoms and subacute clinical presentation. Many of the features found in MSD are progressive, including neurologic deterioration, heart disease, hearing loss, and airway compromise.
Brittle cornea syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
78661
Concept ID:
C0268344
Disease or Syndrome
Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is characterized by blue sclerae, corneal rupture after minor trauma, keratoconus or keratoglobus, hyperelasticity of the skin, and hypermobility of the joints (Al-Hussain et al., 2004). It is classified as a form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Malfait et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brittle Cornea Syndrome Brittle cornea syndrome-2 (BCS2; 614170) is caused by mutation in the PRDM5 gene (614161) on chromosome 4q27.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type III
MedGen UID:
78664
Concept ID:
C0268362
Disease or Syndrome
COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV).
Osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae, dominant form
MedGen UID:
78665
Concept ID:
C0268363
Congenital Abnormality
COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV).
Familial amyloid nephropathy with urticaria AND deafness
MedGen UID:
120634
Concept ID:
C0268390
Disease or Syndrome
Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is characterized by episodic skin rash, arthralgias, and fever associated with late-onset sensorineural deafness and renal amyloidosis (Dode et al., 2002).
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type IA
MedGen UID:
75727
Concept ID:
C0270911
Disease or Syndrome
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). CMT1A is the most common form of CMT. The average age of onset of clinical symptoms is 12.2 +/- 7.3 years. Slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) less than 38 m/s is highly diagnostic and is a 100% penetrant phenotype independent of age (Lupski et al., 1991, 1992).
Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant
MedGen UID:
79381
Concept ID:
C0282102
Disease or Syndrome
The findings in X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2) range from fetal demise with multiple malformations and severe growth retardation to much milder manifestations, including females with no recognizable physical abnormalities. At least 95% of live-born individuals with CDPX2 are female. Characteristic features include growth deficiency; distinctive craniofacial appearance; chondrodysplasia punctata (stippling of the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, trachea, and distal ends of the ribs); often asymmetric rhizomelic shortening of limbs; scoliosis; linear or blotchy scaling ichthyosis in the newborn; later appearance of linear or whorled atrophic patches involving hair follicles (follicular atrophoderma); coarse hair with scarring alopecia; and cataracts.
Fetal iodine deficiency disorder
MedGen UID:
83336
Concept ID:
C0342200
Disease or Syndrome
Severely reduced physical and mental growth associated with pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and symptoms, due to dietary iodine deficiency.
Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome
MedGen UID:
83337
Concept ID:
C0342286
Disease or Syndrome
Virtually all individuals with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) have the endocrine findings of hypogonadism (evident at puberty) and progressive childhood-onset hair thinning that often progresses to alopecia totalis in adulthood. More than half of individuals have the neurologic findings of progressive extrapyramidal movements (dystonic spasms with dystonic posturing with dysarthria and dysphagia), moderate bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss, and mild intellectual disability. To date, more than 40 families (including 33 with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis) with a total of 88 affected individuals have been reported in the literature.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia
MedGen UID:
90989
Concept ID:
C0342646
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700).
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Chronic infantile neurological, cutaneous and articular syndrome
MedGen UID:
98370
Concept ID:
C0409818
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA) is an early-onset, severe, chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by cutaneous symptoms, central nervous system involvement, and arthropathy (Feldmann et al., 2002). See also familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome-1 (FCAS1, CAPS1; 120100), an allelic disorder with a less severe phenotype.
Dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
98150
Concept ID:
C0432262
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disease characterized by progressive osteosclerosis and platyspondyly.
Hyperphosphatasemia tarda
MedGen UID:
98484
Concept ID:
C0432272
Disease or Syndrome
SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias include sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease, both disorders of progressive bone overgrowth due to increased bone formation. The major clinical features of sclerosteosis are progressive skeletal overgrowth, most pronounced in the skull and mandible, and variable syndactyly, usually of the second (index) and third (middle) fingers. Affected individuals appear normal at birth except for syndactyly. Facial distortion due to bossing of the forehead and mandibular overgrowth is seen in nearly all individuals and becomes apparent in early childhood with progression into adulthood. Hyperostosis of the skull results in narrowing of the foramina, causing entrapment of the seventh cranial nerve (leading to facial palsy) with other, less common nerve entrapment syndromes including visual loss (2nd cranial nerve), neuralgia or anosmia (5th cranial nerve), and sensory hearing loss (8th cranial nerve). In sclerosteosis, hyperostosis of the calvarium reduces intracranial volume, increasing the risk for potentially lethal elevation of intracranial pressure. Survival of individuals with sclerosteosis into old age is unusual, but not unprecedented. The manifestations of van Buchem disease are generally milder than sclerosteosis and syndactyly is absent; life span appears to be normal.
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia with growth hormone deficiency
MedGen UID:
141630
Concept ID:
C0472813
Disease or Syndrome
IGHD3 is characterized by agammaglobulinemia and markedly reduced numbers of B cells, short stature, delayed bone age, and good response to treatment with growth hormone (summary by Conley et al., 1991). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IGHD, see 262400.
Opticocochleodentate degeneration
MedGen UID:
101046
Concept ID:
C0520711
Disease or Syndrome
Chiari type I malformation
MedGen UID:
196689
Concept ID:
C0750929
Congenital Abnormality
Arnold-Chiari type I malformation refers to a relatively mild degree of herniation of the posteroinferior region of the cerebellum (the cerebellar tonsils) into the cervical canal with little or no displacement of the fourth ventricle. It is characterized by one or both pointed (not rounded) cerebellar tonsils that project 5 mm below the foramen magnum, measured by a line drawn from the basion to the opisthion (McRae Line)
Recombinant 8 syndrome
MedGen UID:
167070
Concept ID:
C0795822
Disease or Syndrome
Recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome (Rec8 syndrome) is a chromosomal disorder found among individuals of Hispanic descent with ancestry from the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. Affected individuals typically have impaired intellectual development, congenital heart defects, seizures, a characteristic facial appearance with hypertelorism, thin upper lip, anteverted nares, wide face, and abnormal hair whorl, and other manifestations (Sujansky et al., 1993, summary by Graw et al., 2000).
Kleefstra syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, autistic-like features, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate-to-severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ within low-normal range. While most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed; these include heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy / febrile seizures, psychiatric disorders, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
Smith-Magenis syndrome
MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly coarse facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, and childhood-onset abdominal obesity. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory issues are frequently noted; these may include avoidant behavior, as well as repetitive seeking of textures, sounds, and experiences. Toileting difficulties are common. Significant anxiety is common as are problems with executive functioning, including inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Maladaptive behaviors include frequent outbursts / temper tantrums, attention-seeking behaviors, opposition, aggression, and self-injurious behaviors including self-hitting, self-biting, skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically emotional maturity delayed beyond intellectual functioning, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked recessive 4
MedGen UID:
162891
Concept ID:
C0795910
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-4 with or without cerebellar ataxia (CMTX4) is a mitochondrial disorder manifest as progressive neurologic dysfunction with highly variable features. The age at onset ranges from infancy to young adulthood, and patients can present with different features, including hearing loss, delayed motor development, or difficulty walking due to peripheral neuropathy and/or cerebellar ataxia. Most patients develop all features, including a progressive sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and deafness due to auditory neuropathy. Additional more variable features can include cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, abnormal extraocular movements, tremor, and dysmetria, as well as spasticity. There is significant intrafamilial variability: the variable features are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Prolonged treatment with riboflavin may result in some mild improvement in the ataxia (summary by Rinaldi et al., 2012, Heimer et al., 2018, Bogdanova-Mihaylova et al., 2019).
DOORS syndrome
MedGen UID:
208648
Concept ID:
C0795934
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Fine-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
163198
Concept ID:
C0795941
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of psychomotor delay, brachycephaly with flat face, small nose, microstomia, cleft palate, cataract, hearing loss, hypoplastic scrotum and digital anomalies. Less than 10 patients have been described in the literature so far. Although the majority of reported cases were sporadic, the syndrome has been reported in one pair of siblings (a brother and sister) with an apparently autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.
Severe X-linked intellectual disability, Gustavson type
MedGen UID:
167088
Concept ID:
C0795965
Disease or Syndrome
The Gustavson type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSG) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, hypotonia, and severe global developmental delay, usually resulting in death in infancy or early childhood. Affected males have profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent speech, poor reaction to stimuli, optic atrophy, deafness, seizures, spasticity, and restriction of the large joints. Female carriers are usually unaffected due to skewed X inactivation that silences the pathogenic allele, although 1 severely affected female has been reported (Johansson et al., 2024).
Kabuki syndrome
MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Microphthalmia, syndromic 1
MedGen UID:
162898
Concept ID:
C0796016
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia-ankyloblepharon-intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by microphthalmia, ankyloblepharon and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven male patients from two generations of a Northern Ireland family. The causative gene is localized to the Xq27-q28 region. The syndrome is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
Arts syndrome
MedGen UID:
163205
Concept ID:
C0796028
Disease or Syndrome
Arts syndrome, which is part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural hearing impairment, early-onset hypotonia, delayed motor development, mild to moderate intellectual disability, ataxia, and increased risk of infection, all of which – with the exception of optic atrophy – present before age two years. Signs of peripheral neuropathy develop during early childhood. Twelve of 15 boys from the two Dutch families reported with Arts syndrome died before age six years of complications of infection. Carrier females can show late-onset (age >20 years) hearing impairment and other findings.
3MC syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
208657
Concept ID:
C0796032
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
3MC syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
167100
Concept ID:
C0796059
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of 3MC Syndrome Also see 3MC syndrome-2 (3MC2; 265050), caused by mutation in the COLEC11 gene (612502), and 3MC syndrome-3 (3MC3; 248340), caused by mutation in the COLEC1 gene (607620).
Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 1
MedGen UID:
163210
Concept ID:
C0796070
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Ohdo type
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital malformation syndrome with characteristics of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, hearing impairment and intellectual disability. Abnormal ears, microcephaly, and growth retardation have been reported occasionally. Male patients may show cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia. Most reported cases are sporadic, except the original cases of Ohdo who described two affected sisters and a first cousin, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal dominant, X-linked- and mitochondrial inheritance have also been suggested.
Primrose syndrome
MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI.
Ramon syndrome
MedGen UID:
208669
Concept ID:
C0796133
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, primary bone dysplasia syndrome characterized by bilateral, painless swelling of the face extending from the mandible to the inferior orbital margins (cherubism), epilepsy, gingival fibromatosis (possibly obscuring teeth), and intellectual disability. Other associated variable features include hypertrichosis, stunted growth, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and development of ocular abnormalities (e.g. pigmentary retinopathy, optic disc pallor, Axenfeld anomaly). Radiological images typically show bilateral multifocal radiolucency involving the body, angle and ramus of the mandible and coronoid process.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Microbrachycephaly-ptosis-cleft lip syndrome
MedGen UID:
162914
Concept ID:
C0796142
Disease or Syndrome
The Richieri-Costa/Guion-Almeida syndrome is characterized by mild mental retardation, short stature, microbrachycephaly, ptosis, esotropia, cleft lip/palate (Richieri-Costa and Guion-Almeida, 1992).
Acrocallosal syndrome
MedGen UID:
162915
Concept ID:
C0796147
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
3MC syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
167115
Concept ID:
C0796279
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia
MedGen UID:
220887
Concept ID:
C1274795
Congenital Abnormality
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by onset in infancy of a panepithelial defect involving the oral, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal, cervical, perineal, urethral, and bladder mucosa. Patients develop cataracts, blindness, nonscarring alopecia, perineal psoriasiform lesions, and follicular keratoses (Witkop et al., 1982). Although 1 family was reported to have progressive severe interstitial lung disease (Witkop et al., 1979), this feature has not been reported in other families and is not considered a criterion for diagnosis. However, the clinical triad of nonscarring alopecia, well-demarcated fiery red mucosa, and psoriasiform perineal involvement has been consistently observed (review by Boralevi et al., 2005).
Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic dysplasia, Saul-Wilson type
MedGen UID:
722057
Concept ID:
C1300285
Disease or Syndrome
Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by profound short stature, distinctive craniofacial features, short distal phalanges of fingers and toes, and often clubfoot. Early development (primarily speech and motor) is delayed; cognition is normal. Other findings can include hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), lamellar cataracts, and/or rod-cone retinal dystrophy. To date, 16 affected individuals have been reported.
Barber-Say syndrome
MedGen UID:
230818
Concept ID:
C1319466
Disease or Syndrome
Barber-Say syndrome (BBRSAY) is a rare congenital condition characterized by severe hypertrichosis, especially of the back, skin abnormalities such as hyperlaxity and redundancy, and facial dysmorphism, including macrostomia, eyelid deformities, ocular telecanthus, abnormal and low-set ears, bulbous nasal tip with hypoplastic alae nasi, and low frontal hairline (summary by Roche et al., 2010).
Oculootoradial syndrome
MedGen UID:
233003
Concept ID:
C1327918
Disease or Syndrome
IVIC syndrome (IVIC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by upper limb anomalies (radial ray defects, carpal bone fusion), extraocular motor disturbances, and congenital bilateral nonprogressive mixed hearing loss. More variable features include heart involvement, mild thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis (before age 50), shoulder girdle hypoplasia, imperforate anus, kidney malrotation, and rectovaginal fistula (summary by Paradisi and Arias, 2007).
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 25
MedGen UID:
237587
Concept ID:
C1414017
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GRXCR1 gene.
Orofaciodigital syndrome I
MedGen UID:
307142
Concept ID:
C1510460
Disease or Syndrome
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is usually male lethal during gestation and predominantly affects females. OFD1 is characterized by the following features: Oral (lobulated tongue, tongue nodules, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia). Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly, clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]). Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). Brain (e.g., intracerebral cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation). Intellectual disability (in ~50% of individuals).
Usher syndrome type 2D
MedGen UID:
292821
Concept ID:
C1568249
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is characterized by the following: Congenital, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss that is mild to moderate in the low frequencies and severe to profound in the higher frequencies. Intact or variable vestibular responses. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP); progressive, bilateral, symmetric retinal degeneration that begins with night blindness and constricted visual fields (tunnel vision) and eventually includes decreased central visual acuity; the rate and degree of vision loss vary within and among families.
Rapp-Hodgkin ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
315656
Concept ID:
C1785148
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 70
MedGen UID:
760477
Concept ID:
C1824925
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-70 (DFNB70) is a neurologic disorder with a variable disease course. All individuals present with isolated congenital sensorineural hearing loss in infancy that appears to be stable for the first decades of life. Affected members of 1 family with longer follow-up developed a neurodegenerative disease in their forties, including ataxia with loss of ambulation, optic atrophy, dystonia or spasticity, and cognitive decline with psychiatric features. The later onset of additional symptoms in this family suggests that others with DFNB70 may be at risk of developing multisystem disease in mid-to-late adulthood. These reports indicate that there is a phenotypic spectrum of PNPT1-related disease manifestations (Von Ameln et al., 2012; Eaton et al., 2018).
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
316937
Concept ID:
C1832229
Disease or Syndrome
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, which results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Systemic abnormalities, including cardiac and dental anomalies, are associated. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity and nomenclature of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, see RIEG1 (180500).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D
MedGen UID:
371304
Concept ID:
C1832334
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D (CMT4D) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by early-onset distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, and sensory loss affecting all modalities. Affected individuals develop deafness by the third decade of life (summary by Okamoto et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, see CMT4A (214400).
Cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-pes cavus-optic atrophy-sensorineural hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
318633
Concept ID:
C1832466
Disease or Syndrome
ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary.
Ayme-Gripp syndrome
MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
Aymé-Gripp syndrome is classically defined as the triad of bilateral early cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and characteristic facial features in combination with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The facial features are often described as "Down syndrome-like" and include brachycephaly, flat facial appearance, short nose, long philtrum, narrow mouth, and low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Hearing loss is often congenital. Other features may include postnatal short stature, seizure disorder, nonspecific brain abnormalities on head imaging, skeletal abnormalities, and joint limitations. A subset of individuals have been found to have pericarditis or pericardial effusion during the neonatal or infantile period. All affected individuals have had developmental delay, but the degree of cognitive impairment is extremely variable. Other features including gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, ectodermal dysplasia (i.e., nail dystrophy and mammary gland hypoplasia), dental anomalies, and chronic glomerulopathy with proteinuria have been reported in rare affected individuals.
Usher syndrome type 1D
MedGen UID:
322051
Concept ID:
C1832845
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 6
MedGen UID:
322088
Concept ID:
C1832992
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TMIE gene.
Cone-rod dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
371596
Concept ID:
C1833564
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).
Optic atrophy 3
MedGen UID:
371657
Concept ID:
C1833809
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant optic atrophy and cataract is an eye disorder that is characterized by impaired vision. Most affected individuals have decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) from birth, while others begin to experience vision problems in early childhood or later. In affected individuals, both eyes are usually affected equally. However, the severity of the vision loss varies widely, even among affected members of the same family, ranging from nearly normal vision to complete blindness.\n\nSeveral abnormalities contribute to impaired vision in people with autosomal dominant optic atrophy and cataract. In the early stages of the condition, affected individuals experience a progressive loss of certain cells within the retina, which is a specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye. The loss of these cells (known as retinal ganglion cells) is followed by the degeneration (atrophy) of the nerves that relay visual information from the eyes to the brain (optic nerves), which contributes to vision loss. Atrophy of these nerves causes an abnormally pale appearance (pallor) of the optic nerves, which can be seen only during an eye examination. Most people with this disorder also have clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts). This eye abnormality can develop anytime but typically appears in childhood. Other common eye problems in autosomal dominant optic atrophy and cataract include involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), or problems with color vision (color vision deficiency) that make it difficult or impossible to distinguish between shades of blue and green.\n\nSome people with autosomal dominant optic atrophy and cataract develop disturbances in the function of other nerves (neuropathy) besides the optic nerves. These disturbances can lead to problems with balance and coordination (cerebellar ataxia), an unsteady style of walking (gait), prickling or tingling sensations (paresthesias) in the arms and legs, progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity), or rhythmic shaking (tremors). In some cases, affected individuals have hearing loss caused by abnormalities of the inner ear (sensorineural deafness).
Myoclonus-cerebellar ataxia-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
331780
Concept ID:
C1834579
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterised by the association of myoclonus, cerebellar ataxia and sensorineural hearing loss.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
320405
Concept ID:
C1834671
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) typically presents with weakness of the facial muscles, the stabilizers of the scapula, or the dorsiflexors of the foot. Severity is highly variable. Weakness is slowly progressive and approximately 20% of affected individuals eventually require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened.
Palmoplantar keratoderma-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
332030
Concept ID:
C1835672
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness is a disorder characterized by skin abnormalities and hearing loss. Affected individuals develop unusually thick skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (palmoplantar keratoderma) beginning in childhood. Hearing loss ranges from mild to profound. It begins in early childhood and gets worse over time. Affected individuals have particular trouble hearing high-pitched sounds.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of this disorder may vary even within the same family, with some individuals developing only skin abnormalities and others developing only hearing loss.
Stickler syndrome, type I, nonsyndromic ocular
MedGen UID:
322820
Concept ID:
C1836080
Disease or Syndrome
PCWH syndrome
MedGen UID:
373160
Concept ID:
C1836727
Disease or Syndrome
PCWH syndrome is a complex neurocristopathy that includes features of 4 distinct syndromes: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy (see 118200), central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (see 142623) (Inoue et al., 2004). Inoue et al. (2004) proposed the acronym PCWH for this disorder.
GM3 synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
323005
Concept ID:
C1836824
Disease or Syndrome
Salt and pepper developmental regression syndrome, also known as Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome, is an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by infantile onset of refractory and recurrent seizures associated with profoundly delayed psychomotor development and/or developmental regression as well as abnormal movements and visual loss (summary by Fragaki et al., 2013). Affected individuals develop hypo- or hyperpigmented skin macules on the trunk, face, and extremities in early childhood (summary by Boccuto et al., 2014). Not all patients have overt seizures (Lee et al., 2016).
Fanconi anemia complementation group I
MedGen UID:
323016
Concept ID:
C1836861
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Emanuel syndrome
MedGen UID:
323030
Concept ID:
C1836929
Disease or Syndrome
Emanuel syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, ear anomalies, preauricular tags or pits, cleft or high-arched palate, congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males.
Microcephaly 5, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
373344
Concept ID:
C1837501
Disease or Syndrome
ASPM primary microcephaly (ASPM-MCPH) is characterized by: (1) significant microcephaly (below -3 SD for age) usually present at birth and always present before age one year and (2) the absence of other congenital anomalies. While developmental milestones are usually normal in young children, older children have variable levels of intellectual disability. Neurologic examination is usually normal except for mild spasticity. Seizures are not common.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 25
MedGen UID:
373347
Concept ID:
C1837518
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-25 (SCA25) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of lower limb ataxia resulting in gait difficulties in the first few decades of life, although later onset has been reported. Affected individuals often have upper limb involvement, dysarthria, scoliosis, abnormal eye movements, and sensory neuropathy with decreased reflexes. Some patients have sensorineural hearing loss. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. There is incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, even within families (Barbier et al., 2022). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Choanal atresia-hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
325265
Concept ID:
C1837822
Disease or Syndrome
TXNL4A-related craniofacial disorders comprise a range of phenotypes that includes: isolated choanal atresia; choanal atresia with minor anomalies; and Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS), which is characterized by typical craniofacial features (bilateral choanal atresia/stenosis, short palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelids, prominent nasal bridge with widely spaced eyes, short philtrum, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and prominent ears). Hearing loss is common and cardiac defects and short stature have been reported. Intellectual disability is rare.
ABCD syndrome
MedGen UID:
333014
Concept ID:
C1838099
Disease or Syndrome
ABCD syndrome (ABCDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut (Hirschsprung disease), and deafness (summary by Verheij et al., 2002).
Mesomelia-synostoses syndrome
MedGen UID:
324959
Concept ID:
C1838162
Disease or Syndrome
The Verloes-David-Pfeiffer mesomelia-synostoses syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of mesomelic dysplasia comprising typical acral synostoses combined with ptosis, hypertelorism, palatal abnormality, congenital heart disease, and ureteral anomalies (summary by Isidor et al., 2009). Mesomelia and synostoses are also cardinal features of the Kantaputra type of mesomelic dysplasia (156232).
X-linked intellectual disability, Schimke type
MedGen UID:
374193
Concept ID:
C1839320
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked mental retardation, Schimke type, is characterised by intellectual deficit, growth retardation with short stature, deafness and ophthalmoplegia. Choreoathetosis with muscle spasticity generally appears during childhood. It has been described in four boys, three of whom were from the same family. Transmission is X-linked.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked recessive 5
MedGen UID:
374254
Concept ID:
C1839566
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 5 (CMTX5), part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, early-onset (prelingual) bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, and optic neuropathy. The onset of peripheral neuropathy is between ages five and 12 years. The lower extremities are affected earlier and more severely than upper extremities. Initial manifestations often include foot drop or gait disturbance. Onset of visual impairment is between ages seven and 20 years. Intellect and life span are normal. Carrier females do not have findings of CMTX5.
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population.
X-linked diffuse leiomyomatosis-Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
333429
Concept ID:
C1839884
Disease or Syndrome
A rare renal disease characterized by the association of X-linked Alport syndrome (glomerular nephropathy, sensorineural deafness and ocular anomalies) and benign proliferation of visceral smooth muscle cells along the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and female genital tracts and clinically manifests with dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, stridor, postprandial vomiting, retrosternal or epigastric pain, recurrent pneumonia, and clitoral hypertrophy in females.
Hyperlipoproteinemia, type II, and deafness
MedGen UID:
326732
Concept ID:
C1840425
Disease or Syndrome
Otosclerosis 3
MedGen UID:
334054
Concept ID:
C1842353
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 3
MedGen UID:
334225
Concept ID:
C1842687
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormally small cerebellum and brainstem. Clinical features vary, but usually include severe developmental delay, dysmorphic features, seizures, and early death (summary by Durmaz et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 52
MedGen UID:
334357
Concept ID:
C1843232
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 5q31.1-q32.
Abruzzo-Erickson syndrome
MedGen UID:
375529
Concept ID:
C1844862
Disease or Syndrome
A multiple congenital anomalies syndrome with manifestations of cleft palate, ocular coloboma, hypospadias, mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss, short stature and radio-ulnar synostosis. To date, 4 cases have been described in the literature. These manifestations overlap with those of CHARGE syndrome, however, in contrast to CHARGE syndrome, patients with Abruzzo-Erikson syndrome do not show intellectual disability, choanal atresia or genital hypoplasia. Inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, with a carrier female having a 50% chance of transmitting the mutation to her offspring.
Cerebral sclerosis, diffuse, scholz type
MedGen UID:
335049
Concept ID:
C1844884
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked mandibulofacial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
375543
Concept ID:
C1844918
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare multiple congenital abnormality syndrome that has characteristics of microcephaly, malar hypoplasia with downslanting palpebral fissures, highly arched palate, apparently low-set and protruding ears, micrognathia, short stature, bilateral hearing loss, and learning disability. Occasionally, additional features have been observed such as bilateral cryptorchidism, cardiac valvular lesions, body asymmetry, and pectus excavatum.
Deafness, X-linked 5
MedGen UID:
335096
Concept ID:
C1845095
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked deafness-5 is a neurologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of auditory neuropathy and later onset of distal sensory impairment affecting the peripheral nervous system (summary by Zong et al., 2015).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 7
MedGen UID:
339552
Concept ID:
C1846564
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral leg weakness and spasticity. Most affected individuals have decreased vibration sense and cerebellar signs. Onset is mostly in adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age 11 years and as late as age 72 years. Additional features including ataxia (gait and limbs), spastic dysarthria, dysphagia, pale optic disks, ataxia, nystagmus, strabismus, ptosis, hearing loss, motor and sensory neuropathy, amyotrophy, scoliosis, pes cavus, and urinary sphincter disturbances may be observed.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 33
MedGen UID:
335464
Concept ID:
C1846576
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 10p11.23-q21.1.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 2
MedGen UID:
338258
Concept ID:
C1847554
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Upper limb defect-eye and ear abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
376448
Concept ID:
C1848816
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by upper limb defects (hypoplastic thumb with hypoplasia of the metacarpal bone and phalanges and delayed bone maturation), developmental delay, central hearing loss, unilateral poorly developed antihelix, bilateral choroid coloboma and growth retardation.
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia-blindness-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
338611
Concept ID:
C1849094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive syndromic cerebellar ataxia with the association of early-onset cerebellar ataxia, hearing loss and blindness. Patients may also present demyelinating peripheral motor neuropathy. Cerebral MRI shows alterations of the cerebellar white matter without cerebellar atrophy.
Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
338613
Concept ID:
C1849096
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is a severe, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by normal development until age one year, followed by onset of ataxia, muscle hypotonia, loss of deep-tendon reflexes, and athetosis. Ophthalmoplegia and sensorineural deafness develop by age seven years. By adolescence, affected individuals are profoundly deaf and no longer ambulatory; sensory axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in females become evident. Epilepsy can develop into a serious and often fatal encephalopathy: myoclonic jerks or focal clonic seizures that progress to epilepsia partialis continua followed by status epilepticus with loss of consciousness.
Spastic tetraplegia-retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
376519
Concept ID:
C1849112
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by the association of nonprogressive spastic quadriparesis, retinitis pigmentosa, intellectual disability, and variable deafness. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1976.
Rod-cone dystrophy, sensorineural deafness, and Fanconi-type renal dysfunction
MedGen UID:
376565
Concept ID:
C1849333
Disease or Syndrome
Rod-cone dystrophy, sensorineural deafness, and Fanconi-type renal dysfunction (RCDFRD) is characterized by onset of hearing impairment and reduced vision within the first 5 years of life. Renal dysfunction results in rickets-like skeletal changes, and death may occur in childhood or young adulthood due to renal failure (Beighton et al., 1993).
Renal-genital-middle ear anomalies
MedGen UID:
341454
Concept ID:
C1849432
Disease or Syndrome
Rapadilino syndrome
MedGen UID:
336602
Concept ID:
C1849453
Disease or Syndrome
RAPADILINO syndrome is a rare condition that involves many parts of the body. Bone development is especially affected, causing many of the characteristic features of the condition.\n\nMost affected individuals have underdevelopment or absence of the bones in the forearms and the thumbs, which are known as radial ray malformations. The kneecaps (patellae) can also be underdeveloped or absent. Other features include an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) or a high arched palate; a long, slender nose; and dislocated joints.\n\nMany infants with RAPADILINO syndrome have difficulty feeding and experience diarrhea and vomiting. The combination of impaired bone development and feeding problems leads to slow growth and short stature in affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with RAPADILINO syndrome have harmless light brown patches of skin that resemble a skin finding known as café-au-lait spots. In addition, people with RAPADILINO syndrome have a slightly increased risk of developing a type of bone cancer known as osteosarcoma or a blood-related cancer called lymphoma. In individuals with RAPADILINO syndrome, osteosarcoma most often develops during childhood or adolescence, and lymphoma typically develops in young adulthood.\n\nThe condition name is an acronym for the characteristic features of the disorder: RA for radial ray malformations, PA for patella and palate abnormalities, DI for diarrhea and dislocated joints, LI for limb abnormalities and little size, and NO for slender nose and normal intelligence.\n\nThe varied signs and symptoms of RAPADILINO syndrome overlap with features of other disorders, namely Baller-Gerold syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. These syndromes are also characterized by radial ray defects, skeletal abnormalities, and slow growth. All of these conditions can be caused by mutations in the same gene. Based on these similarities, researchers are investigating whether Baller-Gerold syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and RAPADILINO syndrome are separate disorders or part of a single syndrome with overlapping signs and symptoms.
Pelviscapular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
376708
Concept ID:
C1850127
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Nephrosis-deafness-urinary tract-digital malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
340568
Concept ID:
C1850552
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by urinary tract anomalies, nephrosis, conductive deafness, and digital malformations, including short and bifid distal phalanges of thumbs and big toes. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1962.
Nathalie syndrome
MedGen UID:
338087
Concept ID:
C1850626
Disease or Syndrome
Nathalie syndrome has characteristics of deafness, cataract, muscular atrophy, skeletal abnormalities, growth retardation, underdeveloped secondary sexual characteristics and electrocardiographic abnormalities. It has been described in a Dutch family: in three sisters (one named Nathalie) and their brother.
Coxoauricular syndrome
MedGen UID:
343827
Concept ID:
C1852513
Congenital Abnormality
An extremely rare primary bone defect described only in a mother and her three daughters to date. The disease has characteristics of short stature, hip dislocation, minor vertebral and pelvic changes and microtia with hearing loss. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1981.
Branchiootic syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
377737
Concept ID:
C1852718
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
339902
Concept ID:
C1853099
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
342799
Concept ID:
C1853102
Disease or Syndrome
Any COFS syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ERCC2 gene.
Autosomal recessive ataxia, Beauce type
MedGen UID:
343973
Concept ID:
C1853116
Disease or Syndrome
SYNE1 deficiency comprises a phenotypic spectrum that ranges from autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia at the mild end to arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) at the severe end. SYNE1-deficient cerebellar ataxia, the most commonly recognized manifestation of SYNE1 deficiency to date, is a slowly progressive disorder typically beginning in adulthood (age range 6-45 years). While some individuals have a pure cerebellar syndrome (i.e., cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, abnormalities in ocular saccades and smooth pursuit), many also have upper motor neuron dysfunction (spasticity, hyperreflexia, Babinski sign) and/or lower motor neuron dysfunction (amyotrophy, reduced reflexes, fasciculations). Most individuals develop features of the cerebellar cognitive and affective syndrome (i.e., significant deficits in attention, executive functioning, verbal working memory, and visuospatial/visuoconstructional skills). The two less common phenotypes are SYNE1-deficient childhood-onset multisystem disease (ataxia, upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction, muscle weakness and wasting, intellectual disability) and SYNE1-deficient arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (decreased fetal movements and severe neonatal hypotonia associated with multiple congenital joint contractures including clubfoot).
Neutral lipid storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007).
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 65
MedGen UID:
344004
Concept ID:
C1853248
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 20q13.2-q13.3.
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 24
MedGen UID:
377905
Concept ID:
C1853451
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 4q35-qter.
Paget disease of bone 4
MedGen UID:
339991
Concept ID:
C1853473
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Genitopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13
MedGen UID:
344297
Concept ID:
C1854488
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) is a phenotypic spectrum that includes both non-progressive infantile-onset ataxia and progressive childhood-onset and adult-onset cerebellar ataxia. Three phenotypes are seen: Cerebellar hypoplasia with non-progressive infantile-onset limb, truncal, and gait ataxia with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and occasionally seizures and/or psychiatric manifestations. Cognition and motor skills improve over time. Childhood-onset slowly progressive cerebellar atrophy with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria, delayed motor milestones, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Adult-onset progressive cerebellar atrophy with progressive ataxia and spasticity.
Keutel syndrome
MedGen UID:
383722
Concept ID:
C1855607
Disease or Syndrome
Keutel syndrome (KTLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple peripheral pulmonary stenoses, brachytelephalangy, inner ear deafness, and abnormal cartilage ossification or calcification (summary by Khosroshahi et al., 2014).
Visceral neuropathy, familial, 1, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
340946
Concept ID:
C1855733
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive familial visceral neuropathy-1 (VSCN1) is characterized by a broad spectrum of developmental anomalies associating neural crest and extraneural crest features, including intestinal dysmotility due to aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease), hypoganglionosis, and/or chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Some patients develop progressive peripheral neuropathy, and arthrogryposis has been observed. Hypoplasia or aplasia of the olfactory bulb and of the external auditory canals, as well as microtia or anotia, have been reported. Patients also exhibit facial dysmorphisms, including microretrognathia in most; other variable features include structural cardiac anomalies and arthrogryposis with multiple pterygia (Le et al., 2021). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Visceral Neuropathy Autosomal recessive familial visceral neuropathy-2 (VSCN2; 619465) is caused by mutation in the ERBB2 gene (164870) on chromosome 17q12. Also see VSCN3 (609629) for an autosomal dominant form of the disorder.
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
341029
Concept ID:
C1855995
Disease or Syndrome
2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a condition that causes progressive damage to the brain. The major types of this disorder are called D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA).\n\nThe main features of D-2-HGA are delayed development, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle movement, speech, vision, thinking, emotion, and memory. Researchers have described two subtypes of D-2-HGA, type I and type II. The two subtypes are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of inheritance, although they also have some differences in signs and symptoms. Type II tends to begin earlier and often causes more severe health problems than type I. Type II may also be associated with a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), a feature that is typically not found with type I.\n\nL-2-HGA particularly affects a region of the brain called the cerebellum, which is involved in coordinating movements. As a result, many affected individuals have problems with balance and muscle coordination (ataxia). Additional features of L-2-HGA can include delayed development, seizures, speech difficulties, and an unusually large head (macrocephaly). Typically, signs and symptoms of this disorder begin during infancy or early childhood. The disorder worsens over time, usually leading to severe disability by early adulthood.\n\nCombined D,L-2-HGA causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy. Affected infants have severe seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and breathing and feeding problems. They usually survive only into infancy or early childhood.
Hirschsprung disease-hearing loss-polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
341066
Concept ID:
C1856112
Disease or Syndrome
Hirschsprung disease-deafness-polydactyly syndrome is an extremely rare malformative association, described in only two siblings to date, characterized by Hirschsprung disease (defined by the presence of an aganglionic segment of variable extent in the terminal part of the colon that leads to symptoms of intestinal obstruction, including constipation and abdominal distension), polydactyly of hands and/or feet, unilateral renal agenesis, hypertelorism and congenital deafness. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1988.
Autosomal recessive faciodigitogenital syndrome
MedGen UID:
341637
Concept ID:
C1856871
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome including short stature, facial dysmorphism, hand abnormalities and shawl scrotum. It has been observed in 16 subjects from five distantly related sibships of a large Kuwaiti Bedouin tribe. The affected patients had no intellectual deficit. Transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Epiphyseal dysplasia of femoral head, myopia, and deafness
MedGen UID:
346470
Concept ID:
C1856918
Disease or Syndrome
Dwarfism, low-birth-weight type, with unresponsiveness to growth hormone
MedGen UID:
387764
Concept ID:
C1857197
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanelle, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Deafness-vitiligo-achalasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
347427
Concept ID:
C1857339
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness-vitiligo-achalasia syndrome is characterized by the association of deafness, short stature, vitiligo, muscle wasting, and achalasia.
Deafness, congenital, with total albinism
MedGen UID:
387799
Concept ID:
C1857343
Disease or Syndrome
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Facial paresis, hereditary congenital, 2
MedGen UID:
346971
Concept ID:
C1858717
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 20
MedGen UID:
347005
Concept ID:
C1858840
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 11q25-qter.
Cardioauditory syndrome of Sanchez Cascos
MedGen UID:
395233
Concept ID:
C1859329
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1
MedGen UID:
347219
Concept ID:
C1859722
Disease or Syndrome
Any arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VPS33B gene.
Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
395439
Concept ID:
C1860224
Disease or Syndrome
Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is a congenital ectodermal dysplasia characterized by absent eyelids, macrostomia, microtia, redundant skin, sparse hair, dysmorphic nose and ears, variable abnormalities of the nipples, genitalia, fingers, and hands, largely normal intellectual and motor development, and poor growth (summary by Marchegiani et al., 2015).
Tune deafness
MedGen UID:
349862
Concept ID:
C1860646
Disease or Syndrome
Tune deafness, or congenital amusia, is a lifelong deficient in music perception that cannot be explained by hearing loss, brain damage, intellectual deficiencies, or lack of exposure. The disorder affects predominantly the melodic pitch dimension (summary by Peretz et al., 2009). See 159300 for an opposite situation, that of musical perfect pitch.
Tuberous sclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
348170
Concept ID:
C1860707
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Cochleosaccular degeneration-cataract syndrome
MedGen UID:
348378
Concept ID:
C1861512
Disease or Syndrome
Rare syndrome with manifestation of progressive sensorineural hearing loss due to severe cochleosaccular degeneration and cataract. So far reported in two families. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Klippel-Feil syndrome 1, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
396196
Concept ID:
C1861689
Disease or Syndrome
Klippel-Feil syndrome is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae). The vertebral fusion is present from birth. Three major features result from this vertebral fusion: a short neck, the resulting appearance of a low hairline at the back of the head, and a limited range of motion in the neck. Most affected people have one or two of these characteristic features. Less than half of all individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome have all three classic features of this condition.\n\nIn people with Klippel-Feil syndrome, the fused vertebrae can limit the range of movement of the neck and back as well as lead to chronic headaches and muscle pain in the neck and back that range in severity. People with minimal bone involvement often have fewer problems compared to individuals with several vertebrae affected. The shortened neck can cause a slight difference in the size and shape of the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry). Trauma to the spine, such as a fall or car accident, can aggravate problems in the fused area. Fusion of the vertebrae can lead to nerve damage in the head, neck, or back. Over time, individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome can develop a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in the neck, which can compress and damage the spinal cord. Rarely, spinal nerve abnormalities may cause abnormal sensations or involuntary movements in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Affected individuals may develop a painful joint disorder called osteoarthritis around the areas of fused bone or experience painful involuntary tensing of the neck muscles (cervical dystonia). In addition to the fused cervical bones, people with this condition may have abnormalities in other vertebrae. Many people with Klippel-Feil syndrome have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) due to malformation of the vertebrae; fusion of additional vertebrae below the neck may also occur.\n\nIn some cases, Klippel-Feil syndrome occurs as a feature of another disorder or syndrome, such as Wildervanck syndrome or hemifacial microsomia. In these instances, affected individuals have the signs and symptoms of both Klippel-Feil syndrome and the additional disorder.\n\nPeople with Klippel-Feil syndrome may have a wide variety of other features in addition to their spine abnormalities. Some people with this condition have hearing difficulties, eye abnormalities, an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), genitourinary problems such as abnormal kidneys or reproductive organs, heart abnormalities, or lung defects that can cause breathing problems. Affected individuals may have other skeletal defects including arms or legs of unequal length (limb length discrepancy), which can result in misalignment of the hips or knees. Additionally, the shoulder blades may be underdeveloped so that they sit abnormally high on the back, a condition called Sprengel deformity. Rarely, structural brain abnormalities or a type of birth defect that occurs during the development of the brain and spinal cord (neural tube defect) can occur in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome.
ADan amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
396208
Concept ID:
C1861735
Disease or Syndrome
ITM2B-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy-2, also known as familial Danish dementia (FDD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive development of cataracts and other ocular disorders including ocular hemorrhages, hearing impairment, varying neurologic symptoms, and dementia, usually associated with paranoid reactions and temporal disturbance of consciousness. Most patients die in the fifth to sixth decade of life. Neuropathologic findings include severe widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hippocampal plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles, similar to Alzheimer disease (see 104300) (summary by Vidal et al., 2000).
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Aurocephalosyndactyly
MedGen UID:
354732
Concept ID:
C1862380
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, SBBYS type
MedGen UID:
350209
Concept ID:
C1863557
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 13
MedGen UID:
350361
Concept ID:
C1864199
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q34-q36.
Muenke syndrome
MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination.
H syndrome
MedGen UID:
400532
Concept ID:
C1864445
Disease or Syndrome
The histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome comprises features of 4 histiocytic disorders previously thought to be distinct: Faisalabad histiocytosis (FHC), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), H syndrome, and pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus syndrome (PHID). FHC was described as an autosomal recessive disease involving joint deformities, sensorineural hearing loss, and subsequent development of generalized lymphadenopathy and swellings in the eyelids that contain histiocytes (summary by Morgan et al., 2010). SHML, or familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, was described as a rare cause of lymph node enlargement in children, consisting of chronic massive enlargement of cervical lymph nodes frequently accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal sites were involved in approximately 25% of patients, including salivary glands, orbit, eyelid, spleen, and testes. The involvement of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue sometimes caused snoring and sleep apnea (summary by Kismet et al., 2005). H syndrome was characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, heart anomalies, and hypogonadism; hearing loss was also found in about half of patients, and many had short stature. PHID was characterized by predominantly antibody-negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pigmented hypertrichosis and variable occurrence of other features of H syndrome, with hepatosplenomegaly occurring in about half of patients (Cliffe et al., 2009). Bolze et al. (2012) noted that mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (612373) had been implicated in H syndrome, PHID, FHC, and SHML, and that some patients presented a combination of features from 2 or more of these syndromes, leading to the suggestion that these phenotypes should be grouped together as 'SLC29A3 disorder.' Bolze et al. (2012) suggested that the histologic features of the lesions seemed to be the most uniform phenotype in these patients. In addition, the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in H syndrome patients was shown to be the same as that seen in patients with the familial form of Rosai-Dorfman disease, further supporting the relationship between these disorders (Avitan-Hersh et al., 2011; Colmenero et al., 2012).
Microphthalmia with brain and digit anomalies
MedGen UID:
355268
Concept ID:
C1864689
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of anophthalmia or microphthalmia, retinal dystrophy, and/or myopia, associated in some cases with cerebral anomalies. It has been described in two families. Polydactyly may also be present. Linkage analysis allowed identification of mutations in the BMP4 gene, which has already been shown to play a role in eye development.
Camptodactyly-tall stature-scoliosis-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
355844
Concept ID:
C1864852
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of camptodactyly, tall stature, scoliosis, and hearing loss (CATSHL). It has been described in around 30 individuals from seven generations of the same family. The syndrome is caused by a missense mutation in the FGFR3 gene, leading to a partial loss of function of the encoded protein, which is a negative regulator of bone growth.
Brachydactyly, coloboma, and anterior segment dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
355321
Concept ID:
C1864901
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 55
MedGen UID:
355338
Concept ID:
C1864962
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 4q12-q13.2.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 47
MedGen UID:
355339
Concept ID:
C1864964
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 2p25.1-p24.3.
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 15
MedGen UID:
355451
Concept ID:
C1865366
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-15 is a form of progressive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss with postlingual onset between the second and sixth decades of life (summary by Kim et al., 2013).
Pierpont syndrome
MedGen UID:
356049
Concept ID:
C1865644
Disease or Syndrome
Pierpont syndrome (PRPTS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with learning disability. Key features include distinctive facial characteristics, especially when smiling, plantar fat pads, and other limb anomalies (summary by Burkitt Wright et al., 2011).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type
MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
Bleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nOther types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nEhlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome with granular cell tumor
MedGen UID:
400984
Concept ID:
C1866376
Neoplastic Process
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C
MedGen UID:
356581
Concept ID:
C1866636
Disease or Syndrome
SH3TC2-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (SH3TC2-HMSN) is a demyelinating neuropathy characterized by severe spine deformities (scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis) and foot deformities (pes cavus, pes planus, or pes valgus) that typically present in the first decade of life or early adolescence. Other findings can include cranial nerve involvement (most commonly tongue involvement, facial weakness/paralysis, hearing impairment, dysarthria) and respiratory problems.
Holoprosencephaly-radial heart renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
401047
Concept ID:
C1866649
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of holoprosencephaly, predominantly radial limb deficiency (absent thumbs, phocomelia), heart defects, kidney malformations and absence of gallbladder. It has been described in two families (with at least seven affected persons). Variable manifestations include vertebral anomalies, cleft lip/palate, microphthalmia, absent nose, dysplastic ears, hearing loss, colobomas of the iris and retina and/or bifid uvula. Inheritance is likely to be autosomal dominant with variable expressivity.
Pulmonic stenosis and deafness
MedGen UID:
357273
Concept ID:
C1867406
Disease or Syndrome
Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome 1A
MedGen UID:
401232
Concept ID:
C1867440
Disease or Syndrome
Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome-1A (CPSFS1) is characterized by contractures of proximal and distal joints, pterygia involving the neck, axillae, elbows, and/or knees, as well as variable vertebral, carpal, and tarsal fusions and short stature. Progression of vertebral fusions has been observed, and inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (Carapito et al., 2016; Zieba et al., 2017; Cameron-Christie et al., 2018). An autosomal recessive form of CPSFS (CPSFS1B; 618469) is caused by compound heterozygous mutation in the MYH3 gene.
Orofaciodigital syndrome V
MedGen UID:
358131
Concept ID:
C1868118
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome V (OFD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cleft palate/uvula, lobulated tongue, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, postaxial polydactyly, and impaired intellectual development (summary by Faily et al., 2017).
Piebald trait-neurologic defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
358177
Concept ID:
C1868311
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic pigmentation anomaly of the skin syndrome with characteristics of ventral as well as dorsal leukoderma of the trunk and a congenital white forelock in association with cerebellar ataxia, impaired motor coordination, intellectual disability of variable severity and progressive, mild to profound, unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1971.
Otosclerosis 7
MedGen UID:
409738
Concept ID:
C1969044
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic ataxia 3
MedGen UID:
370715
Concept ID:
C1969645
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic autosomal recessive spastic ataxia disease with characteristics of cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, cerebellar (and in some cases cerebral) atrophy, dystonia and leucoencephalopathy. Caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous complex genomic rearrangements involving the MARS2 gene on chromosome 2q33.
XFE progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
410064
Concept ID:
C1970416
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC4 gene, encoding DNA repair endonuclease XPF. it is characterized by characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and progeroid features in multiple organ systems.
Branchiootorenal syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
410081
Concept ID:
C1970479
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity comprises two phenotypes, both characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria. The mild phenotype (~75% of affected males) with onset in the second or third decade of life is typically limited to these biochemical findings, whereas the severe phenotype (~25% of affected males) with onset in the first decade of life has in addition to these biochemical findings variable combinations of developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the mild phenotype, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 74
MedGen UID:
453237
Concept ID:
C2239351
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MSRB3 gene.
Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008).
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 1B
MedGen UID:
436381
Concept ID:
C2675235
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GJB6 gene.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 7
MedGen UID:
436451
Concept ID:
C2675512
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
382678
Concept ID:
C2675746
Disease or Syndrome
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD) is a severe bone dysplasia characterized by massive generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis, especially involving the skull and facial bones. Progressive bony encroachment upon cranial foramina leads to severe neurologic impairment in childhood (summary by Brueton and Winter, 1990). The sclerosis is so severe that the resulting facial distortion is referred to as 'leontiasis ossea' (leonine facies), and the bone deposition results in progressive stenosis of craniofacial foramina (summary by Kim et al., 2011).
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and variable but distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, bitemporal narrowing, smooth and long philtrum, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal root, thin upper lip, and high palate. Many patients have behavioral disorders, including autistic features, as well as structural brain abnormalities, such as pachygyria or hypoplastic corpus callosum. Those with deletions including the BCL11A gene (606557) also have persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is asymptomatic and does not affected hematologic parameters or susceptibility to infection (summary by Funnell et al., 2015). Point mutation in the BCL11A gene causes intellectual developmental disorder with persistence of fetal hemoglobin (617101), which shows overlapping features. See also fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus-5 (HBFQTL5; 142335).
Otosclerosis 8
MedGen UID:
436965
Concept ID:
C2677515
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 2A
MedGen UID:
436997
Concept ID:
C2677637
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA2 nonsyndromic hearing loss is characterized by symmetric, predominantly high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that is progressive across all frequencies. At younger ages, hearing loss tends to be mild in the low frequencies and moderate in the high frequencies; in older persons, the hearing loss is moderate in the low frequencies and severe to profound in the high frequencies. Although the hearing impairment is often detected during routine hearing assessment of a school-age child, it is likely that hearing is impaired from birth, especially at high frequencies. Most affected persons initially require hearing aids to assist with sound amplification between ages ten and 40 years. By age 70 years, all persons with DFNA2 nonsyndromic hearing loss have severe-to-profound hearing impairment.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Deafness, cataract, retinitis pigmentosa, and sperm abnormalities
MedGen UID:
395517
Concept ID:
C2678011
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
MedGen UID:
412530
Concept ID:
C2745959
Congenital Abnormality
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Skeletal features are manifested at birth and evolve with time. Other features include myopia and/or retinal degeneration with retinal detachment and cleft palate (summary by Anderson et al., 1990).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria
MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other less frequent features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 10
MedGen UID:
412873
Concept ID:
C2750080
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 5
MedGen UID:
413981
Concept ID:
C2751319
Disease or Syndrome
Four phenotypes comprise the RRM2B mitochondrial DNA maintenance defects (RRM2B-MDMDs): RRM2B encephalomyopathic MDMD, the most severe phenotype, usually manifesting shortly after birth as hypotonia, poor feeding, and faltering growth requiring hospitalization. Subsequent assessments are likely to reveal multisystem involvement including sensorineural hearing loss, renal tubulopathy, and respiratory failure. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), typically adult onset; other manifestations can include ptosis, bulbar dysfunction, fatigue, and muscle weakness. RRM2B autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO), a typically childhood-onset predominantly myopathic phenotype of PEO, ptosis, proximal muscle weakness, and bulbar dysfunction. RRM2B mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE)-like, characterized by progressive ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, and peripheral neuropathy. To date, 78 individuals from 52 families with a molecularly confirmed RRM2B-MDMD have been reported.
Familial amyloid neuropathy
MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and/or autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early-onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage.
Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia due to G6PC3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
414066
Concept ID:
C2751630
Disease or Syndrome
G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia which occurs in a phenotypic continuum that includes the following: Isolated severe congenital neutropenia (nonsyndromic). Classic G6PC3 deficiency (severe congenital neutropenia plus cardiovascular and/or urogenital abnormalities). Severe G6PC3 deficiency (classic G6PC3 deficiency plus involvement of non-myeloid hematopoietic cell lines, additional extra-hematologic features, and pulmonary hypertension; known as Dursun syndrome). Neutropenia usually presents with recurrent bacterial infections in the first few months of life. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive (FTT), and poor postnatal growth are common. Other findings in classic and severe G6PC3 deficiency can include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling Crohn's disease, and endocrine disorders (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 46
MedGen UID:
473687
Concept ID:
C2828721
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-46 (SPG46) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset in childhood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia and cerebellar signs. Some patients have cognitive impairment, cataracts, and cerebral, cerebellar, and corpus callosum atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Boukhris et al., 2010 and Martin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 86
MedGen UID:
760543
Concept ID:
C2829265
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Split hand-foot malformation 1
MedGen UID:
419314
Concept ID:
C2931019
Congenital Abnormality
Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. Some patients with SHFM1 have been found to have mental retardation, ectodermal and craniofacial findings, orofacial clefting (Elliott and Evans, 2006), and neurosensory hearing loss (Tackels-Horne et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Split-Hand/Foot Malformation Additional SHFM loci include SHFM2 (313350) on chromosome Xq26; SHFM3 (246560), caused by duplication of chromosome 10q24; SHFM4 (605289), caused by mutation in the TP63 gene (603273) on chromosome 3q28; SHFM5 (606708) on chromosome 2q31; and SHFM6 (225300), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13. Also see SHFM1D (220600) for a form of SHFM1 with deafness that may be caused by homozygous mutation in the DLX5 gene (600028). Associations Pending Confirmation For discussion of a possible association between split-hand/foot malformation and variation in the EPS15L1 gene, see 616826.0001.
Potocki-Lupski syndrome
MedGen UID:
444010
Concept ID:
C2931246
Disease or Syndrome
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and medical manifestations. Cognitively, most individuals present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for moderate intellectual disability. Behaviorally, issues with attention, hyperactivity, withdrawal, and anxiety may be seen. Some individuals meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Medically, hypotonia, oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to failure to thrive, congenital heart disease, hypoglycemia associated with growth hormone deficiency, and mildly dysmorphic facial features are observed. Medical manifestations typically lead to identification of PTLS in infancy; however, those with only behavioral and cognitive manifestations may be identified in later childhood.
Spastic paraparesis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
419037
Concept ID:
C2931291
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic neurodegenerative disorder with features of spastic paraparesis (beginning at about 10 years of age) and hearing deficits. It has been described in affecting at least six male members spanning three generations of a large family. Some relatives presented with tremor, cataracts, sensory deficits, short stature, hypogonadism, elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, and/or absent or prolonged somatosensory evoked potentials.
N syndrome
MedGen UID:
424834
Concept ID:
C2936859
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that is characterized by intellectual deficit, deafness, ocular anomalies, T-cell leukemia, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and spasticity. Mutations in DNA polymerase alpha, leading to increased chromosome breakage, may be responsible for the syndrome. X-linked recessive transmission has been proposed.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
422452
Concept ID:
C2936862
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS2 (615981) is caused by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
461100
Concept ID:
C3149750
Disease or Syndrome
TK2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect is a phenotypic continuum that ranges from severe to mild. To date, approximately 107 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Three main subtypes of presentation have been described: Infantile-onset myopathy with neurologic involvement and rapid progression to early death. Affected individuals experience progressive muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure. Some individuals develop dysarthria, dysphagia, and/or hearing loss. Cognitive function is typically spared. Juvenile/childhood onset with generalized proximal weakness and survival to at least 13 years. Late-/adult-onset myopathy with facial and limb weakness and mtDNA deletions. Some affected individuals develop respiratory insufficiency, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
Chromosome 17q23.1-q23.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461957
Concept ID:
C3150607
Disease or Syndrome
17q23.1q23.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, short stature, heart defects and limb abnormalities.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 84A
MedGen UID:
462004
Concept ID:
C3150654
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PTPRQ gene.
Warsaw breakage syndrome
MedGen UID:
462008
Concept ID:
C3150658
Disease or Syndrome
Warsaw syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of severe congenital microcephaly, growth restriction, and sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear hypoplasia. Intellectual disability is typically in the mild-to-moderate range. Severe speech delay is common. Gross and fine motor milestones are usually attained at the usual time, although a few individuals have mild delays. Additional common features include skeletal anomalies and cardiovascular anomalies. Abnormal skin pigmentation and genitourinary malformations have also been reported. Some individuals have had increased chromosome breakage and radial forms on cytogenetic testing of lymphocytes treated with diepoxybutane and mitomycin C.
Chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462208
Concept ID:
C3150858
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized phenotypically by dysmorphic facial features, feeding difficulties, recurrent ear infections, developmental delay, and cognitive impairment. Additional features, such as heart defects and short stature, are variable (Ballif et al., 2007; Battaglia et al., 2009). The pericentric region of chromosome 16, specifically involving 16p12-p11, is a structurally complex region enriched in repetitive sequence elements, rendering this region susceptible to deletion or rearrangement (Ballif et al., 2007). There are several phenotypes associated with variation in this region: see 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism; see 136570 for discussion of a recurrent 520-kb deletion at 16p12.1 associated with developmental delay and craniofacial dysmorphism; and see 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay. Battaglia et al. (2009) emphasized that the region at chromosome 16p11.2 that confers susceptibility to autism (AUTS14; see 611913) is located more centromeric to and is distinct from the 16p12.2-p11.2 region involved in the multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability phenotype.
COG5-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
462226
Concept ID:
C3150876
Disease or Syndrome
COG5-congenital disorder of glycosylation (COG5-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIi) is an inherited condition that causes neurological problems and other abnormalities. The pattern and severity of this disorder's signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals.\n\nIndividuals with COG5-CDG typically develop signs and symptoms of the condition during infancy. These individuals often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and delayed development. Other neurological features include moderate to severe intellectual disability, poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals never learn to speak. Other features of COG5-CDG include short stature, an unusually small head size (microcephaly), and distinctive facial features, which can include ears that are set low and rotated backward, a short neck with a low hairline in the back, and a prominent nose. Less commonly, affected individuals can have hearing loss caused by changes in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss), vision impairment, damage to the nerves that control bladder function (a condition called neurogenic bladder), liver disease, and joint deformities (contractures).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 4b
MedGen UID:
462264
Concept ID:
C3150914
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Sterol carrier protein 2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
462340
Concept ID:
C3150990
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy-dystonia-motor neuropathy syndrome is a peroxisomal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by spasmodic torticollis, dystonic head tremor, intention tremor, nystagmus, hyposmia, and hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism with azoospermia. Slight cerebellar signs (left-sided intention tremor, balance and gait impairment) are also noted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows bilateral hyperintense signals in the thalamus, butterfly-like lesions in the pons, and lesions in the occipital region, whereas nerve conduction studies of the lower extremities shows a predominantly motor and slight sensory neuropathy.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 11
MedGen UID:
462568
Concept ID:
C3151218
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XI is an autosomal recessive form of OI (summary by Alanay et al., 2010).
Chromosome 13q14 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462652
Concept ID:
C3151302
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 13q14 deletion syndrome is characterized by retinoblastoma (180200), variable degrees of mental impairment, and characteristic facial features, including high forehead, prominent philtrum, and anteverted earlobes (summary by Caselli et al., 2007).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 12
MedGen UID:
462783
Concept ID:
C3151433
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XII is an autosomal recessive form characterized by recurrent fractures, mild bone deformations, generalized osteoporosis, delayed teeth eruption, progressive hearing loss, no dentinogenesis imperfecta, and white sclerae (summary by Lapunzina et al., 2010).
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
462795
Concept ID:
C3151445
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
462826
Concept ID:
C3151476
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLG1-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized in the majority of affected newborns by hypotonia, muscle atrophy, feeding difficulties, and lactic acidosis. Affected infants commonly manifest developmental delay / cognitive impairment, growth retardation / failure to thrive, hepatopathy, sensorineural hearing impairment, dystonia, and hypertonia. Notable findings in some affected individuals include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, epilepsy, myoclonus, microcephaly, sleep disturbance, rhabdomyolysis, contractures, hypothermia, and/or hypoglycemia. Life span is shortened, with median survival of 20 months.
Proximal tubulopathy-diabetes mellitus-cerebellar ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
463309
Concept ID:
C3151959
Disease or Syndrome
Proximal tubulopathy-diabetes mellitus-cerebellar ataxia syndrome is characterized by onset of proximal tubulopathy in the first year of life, followed by progressive development during childhood of skin anomalies (erythrocyanosis and abnormal pigmentation), blindness, osteoporosis, cerebellar ataxia, mitochondrial myopathy, deafness and diabetes mellitus.
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 51
MedGen UID:
463625
Concept ID:
C3160736
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that is characterized by postlingual onset in the fourth decade of life with high frequency progressive hearing loss and has material basis in a 269-kb duplication of chromosome 9q21.11 involving the TJP2 and FAM189A2 genes.
Fanconi anemia complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia complementation group E
MedGen UID:
463628
Concept ID:
C3160739
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Kabuki syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477126
Concept ID:
C3275495
Disease or Syndrome
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Acrodysostosis 1 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
477858
Concept ID:
C3276228
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-1 (ACRDYS1) is a form of skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and nasal hypoplasia. Affected individuals often have advanced bone age and obesity. Laboratory studies show resistance to multiple hormones, including parathyroid, thyrotropin, calcitonin, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin (summary by Linglart et al., 2011). However, not all patients show endocrine abnormalities (Lee et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Acrodysostosis See also ACRDYS2 (614613), caused by mutation in the PDE4D gene (600129) on chromosome 5q12.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 6
MedGen UID:
481194
Concept ID:
C3279564
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Osteogenesis imperfecta type VI is a severe autosomal recessive form of the disorder (Glorieux et al., 2002; Becker et al., 2011).
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 29
MedGen UID:
481290
Concept ID:
C3279660
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CLDN14 gene.
Chondrodysplasia with joint dislocations, gPAPP type
MedGen UID:
481387
Concept ID:
C3279757
Disease or Syndrome
The GPAPP-type of chondrodysplasia with joint dislocations is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, chondrodysplasia with brachydactyly, congenital joint dislocations, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphism (Vissers et al., 2011).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481473
Concept ID:
C3279843
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth and variable phenotypic manifestations, such as facial dysmorphism and congenital heart defects, associated with mosaic aneuploidies resulting from defects in cell division (summary by Snape et al., 2011). See also MVA1 (257300), caused by mutation in the BUB1B gene (602860) on chromosome 15q15.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy-deafness-dementia syndrome
MedGen UID:
481515
Concept ID:
C3279885
Disease or Syndrome
DNMT1-related disorder is a degenerative disorder of the central and peripheral nervous systems comprising a phenotypic spectrum that includes hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN). DNMT1 disorder is often characterized by moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss beginning in the teens or early 20s, sensory impairment, sudomotor dysfunction (loss of sweating), and dementia usually beginning in the mid-40s. In some affected individuals, narcolepsy/cataplexy syndrome and ataxia are predominant findings.
Brittle cornea syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481641
Concept ID:
C3280011
Disease or Syndrome
Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is characterized by blue sclerae, corneal rupture after minor trauma, keratoconus or keratoglobus, hyperelasticity of the skin, and hypermobility of the joints (Al-Hussain et al., 2004). It is classified as a form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Malfait et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brittle cornea syndrome, see BCS1 (229200).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 11
MedGen UID:
481915
Concept ID:
C3280285
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 20q11-q12 deletion syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, poor overall growth, sometimes with severe feeding difficulties, facial dysmorphism, and distal skeletal anomalies. Some patients may have hearing impairment, retinopathy, or cardiac defects. It is a multisystemic disorder with variable features (summary by Loddo et al., 2018).
Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
481926
Concept ID:
C3280296
Disease or Syndrome
The defining clinical characteristics of the microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome are typically present at birth: microcephaly and generalized cutaneous capillary malformations (a few to hundreds of oval/circular macules or patches varying in size from 1-2 mm to several cm), hypoplastic distal phalanges of the hands and/or feet, early-onset intractable epilepsy, and profound developmental delay. Seizures, which can be focal, tonic, and complex partial and can include infantile spasms, appear to stabilize after age two years. Myoclonus of the limbs and eyelids is common; other abnormal movements (dyskinetic, choreiform) may be seen. To date, the diagnosis has been confirmed in 18 individuals from 15 families.
Wolfram-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
481988
Concept ID:
C3280358
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Wolfram-like syndrome (WFSL) is characterized by the clinical triad of congenital progressive hearing impairment, diabetes mellitus, and optic atrophy. The hearing impairment, which is usually diagnosed in the first decade of life, is relatively constant and alters mainly low- and middle-frequency ranges (summary by Valero et al., 2008). Wolfram syndrome (WFS1; 222300) is an autosomal recessive allelic disorder characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, hearing loss, and diabetes insipidus, and is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the WFS1 gene. An autosomal dominant syndrome involving optic atrophy with or without deafness, ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, ataxia, and neuropathy (125250), is caused by heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene (605290).
Sclerosteosis 2
MedGen UID:
482032
Concept ID:
C3280402
Disease or Syndrome
Sclerosteosis is a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Syndactyly is a variable manifestation. The disorder is rare and the majority of affected individuals have been reported in the Afrikaner population of South Africa (summary by Brunkow et al., 2001). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sclerosteosis, see SOST1 (269500).
Peripheral neuropathy-myopathy-hoarseness-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
482186
Concept ID:
C3280556
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy-myopathy-hoarseness-hearing loss syndrome is a rare, syndromic genetic deafness characterized by a combination of muscle weakness, chronic neuropathic and myopathic features, hoarseness and sensorineural hearing loss. A wide range of disease onset and severity has been reported even within the same family.
Usher syndrome type 3B
MedGen UID:
482696
Concept ID:
C3281066
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type III is characterized by postlingual, progressive hearing loss, variable vestibular dysfunction, and onset of retinitis pigmentosa symptoms, including nyctalopia, constriction of the visual fields, and loss of central visual acuity, usually by the second decade of life (Karjalainen et al., 1983; Pakarinen et al., 1995). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of type III Usher syndrome, see USH3A (276902).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Baraitser-winter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482865
Concept ID:
C3281235
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common.
Fanconi anemia complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia complementation group A
MedGen UID:
483333
Concept ID:
C3469521
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 36
MedGen UID:
483339
Concept ID:
C3472711
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-36 (SCA36) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult-onset gait ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, tongue fasciculations, and variable upper motor neuron signs. Some affected individuals may develop hearing loss (summary by Garcia-Murias et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Thyroid hormone resistance, generalized, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
483749
Concept ID:
C3489796
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder usually caused by mutations in the THRB gene. It is characterized by a defective physiological resistance to thyroid hormones, resulting in the elevation of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the serum.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 3 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
763392
Concept ID:
C3550478
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
763817
Concept ID:
C3550903
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Choroideremia-deafness-obesity syndrome
MedGen UID:
763933
Concept ID:
C3551019
Disease or Syndrome
An X-linked retinal dystrophy characterized by choroideremia, causing in affected males progressive nyctalopia and eventual central blindness. Obesity, moderate intellectual disability and congenital mixed (sensorineural and conductive) deafness are also observed. Female carriers show typical retinal changes indicative of the choroideremia carrier state.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 14
MedGen UID:
766161
Concept ID:
C3553247
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with ARID1A mutations have a wide spectrum of manifestations, from severe intellectual disability and serious internal complications that could result in early death to mild intellectual disability (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900). The chromosome 1p36.11 duplication syndrome, in which the ARID1A gene is duplicated, is characterized by impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and hand and foot anomalies.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 15
MedGen UID:
766162
Concept ID:
C3553248
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with SMARCB1 mutations may have more severe neurodevelopmental deficits including severe intellectual disability, brain structural abnormalities, and no expressive words, as well as scoliosis (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 16
MedGen UID:
766163
Concept ID:
C3553249
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with SMARCA4 mutations may have less coarse craniofacial appearances and fewer behavioral abnormalities than Coffin-Siris patients with mutations in other genes (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Deafness-encephaloneuropathy-obesity-valvulopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
766268
Concept ID:
C3553354
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766318
Concept ID:
C3553404
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND), also known as 'question-mark ear syndrome' or 'dysgnathia complex,' is a craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by highly variable mandibular anomalies, including mild to severe micrognathia, often with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a distinctive ear malformation that consists of separation of the lobule from the external ear, giving the appearance of a question mark. Other frequently described features include prominent cheeks, cupped and posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular tags, and microstomia (summary by Rieder et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766551
Concept ID:
C3553637
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-2 (HPMRS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderately to severely delayed psychomotor development, facial dysmorphism, brachytelephalangy, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasia). Some patients may have additional features, such as cardiac septal defects or seizures (summary by Krawitz et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13
MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 11B
MedGen UID:
766915
Concept ID:
C3554001
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX13 gene have cells of complementation group 13 (CG13, equivalent to CGH). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Sinoatrial node dysfunction and deafness
MedGen UID:
766932
Concept ID:
C3554018
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with sinoatrial node dysfunction and deafness have congenital severe to profound deafness without vestibular dysfunction, associated with episodic syncope due to intermittent pronounced bradycardia (Baig et al., 2011). See Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (220400) for discussion of another deafness syndrome with impaired cardiac conduction.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 14
MedGen UID:
767342
Concept ID:
C3554428
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Shaheen et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIV (OI14), an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by variable degrees of severity of multiple fractures and osteopenia, with normal teeth, sclerae, and hearing. Fractures first occur prenatally or by age 6 years.
Cowden syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
767432
Concept ID:
C3554518
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency.
Cowden syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
767433
Concept ID:
C3554519
Disease or Syndrome
The features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.\n\n\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
767519
Concept ID:
C3554605
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in childhood, but may show later onset, even in adulthood. Affected individuals have motor disability, with ataxia, apraxia, dystonia, and dysarthria, associated with necrotic lesions throughout the brain. Most patients also have cognitive impairment and axonal neuropathy and become severely disabled later in life (summary by Ghezzi et al., 2011). The disorder may present clinically as spinocerebellar ataxia or Leigh syndrome, or with psychiatric disturbances (Morino et al., 2014; Atwal, 2014; Nogueira et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000).
Cobblestone lissencephaly without muscular or ocular involvement
MedGen UID:
767571
Concept ID:
C3554657
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-5 (LIS5) is an autosomal recessive brain malformation characterized by cobblestone changes in the cortex, more severe in the posterior region, and subcortical band heterotopia. Affected individuals have hydrocephalus, seizures, and severely delayed psychomotor development (Radmanesh et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1
MedGen UID:
777171
Concept ID:
C3669395
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1 (CDPX1) is characterized by chondrodysplasia punctata (stippled epiphyses), brachytelephalangy (shortening of the distal phalanges), and nasomaxillary hypoplasia. Although most affected males have minimal morbidity and skeletal findings that improve by adulthood, some have significant medical problems including respiratory involvement, cervical spine stenosis and instability, mixed conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and intellectual disability.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Uveal coloboma-cleft lip and palate-intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811762
Concept ID:
C3805432
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by uveal coloboma (typically bilateral) variably associated with cleft lip, palate and/or uvula, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. The spectrum of eye involvement is also variable and includes iris coloboma extending to the choroid, disc, and/or macula, microphthalmia, cataract, and extraocular movement impairment.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 17 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
815301
Concept ID:
C3808971
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 18 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
815305
Concept ID:
C3808975
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 19 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
815311
Concept ID:
C3808981
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 21 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
815316
Concept ID:
C3808986
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Intellectual disability-feeding difficulties-developmental delay-microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
816016
Concept ID:
C3809686
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare, genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, borderline to severe intellectual disability, feeding difficulties, behavioral anomalies, vision anomalies and mild facial dysmorphism. Other associated features may include microcephaly, short stature, urogenital or palatal anomalies (e.g. cleft palate), minor cardiac defects, recurrent infections or hearing loss.
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
854714
Concept ID:
C3888007
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 54
MedGen UID:
854731
Concept ID:
C3888029
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 5q31.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 96
MedGen UID:
854865
Concept ID:
C3888337
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-96 (DFNB96) is a form of nonsyndromic sensorineural severe to profound hearing impairment with prelingual onset (summary by Ansar et al., 2011).
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 93
MedGen UID:
854875
Concept ID:
C3888355
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-93 is characterized by moderate to severe prelingual deafness and a distinctive U-shaped audiogram (Tabatabaiefar et al., 2011).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
855172
Concept ID:
C3889474
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-16 (BBS16) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, renal disease, and cognitive impairment. Although polydactyly is considered a primary feature of BBS overall, it has not been reported in any BBS16 patient (Billingsley et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
855173
Concept ID:
C3889475
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-19 (BBS19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, impaired intellectual development, polydactyly, renal failure, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism (Aldahmesh et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
863376
Concept ID:
C4014939
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, see HKLLS1 (235510).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
863475
Concept ID:
C4015038
Disease or Syndrome
Presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome-7A with distal motor neuropathy (CMS7A) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of foot deformities, delayed motor development, and slowly progressive distal muscle weakness resulting in gait difficulties in early childhood. Other features may include hyporeflexia, muscle atrophy, and upper limb involvement. Electrophysiologic studies show low compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), consistent with a distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), as well as a decremental response to repetitive stimulation, indicating presynaptic defects at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), consistent with myasthenic syndrome (summary by Fionda et al., 2021). The complex phenotype of patients with dominant SYT2 mutations likely results from impairment of 2 fundamental functions of SYT2: (1) disturbance of calcium-dependent synchronous presynaptic neurotransmitter release, resulting in a myasthenic disorder, and (2) disruption of exocytosis and endocytosis, causing a degenerative process affecting peripheral motor nerve terminals and resulting in a motor neuropathy (Maselli et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dHMN, see 182960.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C
MedGen UID:
863597
Concept ID:
C4015160
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1C is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness and failure to thrive apparent in the first months of life. Affected infants showed delayed psychomotor development, often with visual and hearing impairment, and may die of respiratory failure. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and immature myelination (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 16
MedGen UID:
864047
Concept ID:
C4015610
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XVI (OI16) is characterized by prenatal onset of multiple fractures of ribs and long bones, blue sclerae, decreased ossification of the skull, and severe demineralization. Heterozygous family members may exhibit recurrent fractures with minimal trauma, osteopenia, and blue sclerae (Keller et al., 2018; Lindahl et al., 2018).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 24
MedGen UID:
864080
Concept ID:
C4015643
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-24 (COXPD24) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with wide phenotypic variability. Most patients present in infancy with delayed neurodevelopment, refractory seizures, hypotonia, and hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy. Less common features may include cortical blindness, renal dysfunction, and/or liver involvement, suggestive of Alpers syndrome (MTDPS4A; 203700). Patients with the severe phenotype tend to have brain abnormalities on imaging, including cerebral atrophy and hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and brainstem, consistent with Leigh syndrome. Laboratory values may be normal or show increased lactate and evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects, particularly in muscle. Some patients achieve little developmental milestones and may die in infancy or early childhood. However, some patients have a less severe phenotype manifest only by myopathy (summary by Sofou et al., 2015, Vanlander et al., 2015, and Mizuguchi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Trichothiodystrophy 3, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
865608
Concept ID:
C4017171
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder. Patients with TTD have not been reported to have a predisposition to cancer (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of TTD, see 601675.
Beta-D-mannosidosis
MedGen UID:
888408
Concept ID:
C4048196
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-mannosidosis (MANSB) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease of glycoprotein catabolism caused by a deficiency of lysosomal beta-mannosidase activity. The most severely affected patients show developmental delay and mental retardation, but there are differing levels of severity and some patients may have comparatively mild disease (Bedilu et al., 2002). The disorder was first described in goats (Jones and Dawson, 1981), who have a more severe neurodegenerative disorder than that seen in humans.
Fanconi anemia complementation group T
MedGen UID:
896157
Concept ID:
C4084840
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Paget disease of bone 3
MedGen UID:
895927
Concept ID:
C4085252
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease is a metabolic bone disease characterized by focal abnormalities of increased bone turnover affecting one or more sites throughout the skeleton, primarily the axial skeleton. Bone lesions in this disorder show evidence of increased osteoclastic bone resorption and disorganized bone structure. See reviews by Ralston et al. (2008) and Ralston and Albagha (2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Paget Disease of Bone Also see PDB2 (602080), caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q21; PDB4 (606263), mapped to chromosome 5q31; PDB5 (239000), caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene (602643) on chromosome 8q24; and PDB6 (616833), caused by mutation in the ZNF687 gene (610568) on chromosome 1q21. Suggestive linkage of a form of PDB to chromosome 6p (PDB1) was reported by Fotino et al. (1977); however, further studies did not confirm linkage to this site (Moore and Hoffman, 1988; Nance et al., 2000; Good et al., 2001).
Cognitive impairment - coarse facies - heart defects - obesity - pulmonary involvement - short stature - skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
894554
Concept ID:
C4085597
Disease or Syndrome
CHOPS syndrome is a disorder involving multiple abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). The name "CHOPS" is an abbreviation for a list of features of the disorder including cognitive impairment, coarse facial features, heart defects, obesity, lung (pulmonary) involvement, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.\n\nChildren with CHOPS syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development of skills such as sitting and walking. Characteristic facial features include a round face; thick hair; thick eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); wide-set, bulging eyes with long eyelashes; a short nose; and down-turned corners of the mouth.\n\nMost affected individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a connection between two major arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. This connection is open during fetal development and normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart defect causes infants to breathe rapidly, feed poorly, and gain weight slowly; in severe cases, it can lead to heart failure. Multiple heart abnormalities have sometimes been found in children with CHOPS syndrome. In addition to PDA, affected individuals may have ventricular septal defect, which is a defect in the muscular wall (septum) that separates the right and left sides of the heart's lower chamber.\n\nPeople with CHOPS syndrome have abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause momentary cessation of breathing while asleep (obstructive sleep apnea). These abnormalities can also cause affected individuals to breathe food or fluids into the lungs accidentally, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial lung infection (aspiration pneumonia) and chronic lung disease. Affected individuals are shorter than more than 97 percent of their peers and are overweight for their height. They also have skeletal differences including unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly) and abnormally-shaped spinal bones (vertebrae).\n\nOther features that can occur in CHOPS syndrome include a small head size (microcephaly); hearing loss; clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract); a single, horseshoe-shaped kidney; and, in affected males, undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 34
MedGen UID:
907277
Concept ID:
C4225156
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the COL4A3BP gene.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
907878
Concept ID:
C4225164
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Lymphatic malformation 6
MedGen UID:
908120
Concept ID:
C4225184
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-6 is a form of generalized lymphatic dysplasia (GLD), which is characterized by a uniform, widespread lymphedema affecting all segments of the body, with systemic involvement such as intestinal and/or pulmonary lymphangiectasia, pleural effusions, chylothoraces and/or pericardial effusions. In LMPHM6, there is a high incidence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) with either death or complete resolution of the neonatal edema, but childhood onset of lymphedema with or without systemic involvement also occurs. Mild facial edema is often present. Patients have normal intelligence and no seizures (summary by Fotiou et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism-2 (MSSGM2) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly associated with impaired intellectual development, and short stature. Patients develop diabetes in the second or third decade of life, and hypothyroidism and delayed puberty have also been reported (Abdulkarim et al., 2015; Kernohan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism, see MSSGM1 (616033).
Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency 8
MedGen UID:
908648
Concept ID:
C4225226
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
SLC39A8-CDG
MedGen UID:
899837
Concept ID:
C4225234
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIn (CDG2N) is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy, hypotonia, and variable additional features, such as short stature, seizures, visual impairment, and cerebellar atrophy. Serum transferrin analysis shows a CDG type II pattern (summary by Boycott et al., 2015 and Park et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDG type II, see CDG2A (212066).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4K
MedGen UID:
895560
Concept ID:
C4225246
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4K is an autosomal recessive demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by onset in the first decade of distal muscle weakness and atrophy associated with impaired distal sensation. Both upper and lower limbs are affected. Affected individuals may also have nystagmus and late-onset cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and isolated mitochondrial complex IV deficiency (summary by Echaniz-Laguna et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, see CMT4A (214400).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 12
MedGen UID:
905068
Concept ID:
C4225247
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-12 (HLD12) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severely delayed or even lack of psychomotor development that becomes apparent in the first months of life. Patients are markedly disabled, with acquired microcephaly, lack of speech, and often lack of spontaneous movement due to hypotonia and spasticity. Brain imaging shows delayed myelination (summary by Edvardson et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080. In a review of the pathogenesis of disorders with prominent dystonia or opisthotonic posturing as a feature, Monfrini et al. (2021) classified HLD12 as belonging to a group of neurologic disorders termed 'HOPS-associated neurologic disorders (HOPSANDs), which are caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of the autophagic/endolysosomal system, including VPS11.
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome (YUHAL) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Acrofacial dysostosis Cincinnati type
MedGen UID:
903483
Concept ID:
C4225317
Disease or Syndrome
The Cincinnati type of acrofacial dysostosis is a ribosomopathy characterized by a spectrum of mandibulofacial dysostosis phenotypes, with or without extrafacial skeletal defects (Weaver et al., 2015). In addition, a significant number of neurologic abnormalities have been reported, ranging from mild delays to refractory epilepsy, as well as an increased incidence of congenital heart defects, primarily septal in nature (Smallwood et al., 2023).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10
MedGen UID:
904191
Concept ID:
C4225332
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-10 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by postnatal progressive microcephaly, severely delayed psychomotor development, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Nakayama et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Mitochondrial short-chain Enoyl-Coa hydratase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
902729
Concept ID:
C4225391
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase 1 deficiency (ECHS1D) represents a clinical spectrum in which several phenotypes have been described: The most common phenotype presents in the neonatal period with severe encephalopathy and lactic acidosis and later manifests Leigh-like signs and symptoms. Those with presentation in the neonatal period typically have severe hypotonia, encephalopathy, or neonatal seizures within the first few days of life. Signs and symptoms typically progress quickly and the affected individual ultimately succumbs to central apnea or arrhythmia. A second group of affected individuals present in infancy with developmental regression resulting in severe developmental delay. A third group of affected individuals have normal development with isolated paroxysmal dystonia that may be exacerbated by illness or exertion. Across all three groups, T2 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia is very common, and may affect any part of the basal ganglia.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 99, syndromic, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
899839
Concept ID:
C4225416
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-99 (MRXS99F) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Affected females can have a wide range of additional congenital anomalies, including scoliosis, postaxial polydactyly, mild cardiac or urogenital anomalies, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities (summary by Reijnders et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic 33
MedGen UID:
895979
Concept ID:
C4225418
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-33 (MRXS33) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (summary by O'Rawe et al., 2015).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Optic atrophy 11
MedGen UID:
934595
Concept ID:
C4310628
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy-11 (OPA11) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, ataxia, optic atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Laboratory studies are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Hartmann et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of optic atrophy, see OPA1 (165500).
Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
934655
Concept ID:
C4310688
Disease or Syndrome
CHD4 neurodevelopmental disorder (CHD4-NDD) is associated with developmental delay, speech delay, and usually mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Variability between individuals with CHD4-NDD is significant, and a few have normal intelligence. Other manifestations can include brain anomalies, heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities; less common features are hypogonadism in males, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. Most affected individuals have mild nonspecific dysmorphic facial features with or without macrocephaly.
Neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia, and gaze palsy, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
934660
Concept ID:
C4310693
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia, and gaze palsy (NADGP) is an autosomal recessive progressive disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia, cognitive decline, and gaze palsy in the first or second decades. Additional features include dysarthria, dystonia, and athetoid movements. Some patients may become wheelchair-bound as young adults (summary by Haack et al., 2016).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, autosomal recessive, type 2a2b;
MedGen UID:
934692
Concept ID:
C4310725
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IAA
MedGen UID:
934694
Concept ID:
C4310727
Disease or Syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
934705
Concept ID:
C4310738
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CDC45 gene.
Bone marrow failure syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
Duane retraction syndrome 3 with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
934719
Concept ID:
C4310752
Disease or Syndrome
Duane syndrome is a strabismus condition clinically characterized by congenital non-progressive limited horizontal eye movement accompanied by globe retraction which results in narrowing of the palpebral fissure. The lateral movement anomaly results from failure of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) to fully innervate the lateral rectus muscle; globe retraction occurs as a result of abnormal innervation of the lateral rectus muscle by the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III). At birth, affected infants have restricted ability to move the affected eye(s) outward (abduction) and/or inward (adduction), though the limitations may not be recognized in early infancy. In addition, the globe retracts into the orbit with attempted adduction, accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure. Many individuals with Duane syndrome have strabismus in primary gaze but can use a compensatory head turn to align the eyes, and thus can preserve binocular vision and avoid diplopia. Individuals with Duane syndrome who lack binocular vision are at risk for amblyopia. The majority of affected individuals with Duane syndrome have isolated Duane syndrome (i.e., they do not have other detected congenital anomalies). Other individuals with Duane syndrome fall into well-defined syndromic diagnoses. However, many individuals with Duane syndrome have non-ocular findings that do not fit a known syndrome; these individuals are included as part of the discussion of nonsyndromic Duane syndrome.
TELO2-related intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder
MedGen UID:
934745
Concept ID:
C4310778
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of global developmental delay and intellectual disability, infantile hypotonia, microcephaly, movement disorder and impaired balance. Variable manifestations include hearing loss, cortical visual impairment, abnormalities of fingers and/or toes, congenital cardiac anomalies, kyphoscoliosis, dysmorphic facial features, abnormal sleep pattern and seizures.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated neonatal sclerosing cholangitis
MedGen UID:
1393230
Concept ID:
C4479344
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis (NSC) is a rare autosomal recessive form of severe liver disease with onset in infancy. Affected infants have jaundice, cholestasis, acholic stools, and progressive liver dysfunction resulting in fibrosis and cirrhosis; most require liver transplantation in the first few decades of life. Cholangiography shows patent biliary ducts, but there are bile duct irregularities (summary by Girard et al., 2016; Grammatikopoulos et al., 2016).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, seizures, and distal limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
1375601
Concept ID:
C4479520
Disease or Syndrome
IDDFSDA is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, developmental delay, early-onset seizures, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features. There is phenotypic variability. The most severely affected patients have a neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, absent speech, and inability to walk, and they require feeding tubes. Some patients have congenital heart defects or nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging. Less severely affected individuals have mild to moderate intellectual disability with normal speech and motor development (summary by Santiago-Sim et al., 2017).
Stankiewicz-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1375936
Concept ID:
C4479599
Disease or Syndrome
Stankiewicz-Isidor syndrome (STISS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, mild craniofacial anomalies, and variable congenital defects of the cardiac and/or urogenital systems (summary by Kury et al., 2017).
Auditory neuropathy-optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1623572
Concept ID:
C4521678
Disease or Syndrome
Auditory neuropathy and optic atrophy (ANOA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of visual and hearing impairment in the first or second decades (summary by Paul et al., 2017).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 37
MedGen UID:
1615746
Concept ID:
C4539798
Disease or Syndrome
Hearing loss, autosomal recessive 106
MedGen UID:
1627111
Concept ID:
C4539954
Disease or Syndrome
Hearing loss, autosomal recessive 107
MedGen UID:
1622558
Concept ID:
C4539964
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract syndrome with or without hearing loss, abnormal ears, or developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1612119
Concept ID:
C4539968
Disease or Syndrome
CAKUTHED is an autosomal dominant highly pleiotropic developmental disorder characterized mainly by variable congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, sometimes resulting in renal dysfunction or failure, dysmorphic facial features, and abnormalities of the outer ear, often with hearing loss. Most patients have global developmental delay (summary by Heidet et al., 2017 and Slavotinek et al., 2017).
Joint laxity, short stature, and myopia
MedGen UID:
1621331
Concept ID:
C4540020
Disease or Syndrome
A rare developmental defect with connective tissue involvement and characteristics of joint hyperextensibility and multiple dislocations of large joints, severe myopia and short stature. Other common features include retinal detachment, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, kyphoscoliosis and other spine deformities, pectus carinatum, talipes equinovarus and progressive hearing loss.
Mitochondrial myopathy-cerebellar ataxia-pigmentary retinopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1620960
Concept ID:
C4540096
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial myopathy and ataxia (MMYAT) is an autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, congenital muscle involvement with histologic findings ranging from myopathic to dystrophic, and pigmentary retinopathy (summary by Donkervoort et al., 2019).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
1617227
Concept ID:
C4540274
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism and ear abnormalities. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual or hearing impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Sweeney-Cox syndrome
MedGen UID:
1625659
Concept ID:
C4540299
Disease or Syndrome
Sweeney-Cox syndrome (SWCOS) is characterized by striking facial dysostosis, including hypertelorism, deficiencies of the eyelids and facial bones, cleft palate/velopharyngeal insufficiency, and low-set cupped ears (Kim et al., 2017).
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Combined immunodeficiency and megaloblastic anemia with or without hyperhomocysteinemia
MedGen UID:
1615364
Concept ID:
C4540434
Disease or Syndrome
Combined immunodeficiency and megaloblastic anemia with or without hyperhomocysteinemia is an inborn error of folate metabolism due to deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-1. Manifestations may include hemolytic uremic syndrome, macrocytosis, epilepsy, hearing loss, retinopathy, mild mental retardation, lymphopenia involving all subsets, and low T-cell receptor excision circles. Folinic acid supplementation is an effective treatment (summary by Ramakrishnan et al., 2016).
Sclerosteosis 1
MedGen UID:
1642815
Concept ID:
C4551483
Disease or Syndrome
SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias include sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease, both disorders of progressive bone overgrowth due to increased bone formation. The major clinical features of sclerosteosis are progressive skeletal overgrowth, most pronounced in the skull and mandible, and variable syndactyly, usually of the second (index) and third (middle) fingers. Affected individuals appear normal at birth except for syndactyly. Facial distortion due to bossing of the forehead and mandibular overgrowth is seen in nearly all individuals and becomes apparent in early childhood with progression into adulthood. Hyperostosis of the skull results in narrowing of the foramina, causing entrapment of the seventh cranial nerve (leading to facial palsy) with other, less common nerve entrapment syndromes including visual loss (2nd cranial nerve), neuralgia or anosmia (5th cranial nerve), and sensory hearing loss (8th cranial nerve). In sclerosteosis, hyperostosis of the calvarium reduces intracranial volume, increasing the risk for potentially lethal elevation of intracranial pressure. Survival of individuals with sclerosteosis into old age is unusual, but not unprecedented. The manifestations of van Buchem disease are generally milder than sclerosteosis and syndactyly is absent; life span appears to be normal.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647044
Concept ID:
C4551502
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (HPMRS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, various neurologic abnormalities such as seizures and hypotonia, and hyperphosphatasia. Other features include facial dysmorphism and variable degrees of brachytelephalangy (summary by Krawitz et al., 2010). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperphosphatasia with Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome See also HPMRS2 (614749), caused by mutation in the PIGO gene (614730) on chromosome 9p13; HPMRS3 (614207), caused by mutation in the PGAP2 gene (615187) on chromosome 11p15; HPMRS4 (615716), caused by mutation in the PGAP3 gene (611801) on chromosome 17q12; HPMRS5 (616025), caused by mutation in the PIGW gene (610275) on chromosome 17q12; and HPMRS6 (616809), caused by mutation in the PIGY gene (610662) on chromosome 4q22. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of HPMRS, noting that some patients have a distinct pattern of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison, particularly those with mutations in the PIGV and PGAP3 genes. Individuals with HPMRS have variable increased in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between HPMRS and MCAHS (see, e.g., 614080), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Fibromatosis, gingival, 1
MedGen UID:
1647111
Concept ID:
C4551558
Disease or Syndrome
Any gingival fibromatosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SOS1 gene.
Noonan syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1638960
Concept ID:
C4551602
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Wolfram syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641635
Concept ID:
C4551693
Disease or Syndrome
WFS1 Wolfram syndrome spectrum disorder (WFS1-WSSD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy (OA) before age 16 years, and typically associated with other endocrine abnormalities, sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive neurologic abnormalities (cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, psychiatric illness, and urinary tract atony). Although DM is mostly insulin-dependent, overall the course is milder (with lower prevalence of microvascular disease) than that seen in isolated DM. OA typically results in significantly reduced visual acuity in the first decade. Sensorineural hearing impairment ranges from congenital deafness to milder, sometimes progressive, hearing impairment.
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639277
Concept ID:
C4551773
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, dysplastic or absent nails, hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hirsutism, and abnormalities of the cartilage of the nose and/or ears (summary by Balasubramanian and Parker, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Zimmermann-Laband Syndrome ZLS2 (616455) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V1B2 gene (606939) on chromosome 8p21. ZLS3 (618658) is caused by mutation in the KCNN3 gene (602983) on chromosome 1q21.
Feingold syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1637716
Concept ID:
C4551774
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome 1 (referred to as FS1 in this GeneReview) is characterized by digital anomalies (shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the hand, clinodactyly of the 5th finger, syndactyly of toes 2-3 and/or 4-5, thumb hypoplasia), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (short palpebral fissures and micrognathia), gastrointestinal atresias (primarily esophageal and/or duodenal), and mild-to-moderate learning disability.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647324
Concept ID:
C4551895
Disease or Syndrome
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are a group of conditions that have overlapping signs and symptoms and the same genetic cause. The group includes three conditions known as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome type 1 (FCAS1), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID). These conditions were once thought to be distinct disorders but are now considered to be part of the same condition spectrum. FCAS1 is the least severe form of CAPS, MWS is intermediate in severity, and NOMID is the most severe form.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of CAPS affect multiple body systems. Generally, CAPS are characterized by periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain. These episodes can be triggered by exposure to cold temperatures, fatigue, other stressors, or they may arise spontaneously. Episodes can last from a few hours to several days. These episodes typically begin in infancy or early childhood and persist throughout life.\n\nIn people with NOMID, the signs and symptoms of the condition are usually present from birth and persists throughout life. In addition to skin rash and fever, affected individuals may have joint inflammation, swelling, and joint deformities called contractures that may restrict movement. People with NOMID typically have headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment resulting from chronic meningitis, which is inflammation of the tissue that covers and protects the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Other features of NOMID include eye problems, short stature, distinctive facial features, and kidney damage caused by amyloidosis.\n\nWhile the CAPS spectrum shares similar signs and symptoms, the individual conditions tend to have distinct patterns of features. People with FCAS1 are particularly sensitive to the cold, and exposure to cold temperatures can trigger a painful or burning rash. The rash usually affects the torso and limbs but may spread to the rest of the body. In addition to fever and joint pain, other possible symptoms include muscle aches, chills, drowsiness, eye redness, headache, and nausea.\n\nIndividuals with MWS develop the typical periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain after cold exposure, although episodes may occur spontaneously or all the time. Additionally, they can develop progressive hearing loss in their teenage years. Other features of MWS include skin lesions or kidney damage from abnormal deposits of a protein called amyloid (amyloidosis).
Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1
MedGen UID:
1637492
Concept ID:
C4551899
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of ATP8B1 deficiency ranges from severe through moderate to mild. Severe ATP8B1 deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset cholestasis that progresses to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and early death. Although mild-to-moderate ATP8B1 deficiency initially was thought to involve intermittent symptomatic cholestasis with a lack of hepatic fibrosis, it is now known that hepatic fibrosis may be present early in the disease course. Furthermore, in some persons with ATP8B1 deficiency the clinical findings can span the phenotypic spectrum, shifting over time from the mild end of the spectrum (episodic cholestasis) to the severe end of the spectrum (persistent cholestasis). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is common across the phenotypic spectrum.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641240
Concept ID:
C4552001
Disease or Syndrome
The Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, bilateral microtia, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the patellae (summary by Shalev and Hall, 2003). While almost all cases have primordial dwarfism with substantial prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, not all cases have microcephaly, and microtia and absent/hypoplastic patella are absent in some. Despite the presence of microcephaly, intellect is usually normal (Bicknell et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Most forms of Meier-Gorlin syndrome are autosomal recessive disorders, including Meier-Gorlin syndrome-1; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-2 (613800), caused by mutation in the ORC4 gene (603056) on chromosome 2q23; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-3 (613803), caused by mutation in the ORC6 gene (607213) on chromosome 16q11; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-4 (613804), caused by mutation in the CDT1 gene (605525) on chromosome 16q24; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-5 (613805), caused by mutation in the CDC6 gene (602627) on chromosome 17q21; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-7 (617063), caused by mutation in the CDC45L gene (603465) on chromosome 22q11; and Meier-Gorlin syndrome-8 (617564), caused by mutation in the MCM5 gene (602696) on chromosome 22q12. An autosomal dominant form of the disorder, Meier-Gorlin syndrome-6 (616835), is caused by mutation in the GMNN gene (602842) on chromosome 6p22.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate G
MedGen UID:
1642893
Concept ID:
C4693509
Disease or Syndrome
CMTDIG is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have onset in the first or second decades of slowly progressive distal motor weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait instability and distal upper limb impairment, as well as distal sensory impairment. More severely affected individuals may have pes cavus and claw hands and become wheelchair-bound, whereas other affected individuals have later onset with a milder disease course. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show median motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the 'intermediate' range, between 25 and 45 m/s (summary by Berciano et al., 2017). In a review of intermediate CMT, Berciano et al. (2017) noted that advanced axonal degeneration may induce secondary demyelinating changes resulting in decreased NCV and attenuated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in median nerve conduction studies. They thus suggested that testing the upper arm, axilla to elbow, may provide more accurate assessment of NCV and CMAP and reveal an intermediate phenotype (review by Berciano et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 14
MedGen UID:
1635255
Concept ID:
C4693535
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-14 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, almost complete lack of motor or cognitive skills, and absent language development. Additional features include spasticity and intractable seizures; many patients also have perceptive hearing loss and/or blindness. Most patients require tube feeding or ventilatory support, and most die in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination, small caudate and putamen, and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Hamilton et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Orofaciodigital syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
1644516
Concept ID:
C4693640
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 1p35 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
1632676
Concept ID:
C4693669
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1643082
Concept ID:
C4693741
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-6 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder with onset in early childhood. Affected individuals may have initial normal development, but show neurologic regression in the first year of life. They have hypotonia, inability to walk, poor speech, intellectual disability, and motor abnormalities, such as ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity. Some patients may die in childhood. Laboratory evidence indicates that the disorder results from mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Vogtle et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Hearing loss, autosomal recessive 57
MedGen UID:
1631180
Concept ID:
C4693893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-57 (DFNB57) is characterized by symmetric bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss, represented by gently downward-sloping audiograms. The hearing loss may be mildly progressive (Guan et al., 2018).
3p- syndrome
MedGen UID:
1643555
Concept ID:
C4706503
Disease or Syndrome
Characteristic features of the distal 3p- syndrome include low birth weight, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, hypotonia, psychomotor and growth retardation, ptosis, telecanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and micrognathia. Postaxial polydactyly, renal anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defects (especially atrioventricular septal defects), preauricular pits, sacral dimple, and gastrointestinal anomalies are variable features. Although intellectual deficits are almost invariably associated with cytogenetically visible 3p deletions, rare patients with a 3p26-p25 deletion and normal intelligence or only mild abnormalities have been described (summary by Shuib et al., 2009).
Alacrima, achalasia, and intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1640947
Concept ID:
C4706563
Disease or Syndrome
Alacrima, achalasia, and impaired intellectual development syndrome (AAMR) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of these 3 main features at birth or in early infancy. More variable features include hypotonia, gait abnormalities, anisocoria, and visual or hearing deficits. The disorder shows similarity to the triple A syndrome (231550), but patients with AAMR do not have adrenal insufficiency (summary by Koehler et al., 2013). See also 300858 for a phenotypically similar disorder that shows X-linked inheritance.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A2
MedGen UID:
1648317
Concept ID:
C4721887
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648334
Concept ID:
C4746745
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 19
MedGen UID:
1648353
Concept ID:
C4746956
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XIX (OI19) is characterized by prenatal fractures and generalized osteopenia, with severe short stature in adulthood, as well as variable scoliosis and pectal deformity, and marked anterior angulation of the tibia (Lindert et al., 2016).
X-linked external auditory canal atresia-dilated internal auditory canal-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648389
Concept ID:
C4746975
Disease or Syndrome
DFNX7 is a congenital form of bilateral mixed or conductive hearing loss, which may be progressive. It is not associated with vestibular symptoms (Xing et al., 2017).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1648281
Concept ID:
C4747954
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 18
MedGen UID:
1648478
Concept ID:
C4748357
Disease or Syndrome
DEE95 is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by severely impaired global development, hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, coarse facial features, and intractable seizures. More variable features may include abnormalities of the hands and feet, inguinal hernia, and feeding difficulties. The disorder is part of a group of similar neurologic disorders resulting from biochemical defects in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthetic pathway (summary by Nguyen et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies with developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1648330
Concept ID:
C4748484
Disease or Syndrome
CAFDADD is a multisystemic developmental disorder with variable cardiac and digital anomalies and facial dysmorphism. Some patients may have seizures and ocular/aural abnormalities (Tokita et al., 2018).
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 3
MedGen UID:
1648417
Concept ID:
C4748608
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-3 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of neurogenic muscle impairment in utero. Affected individuals present at birth with severe hypotonia, often causing respiratory insufficiency or failure and inability to swallow or feed properly. They have profoundly impaired psychomotor development and may die in infancy or early childhood. Those that survive are unable to sit or walk. Sural nerve biopsy shows hypomyelination of the nerve fibers, and brain imaging often shows impaired myelination and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (about 10 m/s) or absent due to improper myelination (summary by Vallat et al., 2016 and Low et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 15
MedGen UID:
1648320
Concept ID:
C4748778
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 26
MedGen UID:
1648283
Concept ID:
C4748809
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 28
MedGen UID:
1648493
Concept ID:
C4748827
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency nuclear type 28 (MC1DN28) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia, nystagmus, bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, and lactic acidosis (summary by Gonzalez-Quintana et al., 2020).
Huppke-Brendel syndrome
MedGen UID:
1659966
Concept ID:
C4751114
Disease or Syndrome
Huppke-Brendel syndrome (HBS) is characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and severe developmental delay. To date, six individuals with HBS have been reported in the literature. All presented in infancy with axial hypotonia; motor delay was apparent in the first few months of life with lack of head control and paucity of limb movement. Seizures have been reported infrequently. In all individuals described to date serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were very low or undetectable. Brain MRI examination showed hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia mainly affecting the vermis, and wide subarachnoid spaces. None of the individuals reported to date were able to sit or walk independently. All affected individuals died between age ten months and six years.
Hypertelorism-preauricular sinus-punctual pits-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
1659106
Concept ID:
C4751125
Disease or Syndrome
A rare developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome with characteristics of hypertelorism, bilateral preauricular sinus, bilateral punctal pits, lacrimal duct obstruction, hearing loss, abnormal palmar flexion creases and bilateral distal axial triradii. Shawl scrotum has also been reported.
Ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1658844
Concept ID:
C4751570
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic metabolic liver disease with characteristics of progressive neurodegeneration, cutaneous abnormalities including varying degrees of ichthyosis or seborrheic dermatitis, and systemic iron overload. Patients manifest with infantile-onset seizures, encephalopathy, abnormal eye movements, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia, brisk reflexes, cortical blindness and deafness, myoclonus and hepato/splenomegaly, as well as oral manifestations including microdontia, widely spaced and pointed teeth with delayed eruption and gingival overgrowth.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 14
MedGen UID:
1663069
Concept ID:
C4755312
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of FARS2 deficiency ranges from the infantile-onset phenotype, characterized by epileptic encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and poor prognosis (70% of affected individuals), to the later-onset phenotype, characterized by spastic paraplegia, less severe neurologic manifestations, and longer survival (30% of affected individuals). To date FARS2 deficiency has been reported in 37 individuals from 25 families. Infantile-onset phenotype. Seizures are difficult to control and may progress quickly at an early age to intractable seizures with frequent status epilepticus; some children have hypsarrhythmia on EEG. All have developmental delay; most are nonverbal and unable to walk. Feeding difficulties are common. More than half of affected children die in early childhood. Later-onset phenotype. All affected individuals have spastic paraplegia manifested by weakness, spasticity, and exaggerated reflexes of the lower extremities associated with walking difficulties; some have developmental delay/intellectual disability; some have brief seizures that resolve over time.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 20
MedGen UID:
1684324
Concept ID:
C5190595
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-20 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, wide-based or absent gait, coarse facies, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Thomas et al., 2014).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 11
MedGen UID:
1682397
Concept ID:
C5190991
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-21 (COXPD11) is a severe multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia and lactic acidosis. Affected individuals may have respiratory insufficiency, foot deformities, or seizures, and all reported patients have died in infancy. Biochemical studies show deficiencies of multiple mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (summary by Garcia-Diaz et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1676668
Concept ID:
C5193035
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, and hearing impairment are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-2 (RSTS2; 613684), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS2. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam syndrome, see MKHK1 (618332).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1675829
Concept ID:
C5193045
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and early-onset progressive nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. Some patients may have seizures, and some may die in childhood (summary by Fujita et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).
Oculocerebrodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1674537
Concept ID:
C5193101
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoskeletodental syndrome (OCSKD) is characterized by congenital cataract, short stature and various skeletal anomalies, dysmorphic facial features and dental anomalies, developmental delay, and stroke. Other recurrent features include hearing loss, secondary glaucoma, and nephrocalcinosis (Tiosano et al., 2019).
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism
MedGen UID:
1679263
Concept ID:
C5193106
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism (DEDDFA) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder apparent from infancy or early childhood and associated with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may be severely affected with no speech and inability to walk, whereas others may be able to attend special schools or have normal intellectual function associated with autism spectrum disorder and mild speech delay. Genetic analysis has suggested that the phenotype can be broadly categorized into 2 main groups. Patients with TRRAP mutations affecting residues 1031-1159 have a more severe disorder, often with multisystem involvement, including renal, cardiac, and genitourinary systems, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Patients with mutations outside of that region tend to have a less severe phenotype with a higher incidence of autism and usually no systemic involvement. Patients in both groups usually have somewhat similar dysmorphic facial features, such as upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and broad or depressed nasal bridge, although these features are highly variable (summary by Cogne et al., 2019).
Congenital hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay, and digital anomalies
MedGen UID:
1674629
Concept ID:
C5193125
Disease or Syndrome
ATN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ATN1-NDD) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability. Other neurologic findings can include infantile hypotonia, brain malformations, epilepsy, cortical visual impairment, and hearing loss. Feeding difficulties, present in some individuals, may require gastrostomy support when severe; similarly, respiratory issues, present in some, may require respiratory support after the neonatal period. Distinctive facial features and hand and foot differences are common. Other variable findings can include cardiac malformations and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). To date, 18 individuals with ATN1-NDD have been identified.
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684820
Concept ID:
C5231394
Disease or Syndrome
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome (MRXSBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and poor or absent speech. Most patients are able to walk, although they may have an unsteady gait or spasticity. Additional findings include dysmorphic facial features and mild distal skeletal anomalies. Males and females are similarly affected (summary by Basilicata et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with visual defects and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684774
Concept ID:
C5231404
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with visual defects and brain anomalies (NEDVIBA) is characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, variable visual defects, including retinitis pigmentosa and optic atrophy, hypotonia or hypertonia, and variable structural brain abnormalities. Other nonspecific features may be found (summary by Okur et al., 2019).
Myopathy, congenital, progressive, with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1684769
Concept ID:
C5231417
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-19 (CMYO19) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile-onset of progressive muscle weakness and atrophy associated with scoliosis, variably impaired walking, and dysmorphic facial features (Feichtinger et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYO1A (117000).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 80
MedGen UID:
1684779
Concept ID:
C5231418
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-80 (DEE80) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, distal skeletal abnormalities, and impaired hearing or vision. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Murakami et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684881
Concept ID:
C5231426
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies (IDNADFS) is characterized by mildly impaired global development, speech delay with nasal speech, and dysmorphic facial features, including high forehead, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia or high-arched palate, hypo/hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, and thin upper lip. Some patients may have skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, 2-3 toe syndactyly, and flat feet (summary by Alesi et al., 2019 and Uehara et al., 2019).
Weiss-kruszka syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684748
Concept ID:
C5231429
Disease or Syndrome
Weiss-Kruszka syndrome is characterized by metopic ridging or synostosis, ptosis, nonspecific dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and autistic features. Brain imaging may identify abnormalities of the corpus callosum. Developmental delay can present as global delay, motor delay, or speech delay. Affected individuals may also have ear anomalies, feeding difficulties (sometimes requiring placement of a gastrostomy tube), and congenital heart defects. There is significant variability in the clinical features, even between affected members of the same family.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy, seizures, and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684884
Concept ID:
C5231442
Disease or Syndrome
Halperin-Birk syndrome (HLBKS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural brain defects, spastic quadriplegia with multiple contractures, profound developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphism, cataract, and optic nerve atrophy. Death occurs in early childhood (Halperin et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684792
Concept ID:
C5231448
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies (NEDDFSA) is a global neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable features. Patients often show poor feeding, poor overall growth, and hypotonia from early infancy, followed by mildly delayed motor development, poor language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities. Intellectual development varies from severe with absent speech to mild with the ability to attend special schools. Common features include dysmorphic facial features with notable eye anomalies, joint hypermobility, and mild skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Carapito et al., 2019).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 102
MedGen UID:
1715418
Concept ID:
C5393299
Disease or Syndrome
DDX3X-related neurodevelopmental disorder (DDX3X-NDD) typically occurs in females and very rarely in males. All affected individuals reported to date have developmental delay / intellectual disability (ID) ranging from mild to severe; about 50% of affected girls remain nonverbal after age five years. Hypotonia, a common finding, can be associated with feeding difficulty in infancy. Behavioral issues can include autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and hyperactivity, self-injurious behavior, poor impulse control, and aggression. Other findings can include seizures, movement disorders (dyskinesia, spasticity, abnormal gait), vision and hearing impairment, congenital heart defects, respiratory difficulties, joint laxity, and scoliosis. Neuroblastoma has been observed in three individuals.
Holoprosencephaly 13, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1714826
Concept ID:
C5393308
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked holoprosencephaly-13 (HPE13) is a neurologic disorder characterized by midline developmental defects that mainly affect the brain and craniofacial structure. The severity and manifestations are variable: some patients may have full alobar HPE with cyclopia, whereas others have semilobar HPE or septooptic dysplasia. Dysmorphic features include microcephaly, hypotelorism, low-set ears, micrognathia, and cleft lip/palate. Patients with a more severe phenotype may die in the newborn period, whereas those with a less severe phenotype show global developmental delay. Additional variable features include congenital heart defects and vertebral anomalies. Phenotypic variability may be related to the type of mutation, X-inactivation status, and possible incomplete penetrance. The STAG2 protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; HPE13 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Kruszka et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
CEBALID syndrome
MedGen UID:
1710973
Concept ID:
C5394044
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with MN1 C-terminal truncation (MCTT) syndrome have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, severe expressive language delay, dysmorphic facial features (midface hypoplasia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, exophthalmia, short upturned nose, and small low-set ears), and distinctive findings on brain imaging (including perisylvian polymicrogyria and atypical rhombencephalosynapsis). Mild-to-moderate prelingual hearing loss (usually bilateral, conductive, and/or sensorineural) is common. Generalized seizures (observed in the minority of individuals) are responsive to anti-seizure medication. There is an increased risk for craniosynostosis and, thus, increased intracranial pressure. To date, 25 individuals with MCTT syndrome have been identified.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1719418
Concept ID:
C5394218
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 1 (NSDVS1) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, variable behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features, including round face, small palpebral fissures, highly arched eyebrows, and short nose. The severity is variable (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 40
MedGen UID:
1714731
Concept ID:
C5394232
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-40 (COXPD40) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with onset in utero or soon after birth. Affected individuals have severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, poor growth, and sensorineural hearing loss. Laboratory studies show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as lactic acidosis. Patient-derived tissues and cells show variably decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III, IV, and V. The disorder is lethal, with no reported patients surviving past infancy (summary by Friederich et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 41
MedGen UID:
1711853
Concept ID:
C5394236
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 42
MedGen UID:
1709379
Concept ID:
C5394237
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-42 (COXPD42) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by onset of cardiomyopathy, respiratory insufficiency, lactic metabolic acidosis, and anemia in the first months of life. Patient tissue shows variable impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation affecting mtDNA-encoded subunits I, III, and IV. All reported affected infants have died in the first year of life (summary by Friederich et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Diets-Jongmans syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714920
Concept ID:
C5394263
Disease or Syndrome
Diets-Jongmans syndrome (DIJOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with a recognizable facial gestalt (summary by Diets et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, hypotonia, and brain imaging abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1708579
Concept ID:
C5394517
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, hypotonia, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDSHBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual impairment, early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and progressive microcephaly. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and myelination defects. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Marafi et al., 2020).
IFAP syndrome 1, with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11.
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome
MedGen UID:
1770070
Concept ID:
C5399974
Disease or Syndrome
ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood.
Chromosome 17q11.2 deletion syndrome, 1.4Mb
MedGen UID:
1726802
Concept ID:
C5401456
Disease or Syndrome
Approximately 5 to 20% of all patients with neurofibromatosis type I (162200) carry a heterozygous deletion of approximately 1.4 Mb involving the NF1 gene and contiguous genes lying in its flanking regions (Riva et al., 2000; Jenne et al., 2001), which is caused by nonallelic homologous recombination of NF1 repeats A and C (Dorschner et al., 2000). The 'NF1 microdeletion syndrome' is often characterized by a more severe phenotype than that observed in the majority of NF1 patients. In particular, patients with NF1 microdeletion often show variable facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, developmental delay, an excessive number of early-onset neurofibromas (Venturin et al., 2004), and an increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (De Raedt et al., 2003).
Suleiman-El-Hattab syndrome
MedGen UID:
1738652
Concept ID:
C5436458
Disease or Syndrome
Suleiman-El-Hattab syndrome (SULEHS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia and feeding difficulties soon after birth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor expressive speech, and a general happy demeanor. There is a distinctive facial appearance with microcephaly, thick arched eyebrows with synophrys, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, low-set ears, broad nasal bridge, and thin upper lip. Additional more variable features include recurrent respiratory infections, cardiovascular malformations, cryptorchidism, seizures, and distal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Suleiman et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
1770258
Concept ID:
C5436514
Disease or Syndrome
Deeah syndrome
MedGen UID:
1756624
Concept ID:
C5436579
Disease or Syndrome
DEEAH syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals usually present in the perinatal period with respiratory insufficiency, apneic episodes, and generalized hypotonia. The patients have failure to thrive and severely impaired global development with poor acquisition of motor, cognitive, and language skills. Other common features include endocrine, pancreatic exocrine, and autonomic dysfunction, as well as hematologic disturbances, mainly low hemoglobin. Patients also have dysmorphic and myopathic facial features. Additional more variable features include seizures, undescended testes, and distal skeletal anomalies. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1758434
Concept ID:
C5436699
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies (NEDSID) is characterized by developmental delay associated with mild to moderately impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral or psychiatric abnormalities, and delayed speech and language acquisition. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal problems or feeding difficulties, and hypotonia. The phenotypic features and severity of the disorder are variable (summary by Kummeling et al., 2021).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 51
MedGen UID:
1757992
Concept ID:
C5436703
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-51 (COXPD51) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a Leigh syndrome phenotype (see 256000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Cleft palate, proliferative retinopathy, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1765503
Concept ID:
C5436739
Disease or Syndrome
Cleft palate, proliferative retinopathy, and developmental delay (CPPRDD) is characterized by motor and speech delay, with intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Brain imaging shows ventriculomegaly as well as other malformations (Harel et al., 2019).
Developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
1765507
Concept ID:
C5436781
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy (DIGFAN) is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by impaired motor and intellectual development, hypotonia, poor overall growth, usually with short stature and microcephaly, and subtly dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have distal muscle weakness and muscle atrophy resulting in delayed acquisition of motor skills and persistent gait abnormalities. Although many patients have clinical and/or electrophysiologic features consistent with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, such as hyporeflexia, impaired sensation, foot drop, and pes cavus, the signs and severity are highly variable. Additional features may include hearing loss, pigmentary retinopathy, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, hypomyelination, and lesions in the basal ganglia or brainstem. In some instances, the same mutation may result in different phenotypic manifestations (CMT2Z or DIGFAN syndrome), which highlights the expanding clinical spectrum associated with MORC2 mutations and may render classification of patients into one or the other disorder challenging (summary by Guillen Sacoto et al., 2020).
Chromosome 13q33-q34 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
1744234
Concept ID:
C5436890
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 13q33-q34 deletion syndrome is associated with developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development, facial dysmorphism, and an increased risk for epilepsy, cardiac defects and additional anatomic anomalies (summary by Sagi-Dain et al., 2019).
Lessel-Kreienkamp syndrome
MedGen UID:
1762595
Concept ID:
C5436892
Disease or Syndrome
Lessel-Kreienkamp syndrome (LESKRES) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and speech and language delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients have mildly delayed walking and mild cognitive deficits, whereas others are nonambulatory and nonverbal. Most have behavioral disorders. Additional features, including seizures, hypotonia, gait abnormalities, visual defects, cardiac defects, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, may also be present (summary by Lessel et al., 2020).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Deafness, congenital, and adult-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
1784506
Concept ID:
C5543087
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital deafness and adult-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy (DEAPLE) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by congenital neurosensory deafness followed by onset of neurodegenerative symptoms, including pyramidal signs and cognitive decline, in young adulthood. Some patients may have mild developmental delay or learning difficulties in childhood, but most can function independently. The onset of motor and cognitive decline in adulthood can be rapid and may result in early death. Brain imaging shows diffuse white matter abnormalities affecting various brain regions, consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. More variable additional features may include visual impairment and axonal peripheral neuropathy (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2019).
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1787991
Concept ID:
C5543226
Disease or Syndrome
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities (GDSBA) is characterized by developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed fine and motor skills with walking by 3 years of age, mildly impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities, mostly autism and ADHD. Some patients may have additional nonspecific features, such as facial dysmorphism, myopia or strabismus, and skeletal defects, including joint hypermobility, pes planus, or slender fingers (summary by Granadillo et al., 2020).
Alzahrani-Kuwahara syndrome
MedGen UID:
1782127
Concept ID:
C5543274
Disease or Syndrome
Alzahrani-Kuwahara syndrome (ALKUS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual function and poor or absent speech. Patients have poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features. More variable findings include early-onset cataracts, hypotonia, congenital heart defects, lower limb spasticity, and hypospadias (summary by Alzahrani et al., 2020).
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778557
Concept ID:
C5543339
Disease or Syndrome
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals show hypotonia, mild motor difficulties, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Brain imaging may show nonspecific defects; rare patients have seizures or pyramidal signs. A subset of individuals may have congenital heart defects, precocious puberty, and obesity in females. Some of the features are similar to those observed in patients with chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (607872) (summary by Radio et al., 2021).
Deafness, cataract, impaired intellectual development, and polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
1781637
Concept ID:
C5543482
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, cataract, impaired intellectual development, and polyneuropathy (DCIDP) is characterized by early-onset of deafness, cataract, severe developmental delay, and severely impaired intellectual development. Patients later develop polyneuropathy of the lower extremities, associated with depigmentation of the hair in that area (Kroll-Hermi et al., 2020).
Osteootohepatoenteric syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785846
Concept ID:
C5543557
Disease or Syndrome
Osteootohepatoenteric syndrome (OOHE) is characterized by a variable combination of bone fragility, hearing loss, cholestasis, and congenital diarrhea. Some patients also display mild developmental delay and intellectual disability (Esteve et al., 2018).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 46
MedGen UID:
1780196
Concept ID:
C5543646
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-46 (CILD46) is characterized by recurrent sinus and respiratory infections, with reduced pulmonary function and uncoordinated beating of respiratory cilia. No situs abnormalities have been observed (Edelbusch et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 2E
MedGen UID:
1794154
Concept ID:
C5561944
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIE (ARCL2E) is characterized by connective tissue features, including generalized cutis laxa and inguinal hernia, craniofacial dysmorphology, variable mild heart defects, and prominent skeletal features, including craniosynostosis, short stature, brachydactyly, clinodactyly, and syndactyly (Pottie et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
DEGCAGS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Short stature, impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, hypotonia, and ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1794208
Concept ID:
C5561998
Disease or Syndrome
SIMHA syndrome is characterized by short stature, impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, hypotonia, and ocular anomalies. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability has been observed (Kambouris et al., 2014; Zahra et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1794216
Concept ID:
C5562006
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures (NEDLAS) is characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with gait ataxia and poor language development. Behavioral abnormalities also commonly occur. The severity is highly variable: a subset of patients have a more severe phenotype with early-onset seizures resembling epileptic encephalopathy, inability to walk or speak, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Stolz et al., 2021).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 2d, generalized, intermediate or severe, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1794224
Concept ID:
C5562014
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 7, with or without hearing loss
MedGen UID:
1794253
Concept ID:
C5562043
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive intrahepatic cholestasis-7 with or without hearing loss (PFIC7) is an autosomal recessive liver disorder characterized by infantile-onset jaundice and itching associated with cholestasis, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and normal gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT). Liver biopsy shows hepatocellular and canalicular cholestasis with fibrotic changes. Many patients have resolution of the liver abnormalities with age, although some may have persistent liver enzyme abnormalities or splenomegaly. A subset of patients develops hearing loss in childhood between early infancy and the teenage years. Rifampicin may be effective for pruritis (summary by Maddirevula et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PFIC, see PFIC1 (211600).
Ferguson-Bonni neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794275
Concept ID:
C5562065
Disease or Syndrome
Ferguson-Bonni neurodevelopmental syndrome (FERBON) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and hypotonia with early motor delay. Additional features may include dysmorphic facies, mild skeletal abnormalities, and hearing loss (summary by Ferguson et al., 2022).
Yoon-Bellen neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794276
Concept ID:
C5562066
Disease or Syndrome
Yoon-Bellen neurodevelopmental syndrome (YOBELN) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. The manifestations and severity of the phenotype are highly variable. Additional neurologic features may include hypotonia, spasticity, ataxia, hearing loss, visual problems, seizures, and nonspecific anomalies on brain imaging (summary by Yap et al., 2021).
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy-hearing loss-pons hypoplasia-brain atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798652
Concept ID:
C5567229
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of early-onset severe global developmental delay with regression, congenital or acquired microcephaly, hearing loss, truncal hypotonia, appendicular spasticity, and dystonia and/or myoclonus. Additional reported manifestations include seizures, optic atrophy, cortical visual impairment, scoliosis, and dysphagia. Brain imaging shows pontine hypoplasia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and diffuse cerebral atrophy with relative sparing of the cerebellum.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 27
MedGen UID:
1799031
Concept ID:
C5567608
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-27 (COXPD27) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized mainly by neurologic features, including delayed development, seizures, abnormal movements, and neurologic regression. Age at onset, ranging from infancy to late childhood, and severity are variable. Other features include hypotonia, myoclonus, brain imaging abnormalities, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Liver dysfunction has also been reported (summary by Samanta et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2Z
MedGen UID:
1800448
Concept ID:
C5569025
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2Z (CMT2Z) is an autosomal dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy characterized by onset, usually in the first decade, of distal lower limb muscle weakness and sensory impairment. The disorder is progressive, and affected individuals tend to develop upper limb and proximal muscle involvement in an asymmetric pattern, resulting in severe disability late in adulthood. Rare occurrence of global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties has been observed. In some instances, the same mutation may result in different phenotypic manifestations (CMT2Z or DIGFAN), which highlights the clinical spectrum associated with MORC2 mutations and may render the classification of patients into one or the other disorder challenging (summary by Sevilla et al., 2016, Ando et al., 2017, Guillen Sacoto et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type
MedGen UID:
1806238
Concept ID:
C5575335
Disease or Syndrome
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type (CTDI) is characterized by childhood-onset short stature in association with macrocephaly, dolichocephaly, or prominent forehead. Radiography shows hyperostosis of the calvaria and skull base, with metadiaphyseal undermodeling of the long tubular bones and mild shortening and diaphyseal broadening of the short tubular bones. Affected individuals experience progressive vision loss in the first decade of life due to optic nerve compression, and deafness may develop in the second decade of life (Guo et al., 2021).
Myopathy, distal, 7, adult-onset, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1808663
Concept ID:
C5676880
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adult-onset distal myopathy-7 (MPD7) is an X-linked recessive disorder that affects only males. It is characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness predominantly affecting the lower limbs between 20 and 60 years of age. The disorder is slowly progressive, with most affected individuals developing distal upper limb involvement and some developing proximal muscle involvement, although patients remain ambulatory. Muscle biopsy shows variable myopathic changes as well as sarcoplasmic inclusions that may represent abnormally aggregated proteins (summary by Johari et al., 2021).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811435
Concept ID:
C5676906
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (BRYLIB2) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome, see BRYLIB1 (619720).
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1809276
Concept ID:
C5676911
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-2 (TBHS2) is characterized primarily by hypertelorism, prominent forehead, thick and broad eyebrows, and short nose with depressed nasal root and broad nasal tip. Other features include thin upper lip, small chin with horizontal crease, and high or cleft palate. Developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development have been observed in some patients (Li et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Teebi hypertelorism syndrome, see TBHS1 (145420).
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 2
MedGen UID:
1809253
Concept ID:
C5676931
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation-2 (CDDG2) is an autosomal recessive disorder with variable associated features such as dysmorphic facies, impaired intellectual development, and brain anomalies, including polymicrogyria, interhemispheric cysts, hypothalamic hamartoma, callosal anomalies, and hypoplasia of brainstem and cerebellar vermis (Maia et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital disorder of deglycosylation, see CDGG1 (615273).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, IIA 22
MedGen UID:
1801631
Concept ID:
C5676943
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized clinically by bone fragility, low bone mass, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta type XXII (OI22) is a severe recessive form of the disease (Dubail et al., 2020).
Auditory neuropathy, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
1805371
Concept ID:
C5676964
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy-3 (AUNA3) is characterized by progressive hearing loss with inability to discriminate speech but preserved sensitivity to sound (Jang et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy, see AUNA1 (609129).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1810366
Concept ID:
C5676987
Disease or Syndrome
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome (DENNED) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: more severely affected individuals have axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, microcephaly, early-onset seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, and are unable to walk or speak. Those with a less severe phenotype may achieve some developmental goals and show less severe intellectual disability (Dentici et al., 2022).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1804234
Concept ID:
C5677016
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-4 (TEBIVANED4) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, variably impaired intellectual development, learning difficulties, distal skeletal anomalies, and dysmorphic facies. Some patients have visual or hearing deficits. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of TEBIVANED, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Neurocardiofaciodigital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1804193
Concept ID:
C5677020
Disease or Syndrome
Neurocardiofaciodigital syndrome (NCFD) is characterized by severe developmental delay, variable brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and a distinctive type of synpolydactyly with a supernumerary hypoplastic digit between the fourth and fifth digits of the hands and/or feet. Other features include eye abnormalities, hearing impairment, and electroencephalogram anomalies (summary by Horn et al., 2021).
DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome due to WAC point mutation
MedGen UID:
1841517
Concept ID:
C5681129
Disease or Syndrome
WAC-related intellectual disability (ID) is typically characterized by variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities including anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism spectrum disorder are observed in the majority of older children and adults. Most affected infants have significant but nonspecific features at birth such as neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems. Some affected individuals come to medical attention with respiratory or vision problems. Facial features may be mildly dysmorphic, but are nonspecific. To date, 18 individuals have been identified with WAC-related ID.
Braddock-carey syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1823962
Concept ID:
C5774189
Disease or Syndrome
Braddock-Carey syndrome-2 (BRDCS2) is characterized by congenital thrombocytopenia, microcephaly, and facial dysmorphisms including Pierre-Robin sequence (Sleiman et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Braddock-Carey syndrom, see BRCDS1 (619980).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech delay and variable ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1823967
Concept ID:
C5774194
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech delay and variable ocular anomalies (NEDSOA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor speech acquisition apparent from infancy. Most affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features with notable ocular anomalies, including exotropia, strabismus, hypo- or hypertropia, and refraction problems. Additional features may include febrile seizures, sensorineural hearing loss, and behavioral abnormalities. Brain imaging is usually normal, but abnormalities of the corpus callosum have been reported (Broly et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823982
Concept ID:
C5774209
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities (NEDSMBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a core phenotype of moderate to profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, epilepsy, and periventricular calcifications (summary by Rosenhahn et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and absent language
MedGen UID:
1823989
Concept ID:
C5774216
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and absent language (NEDMHAL) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the constellation of these features. Behavioral problems and hearing loss are also present (Ansar et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth, spastic tetraplegia, and hearing loss
MedGen UID:
1824002
Concept ID:
C5774229
Disease or Syndrome
Birk-Aharoni syndrome (BKAH) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, absent speech, spastic tetraplegia with central hypotonia, chorea, inability to walk, hearing loss, micropenis, undescended testes, and mildly elevated liver enzymes (Aharoni et al., 2022).
Cleidocranial dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
1824016
Concept ID:
C5774243
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia-2 (CLCD2) is characterized by clavicular anomalies, ranging from unilateral 'clavicula bipartita' to bilateral clavicular aplasia, and dental anomalies, including delayed or absent eruption of deciduous teeth and supernumerary teeth. Skull abnormalities such as delayed closure of fontanels have been reported; other skeletal features include delayed bone age, short distal phalanges, and pseudoepiphyses of the metacarpals and/or metatarsals. Phenotypic variability, including intrafamilial, has been observed (Beyltjens et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cleidocranial dysplasia, see CLCD1 (119600).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1824025
Concept ID:
C5774252
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and with or without seizures (NEDSIS) is a phenotypically heterogeneous neurologic disorder whose severity appears to depend on the functional effect of the CACNA1I mutation. Severely affected individuals present in infancy with profound global developmental delay, hypotonia, delayed or absent walking, absent speech, feeding difficulties, cortical visual impairment, and onset of hyperexcitability and seizures in the first months or years of life. They achieve little or no developmental progress and may be tube-fed. Mutations in these individuals occurred de novo. In contrast, a milder phenotype associated with an inherited mutation has been found in a family with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and mild speech delay, usually without seizures (El Ghaleb et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 70
MedGen UID:
1824044
Concept ID:
C5774271
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-70 (MRD70) is characterized by mild global developmental delay, moderately impaired intellectual disability with speech difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. More variable findings may include hypotonia and dysmorphic features (Rabin et al., 2020)
Spinocerebellar ataxia 50
MedGen UID:
1824045
Concept ID:
C5774272
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-50 (SCA50) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia and other eye movement abnormalities, and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Most patients develop symptoms as adults, although childhood onset has rarely been reported. Additional more variable features may include tremor, dysarthria, dysphagia, and cognitive impairment with executive dysfunction (Coutelier et al., 2022; Schoggl et al., 2022).
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1824059
Concept ID:
C5774286
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-2 (LADD2) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006).
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824060
Concept ID:
C5774287
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-3 (LADD3) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by aplasia, atresia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal and salivary systems, cup-shaped ears, hearing loss, and dental and digital anomalies (summary by Milunsky et al., 2006).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
LADD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1824096
Concept ID:
C5774323
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-1 (LADD1) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Lacrimoauriculodentodigital Syndrome LADD syndrome-2 (LADD2; 620192) is caused by mutation in the FGFR3 gene (134934) on chromosome 4p16, and LADD syndrome-3 (LADD3; 620193) is caused by mutation in the FGF10 gene, an FGFR ligand, on chromosome 5p12.
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis 1
MedGen UID:
1840207
Concept ID:
C5829571
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis-1 (CHINE1) is an X-linked syndromic disorder that is phenotypically more severe in males than females. Affected males present with the full constellation of symptoms in early infancy, resulting in death in early childhood. Affected females develop early-onset hearing impairment, often with early-onset cataracts, but only rarely have nephrotic syndrome or proteinuria; they do not have enterocolitis. The variable manifestations in females may be influenced by skewed X-inactivation. Telomeres are shortened, but classic mucocutaneous features of DKCX are not typically observed. CHINE1 is due to a ribosomal pseudouridylation defect (Balogh et al., 2020). See also CHINE2 (620425), caused by mutation in the NOP10 gene (606471).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent speech and movement and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840955
Concept ID:
C5830319
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent speech and movement and behavioral abnormalities (NEDSMB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severely impaired intellectual development with aggressive behavior. Mild dysmorphic features and hypodontia are also present (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Hearing loss, autosomal dominant 87
MedGen UID:
1840978
Concept ID:
C5830342
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-87 (DFNA87) is characterized by nonsyndromic prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss with inner ear anomalies, including cochlear maldevelopment, absence of the osseous spiral lamina, and/or an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (Su et al., 2020).
Hearing loss, autosomal dominant 88
MedGen UID:
1840991
Concept ID:
C5830355
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-88 (DFNA88) is characterized by nonsyndromic postlingual progressive severe sensorineural hearing loss with tinnitus (Jiang et al., 2011; Huang et al., 2023).
Hearing loss, autosomal dominant 89
MedGen UID:
1840993
Concept ID:
C5830357
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-89 (DFNA89) is characterized by nonsyndromic progressive age-related hearing loss, with onset at birth or in early childhood (Brownstein et al., 2020).
Neurodegeneration with developmental delay, early respiratory failure, myoclonic seizures, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841069
Concept ID:
C5830433
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with developmental delay, early respiratory failure, myoclonic seizures, and brain abnormalities (NDDRSB) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of these features in infancy. Affected individuals present with respiratory failure requiring intubation soon after birth; some die due to cardiorespiratory insufficiency. Those that survive show severe global developmental delay, refractory myoclonic seizures, hyperkinetic movements with exaggerated startle response, and microcephaly with dysmorphic features. Additional findings may include sensorineural hearing loss and ocular defects. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities consistent with progressive neurodegeneration (Cali et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841290
Concept ID:
C5830654
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures (NEDHSS) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and fine and gross motor delay. Most affected individuals are severely affected and may be unable to walk, have feeding difficulties requiring tube-feeding, and develop early-onset seizures. Additional features may include cortical blindness and nonspecific structural brain abnormalities. Rare individuals present only with hypotonia and mild developmental delay (Paul et al., 2023).
Auriculocondylar syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1841295
Concept ID:
C5830659
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome-4 (ARCND4) is characterized by malformed ears, round face, puffy cheeks, micrognathia, microstomia, malocclusion, and abnormal mandibular condyles with temporomandibular joint abnormalities. Patients may also experience conductive hearing loss (Masotti et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1848787
Concept ID:
C5882663
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Thrombocytopenia 8, with dysmorphic features and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1851006
Concept ID:
C5882677
Disease or Syndrome
Thrombocytopenia-8 with dysmorphic features and developmental delay (THC8) is an autosomal dominant syndromic disorder characterized by early-childhood onset of chronic thrombocytopenia with anisotropy and immature enlarged platelets, usually without spontaneous bleeding episodes. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features and variable developmental delay with speech delay and mildly impaired intellectual development (Latham et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of thrombocytopenia, see 313900.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1847194
Concept ID:
C5882686
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facies (NEDLBF) is characterized by global developmental delay, speech delay, variably impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. The phenotype and severity of the disorder is heterogeneous, ranging from borderline to severe. Brain imaging is usually normal. More variable additional features include early feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, short stature, mild visual impairment, hypotonia, seizures (particularly febrile), and distal skeletal defects of the hands and feet (Jia et al., 2022).
Alport syndrome 3b, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1848447
Concept ID:
C5882699
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome-3B (ATS3B) is a progressive hematuric glomerulonephritis characterized by glomerular basement membrane abnormalities. Sensorineural hearing loss and ocular manifestations may be present (summary by Boye et al., 1998). For a general phenotypic description of Alport syndrome, see the X-linked dominant form (ATS1; 301050).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Marrodan M, Fiol MP, Correale J
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):858-871. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab476. PMID: 35136969
Oh ES, Fong TG, Hshieh TT, Inouye SK
JAMA 2017 Sep 26;318(12):1161-1174. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.12067. PMID: 28973626Free PMC Article
El-Hattab AW, Adesina AM, Jones J, Scaglia F
Mol Genet Metab 2015 Sep-Oct;116(1-2):4-12. Epub 2015 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2015.06.004. PMID: 26095523

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yu WH, Lin YC, Chu CH, Chen RB, Wu JL, Huang CC
Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Apr;65(4):479-488. Epub 2022 Oct 25 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15440. PMID: 36284369
Wang HF, Zhang W, Rolls ET; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Li Y, Wang L, Ma YH, Kang J, Feng J, Yu JT, Cheng W
EBioMedicine 2022 Dec;86:104336. Epub 2022 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104336. PMID: 36356475Free PMC Article
Verma RR, Konkimalla A, Thakar A, Sikka K, Singh AC, Khanna T
Natl Med J India 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):216-222. doi: 10.25259/NMJI_66_21. PMID: 35112547
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Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2017 Jun;37(3):175-179. doi: 10.14639/0392-100X-1291. PMID: 28516959Free PMC Article
Fischer ME, Cruickshanks KJ, Pinto A, Klein BE, Klein R, Dalton DS
J Am Acad Audiol 2014 Feb;25(2):164-70. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.25.2.5. PMID: 24828217Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Yu WH, Lin YC, Chu CH, Chen RB, Wu JL, Huang CC
Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Apr;65(4):479-488. Epub 2022 Oct 25 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15440. PMID: 36284369
Wrobel C, Zafeiriou MP, Moser T
EBioMedicine 2021 Jan;63:103171. Epub 2021 Jan 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103171. PMID: 33422987Free PMC Article
Löhler J, Cebulla M, Shehata-Dieler W, Volkenstein S, Völter C, Walther LE
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019 Apr 26;116(17):301-310. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0301. PMID: 31196393Free PMC Article
Uhler K, Warner-Czyz A, Gifford R, Working Group P
J Am Acad Audiol 2017 Mar;28(3):232-247. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.15123. PMID: 28277214
Moser T, Starr A
Nat Rev Neurol 2016 Mar;12(3):135-49. Epub 2016 Feb 19 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016.10. PMID: 26891769

Therapy

Kiliç G, Kav S
Nurs Crit Care 2023 Sep;28(5):698-708. Epub 2023 May 3 doi: 10.1111/nicc.12901. PMID: 37138379
Douglas RS, Kahaly GJ, Ugradar S, Elflein H, Ponto KA, Fowler BT, Dailey R, Harris GJ, Schiffman J, Tang R, Wester S, Jain AP, Marcocci C, Marinò M, Antonelli A, Eckstein A, Führer-Sakel D, Salvi M, Sile S, Francis-Sedlak M, Holt RJ, Smith TJ
Ophthalmology 2022 Apr;129(4):438-449. Epub 2021 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.10.017. PMID: 34688699
Rutherford BR, Brewster K, Golub JS, Kim AH, Roose SP
Am J Psychiatry 2018 Mar 1;175(3):215-224. Epub 2017 Dec 5 doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17040423. PMID: 29202654Free PMC Article
Brown PD, Ballman KV, Cerhan JH, Anderson SK, Carrero XW, Whitton AC, Greenspoon J, Parney IF, Laack NNI, Ashman JB, Bahary JP, Hadjipanayis CG, Urbanic JJ, Barker FG 2nd, Farace E, Khuntia D, Giannini C, Buckner JC, Galanis E, Roberge D
Lancet Oncol 2017 Aug;18(8):1049-1060. Epub 2017 Jul 4 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30441-2. PMID: 28687377Free PMC Article
Lee AS, Gibbon FE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Mar 25;2015(3):CD009383. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009383.pub2. PMID: 25805060Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Faustino TN, Suzart NA, Rabelo RNDS, Santos JL, Batista GS, Freitas YS, Saback DA, Sales NMMD, Brandao Barreto B, Gusmao-Flores D
J Crit Care 2022 Apr;68:114-120. Epub 2022 Jan 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.12.015. PMID: 34999377
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Brown PD, Ballman KV, Cerhan JH, Anderson SK, Carrero XW, Whitton AC, Greenspoon J, Parney IF, Laack NNI, Ashman JB, Bahary JP, Hadjipanayis CG, Urbanic JJ, Barker FG 2nd, Farace E, Khuntia D, Giannini C, Buckner JC, Galanis E, Roberge D
Lancet Oncol 2017 Aug;18(8):1049-1060. Epub 2017 Jul 4 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30441-2. PMID: 28687377Free PMC Article
Gharaghani M, Seifi Z, Zarei Mahmoudabadi A
Mycopathologia 2015 Jun;179(5-6):415-24. Epub 2015 Jan 30 doi: 10.1007/s11046-015-9864-7. PMID: 25633436
Inouye SK, Bogardus ST Jr, Charpentier PA, Leo-Summers L, Acampora D, Holford TR, Cooney LM Jr
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Clinical prediction guides

Margolis RH, Rao A, Wilson RH, Saly GL
Int J Audiol 2023 Mar;62(3):217-226. Epub 2022 Apr 4 doi: 10.1080/14992027.2022.2055654. PMID: 35369837
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Int J Audiol 2019 Feb;58(2):107-115. Epub 2018 Oct 5 doi: 10.1080/14992027.2018.1516895. PMID: 30289050
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Int J Audiol 2016 Jul;55 Suppl 3:S23-33. Epub 2016 Feb 26 doi: 10.3109/14992027.2015.1133935. PMID: 26919044
Wu YH, Ho HC, Hsiao SH, Brummet RB, Chipara O
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Eisenberg LS
Ear Hear 2007 Dec;28(6):766-72. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e318157f01f. PMID: 17982364

Recent systematic reviews

de Muijnck C, Brink JBT, Bergen AA, Boon CJF, van Genderen MM
Surv Ophthalmol 2023 Jul-Aug;68(4):641-654. Epub 2023 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2023.01.012. PMID: 36764396
Williams MJ, Ramson JA, Brownfoot FC
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Aug 9;8(8):CD006764. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006764.pub4. PMID: 35943347Free PMC Article
Yi JS, Pittman CA, Price CL, Nieman CL, Oh ES
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jul;22(7):1396-1402.e18. Epub 2021 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2021.03.015. PMID: 33887231Free PMC Article
Xu Y, Zhao W, Li T, Zhao Y, Bu H, Song S
PLoS One 2017;12(10):e0186616. Epub 2017 Oct 27 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186616. PMID: 29077705Free PMC Article
Lee AS, Gibbon FE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Mar 25;2015(3):CD009383. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009383.pub2. PMID: 25805060Free PMC Article

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