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Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome(NCBRS)

MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Intellectual disability-sparse hair-brachydactyly syndrome; NCBRS
SNOMED CT: Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (401046009)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): SMARCA2 (9p24.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011053
OMIM®: 601358
Orphanet: ORPHA3051

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by sparse scalp hair, prominence of the inter-phalangeal joints and distal phalanges due to decreased subcutaneous fat, characteristic coarse facial features, microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay / intellectual disability. Seizures are of various types and can be difficult to manage. Developmental delay / intellectual disability (ID) is severe in nearly a half, moderate in a third, and mild in the remainder. Nearly a third never develop speech or language skills. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Omar Abdul-Rahman   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by severely impaired intellectual development, early-onset seizures, short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair (summary by Sousa et al., 2009).  http://www.omim.org/entry/601358
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome is a condition that affects many body systems. Affected individuals can have a wide variety of signs and symptoms, but the most common are sparse scalp hair, small head size (microcephaly), distinct facial features, short stature, prominent finger joints, unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and moderate to severe intellectual disability with impaired language development.

In people with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, the sparse scalp hair is often noticeable in infancy. The amount of hair decreases over time, but the growth rate and texture of the hair that is present is normal. Affected adults generally have very little hair. In rare cases, the amount of scalp hair increases over time. As affected individuals age, their eyebrows may become less full, but their eyelashes almost always remain normal. At birth, the hair on the face may be abnormally thick (hypertrichosis) but thins out over time.

Most affected individuals grow slowly, resulting in short stature and microcephaly. Sometimes, growth before birth is unusually slow.

The characteristic facial features of people with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome include a triangular face, deep-set eyes, a thin nasal bridge, wide nostrils, a pointed nasal tip, and a thick lower lip. Many affected individuals have a lack of fat under the skin (subcutaneous fat) of the face, which may cause premature wrinkling. Throughout their bodies, people with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome may have pale skin with veins that are visible on the skin surface due to the lack of subcutaneous fat.

In people with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, a lack of subcutaneous fat in the hands makes the finger joints appear larger than normal. Over time, the fingertips become broad and oval shaped. Additionally, there is a wide gap between the first and second toes (known as a sandal gap).

Most people with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome have epilepsy, which often begins in infancy. Affected individuals can experience multiple seizure types, and the seizures can be difficult to control with medication.

Almost everyone with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome has moderate to severe intellectual disability. Early developmental milestones, such as crawling and walking, are often normally achieved, but further development is limited, and language development is severely impaired. At least one-third of affected individuals never develop speech, while others lose their verbal communication over time. People with this condition are often described as having a happy demeanor and being very friendly, although they can exhibit moments of aggression and temper tantrums.

Other signs and symptoms of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome include an inflammatory skin disorder called eczema. About half of individuals with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome have a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia). Some affected individuals have dental abnormalities such as widely spaced teeth, delayed eruption of teeth, and absent teeth (hypodontia). Most affected males have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) and females may have underdeveloped breasts. Nearly half of individuals with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome have feeding problems.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/nicolaides-baraitser-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hallux valgus
MedGen UID:
5416
Concept ID:
C0018536
Anatomical Abnormality
Lateral deviation of the great toe (i.e., in the direction of the little toe).
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Short phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
163753
Concept ID:
C0877165
Finding
Short (hypoplastic) phalanx of finger, affecting one or more phalanges.
Short metacarpal
MedGen UID:
323064
Concept ID:
C1837084
Anatomical Abnormality
Diminished length of one or more metacarpal bones in relation to the others of the same hand or to the contralateral metacarpal.
Sandal gap
MedGen UID:
374376
Concept ID:
C1840069
Finding
A widely spaced gap between the first toe (the great toe) and the second toe.
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Broad distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
342551
Concept ID:
C1850630
Finding
Abnormally wide (broad) distal phalanx of finger.
Long fingers
MedGen UID:
346836
Concept ID:
C1858091
Finding
The middle finger is more than 2 SD above the mean for newborns 27 to 41 weeks EGA or above the 97th centile for children from birth to 16 years of age AND the five digits retain their normal length proportions relative to each other (i.e., it is not the case that the middle finger is the only lengthened digit), or, Fingers that appear disproportionately long compared to the palm of the hand.
Prominent interphalangeal joints
MedGen UID:
395181
Concept ID:
C1859115
Finding
Long toe
MedGen UID:
461963
Concept ID:
C3150613
Finding
Toes that appear disproportionately long compared to the foot.
Broad 2nd toe
MedGen UID:
867990
Concept ID:
C4022381
Anatomical Abnormality
A broad appearance of the second toe.
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Mild short stature
MedGen UID:
461427
Concept ID:
C3150077
Finding
A mild degree of short stature, more than -2 SD but not more than -3 SD from mean corrected for age and sex.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Short attention span
MedGen UID:
82652
Concept ID:
C0262630
Finding
Reduced attention span characterized by distractibility and impulsivity.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Enlarged joints
MedGen UID:
347068
Concept ID:
C1859111
Finding
Increase in size of one or more joints.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Eczematoid dermatitis
MedGen UID:
3968
Concept ID:
C0013595
Disease or Syndrome
Eczema is a form of dermatitis that is characterized by scaly, pruritic, erythematous lesions located on flexural surfaces.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short lingual frenulum
MedGen UID:
604928
Concept ID:
C0426501
Finding
The presence of an abnormally short lingual frenulum.
Absent eyebrow
MedGen UID:
98133
Concept ID:
C0431448
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the eyebrow.
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Wide nasal base
MedGen UID:
341506
Concept ID:
C1849667
Finding
Increased distance between the attachments of the alae nasi to the face.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Broad philtrum
MedGen UID:
344210
Concept ID:
C1854111
Finding
Distance between the philtral ridges, measured just above the vermilion border, more than 2 standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased distance between the ridges of the philtrum.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Low posterior hairline
MedGen UID:
383755
Concept ID:
C1855728
Finding
Hair on the neck extends more inferiorly than usual.
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Sparse scalp hair
MedGen UID:
346499
Concept ID:
C1857042
Finding
Decreased number of hairs per unit area of skin of the scalp.
Sparse medial eyebrow
MedGen UID:
395444
Concept ID:
C1860256
Finding
Decreased density/number and/or decreased diameter of medial eyebrow hairs.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Unilateral narrow palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
356621
Concept ID:
C1866805
Finding
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures on one side only.
Narrow palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
382506
Concept ID:
C2675021
Finding
Reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids.
Narrow nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
1641596
Concept ID:
C4551564
Finding
Decreased width of the bony bridge of the nose.
Hypertrichosis
MedGen UID:
43787
Concept ID:
C0020555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrichosis is increased hair growth that is abnormal in quantity or location.
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.
Premature skin wrinkling
MedGen UID:
19996
Concept ID:
C0037301
Finding
The presence of an increased degree of wrinkling (irregular folds and indentations) of the skin as compared with age-related norms.
Cafe-au-lait spot
MedGen UID:
113157
Concept ID:
C0221263
Finding
Cafe-au-lait spots are hyperpigmented lesions that can vary in color from light brown to dark brown with smooth borders and having a size of 1.5 cm or more in adults and 0.5 cm or more in children.
Dry hair
MedGen UID:
75809
Concept ID:
C0277960
Finding
Hair that lacks the luster (shine or gleam) of normal hair.
Periorbital wrinkles
MedGen UID:
334988
Concept ID:
C1844605
Finding
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Preauricular skin tag
MedGen UID:
395989
Concept ID:
C1860816
Finding
A rudimentary tag of skin often containing ear tissue including a core of cartilage and located just anterior to the auricle (outer part of the ear).
Excessive wrinkled skin
MedGen UID:
870444
Concept ID:
C4024890
Finding
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hofmeister B, von Stülpnagel C, Betzler C, Mari F, Renieri A, Baldassarri M, Haberlandt E, Jansen K, Schilling S, Weber P, Ahlbory K, Tang S, Berweck S, Kluger G
Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr;52(2):109-122. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1722878. PMID: 33578439
Sousa SB, Hennekam RC; Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome International Consortium
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):302-14. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31409. PMID: 25169058
Santen GW, Aten E, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Pottinger C, van Bon BW, van Minderhout IJ, Snowdowne R, van der Lans CA, Boogaard M, Linssen MM, Vijfhuizen L, van der Wielen MJ, Vollebregt MJ; Coffin-Siris consortium, Breuning MH, Kriek M, van Haeringen A, den Dunnen JT, Hoischen A, Clayton-Smith J, de Vries BB, Hennekam RC, van Belzen MJ
Hum Mutat 2013 Nov;34(11):1519-28. Epub 2013 Aug 30 doi: 10.1002/humu.22394. PMID: 23929686

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shinko Y, Okazaki S, Otsuka I, Horai T, Kim S, Tanifuji T, Hishimoto A
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 Mar;10(3):e1876. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1876. PMID: 35092358Free PMC Article
Hofmeister B, von Stülpnagel C, Betzler C, Mari F, Renieri A, Baldassarri M, Haberlandt E, Jansen K, Schilling S, Weber P, Ahlbory K, Tang S, Berweck S, Kluger G
Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr;52(2):109-122. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1722878. PMID: 33578439
Sousa SB, Hennekam RC; Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome International Consortium
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):302-14. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31409. PMID: 25169058
Miyake N, Tsurusaki Y, Matsumoto N
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):257-61. Epub 2014 Jul 31 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31406. PMID: 25081545
Kleefstra T, Schenck A, Kramer JM, van Bokhoven H
Neuropharmacology 2014 May;80:83-94. Epub 2014 Jan 13 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.12.025. PMID: 24434855

Diagnosis

Simmers R, Goodwin A, Al Saif H, Couser N
Ophthalmic Genet 2022 Oct;43(5):699-702. Epub 2022 Jun 27 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2022.2089358. PMID: 35762114
Lee Y, Choi Y, Seo GH, Kim GH, Keum C, Kim YM, Do HS, Choi J, Choi IH, Yoo HW, Lee BH
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Oct 27;14(1):254. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-01104-9. PMID: 34706719Free PMC Article
Hofmeister B, von Stülpnagel C, Betzler C, Mari F, Renieri A, Baldassarri M, Haberlandt E, Jansen K, Schilling S, Weber P, Ahlbory K, Tang S, Berweck S, Kluger G
Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr;52(2):109-122. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1722878. PMID: 33578439
Al-Tamimi B, Abela S, Jeremiah HG, Evans RD
Int J Paediatr Dent 2017 Nov;27(6):583-587. Epub 2017 Jun 21 doi: 10.1111/ipd.12309. PMID: 28635076
Sousa SB, Hennekam RC; Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome International Consortium
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):302-14. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31409. PMID: 25169058

Therapy

Goehring M, Choorapoikayil S, Zacharowski K, Messroghli L
BMC Anesthesiol 2021 May 26;21(1):162. doi: 10.1186/s12871-021-01380-z. PMID: 34039274Free PMC Article
Hofmeister B, von Stülpnagel C, Berweck S, Abicht A, Kluger G, Weber P
Neuropediatrics 2020 Feb;51(1):49-52. Epub 2019 Sep 21 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1694976. PMID: 31541998
Jancewicz I, Siedlecki JA, Sarnowski TJ, Sarnowska E
Epigenetics Chromatin 2019 Nov 13;12(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s13072-019-0315-4. PMID: 31722744Free PMC Article
Melo Gomes S, Dias C, Omoyinmi E, Compeyrot-Lacassagne S, Klein N, Sebire NJ, Brogan P
Pediatrics 2019 Jul;144(1) doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-1741. PMID: 31243159
Bramswig NC, Lüdecke HJ, Alanay Y, Albrecht B, Barthelmie A, Boduroglu K, Braunholz D, Caliebe A, Chrzanowska KH, Czeschik JC, Endele S, Graf E, Guillén-Navarro E, Kiper PÖ, López-González V, Parenti I, Pozojevic J, Utine GE, Wieland T, Kaiser FJ, Wollnik B, Strom TM, Wieczorek D
Hum Genet 2015 Jun;134(6):553-68. Epub 2015 Feb 28 doi: 10.1007/s00439-015-1535-8. PMID: 25724810

Prognosis

Zhang X, Chen H, Song Y, Chen Z, Liu X, Rong P, Ma R
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 Sep;10(9):e2009. Epub 2022 Jul 10 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2009. PMID: 35811451Free PMC Article
Shinko Y, Okazaki S, Otsuka I, Horai T, Kim S, Tanifuji T, Hishimoto A
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 Mar;10(3):e1876. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1876. PMID: 35092358Free PMC Article
Chater-Diehl E, Ejaz R, Cytrynbaum C, Siu MT, Turinsky A, Choufani S, Goodman SJ, Abdul-Rahman O, Bedford M, Dorrani N, Engleman K, Flores-Daboub J, Genevieve D, Mendoza-Londono R, Meschino W, Perrin L, Safina N, Townshend S, Scherer SW, Anagnostou E, Piton A, Deardorff M, Brudno M, Chitayat D, Weksberg R
BMC Med Genomics 2019 Jul 9;12(1):105. doi: 10.1186/s12920-019-0555-y. PMID: 31288860Free PMC Article
Al-Tamimi B, Abela S, Jeremiah HG, Evans RD
Int J Paediatr Dent 2017 Nov;27(6):583-587. Epub 2017 Jun 21 doi: 10.1111/ipd.12309. PMID: 28635076
Sousa SB, Abdul-Rahman OA, Bottani A, Cormier-Daire V, Fryer A, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Horn D, Josifova D, Kuechler A, Lees M, MacDermot K, Magee A, Morice-Picard F, Rosser E, Sarkar A, Shannon N, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Verloes A, Wakeling E, Wilson L, Hennekam RC
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Clinical prediction guides

Lee Y, Choi Y, Seo GH, Kim GH, Keum C, Kim YM, Do HS, Choi J, Choi IH, Yoo HW, Lee BH
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Oct 27;14(1):254. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-01104-9. PMID: 34706719Free PMC Article
Hofmeister B, von Stülpnagel C, Betzler C, Mari F, Renieri A, Baldassarri M, Haberlandt E, Jansen K, Schilling S, Weber P, Ahlbory K, Tang S, Berweck S, Kluger G
Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr;52(2):109-122. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1722878. PMID: 33578439
Chater-Diehl E, Ejaz R, Cytrynbaum C, Siu MT, Turinsky A, Choufani S, Goodman SJ, Abdul-Rahman O, Bedford M, Dorrani N, Engleman K, Flores-Daboub J, Genevieve D, Mendoza-Londono R, Meschino W, Perrin L, Safina N, Townshend S, Scherer SW, Anagnostou E, Piton A, Deardorff M, Brudno M, Chitayat D, Weksberg R
BMC Med Genomics 2019 Jul 9;12(1):105. doi: 10.1186/s12920-019-0555-y. PMID: 31288860Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Simmers R, Goodwin A, Al Saif H, Couser N
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Pantel JT, Zhao M, Mensah MA, Hajjir N, Hsieh TC, Hanani Y, Fleischer N, Kamphans T, Mundlos S, Gurovich Y, Krawitz PM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2018 May;41(3):533-539. Epub 2018 Apr 5 doi: 10.1007/s10545-018-0174-3. PMID: 29623569Free PMC Article

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