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Epileptic encephalopathy

MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Convulsive encephalopathy; EE - epileptic encephalopathy
SNOMED CT: Epileptic encephalopathy (723125008); EE - epileptic encephalopathy (723125008)
 
HPO: HP:0200134

Definition

A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVEpileptic encephalopathy

Conditions with this feature

Amelocerebrohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Disease or Syndrome
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Impaired intellectual development is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012). See also Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like (KTZSL; 619229), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SATB1 gene (602075) on chromosome 3p23.
Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
MedGen UID:
148243
Concept ID:
C0751122
Disease or Syndrome
SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 49
MedGen UID:
923000
Concept ID:
C0796221
Disease or Syndrome
CLCN4-related neurodevelopmental disorder (CLCN4-NDD), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in the 36 males reported to date by developmental delay or intellectual disability, behavioral/mental health issues (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, hyperactivity, and bipolar disorder), epilepsy, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The five heterozygous females with a de novo CLCN4 variant reported to date had findings very similar to those of affected males. Twenty-two of 25 heterozygous females identified in family studies following identification of an affected male were unaffected or had only mild specific learning difficulties and/or mental health concerns, whereas three were more severely affected.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 8
MedGen UID:
375581
Concept ID:
C1845102
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-8 (DEE8) is an X-linked disorder characterized by seizure onset before 2 years of age and severe developmental delay. Some patients have hyperekplexia (summary by Shimojima et al., 2011). For general phenotypic descriptions and discussions of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and hyperekplexia, see DEE1 (308350) and HKPX1 (149400), respectively.
Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
338613
Concept ID:
C1849096
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is a severe, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by normal development until age one year, followed by onset of ataxia, muscle hypotonia, loss of deep-tendon reflexes, and athetosis. Ophthalmoplegia and sensorineural deafness develop by age seven years. By adolescence, affected individuals are profoundly deaf and no longer ambulatory; sensory axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in females become evident. Epilepsy can develop into a serious and often fatal encephalopathy: myoclonic jerks or focal clonic seizures that progress to epilepsia partialis continua followed by status epilepticus with loss of consciousness.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 5
MedGen UID:
382611
Concept ID:
C2675473
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability (SYNGAP1-ID) is characterized by developmental delay (DD) or intellectual disability (ID) (100% of affected individuals), generalized epilepsy (~84%), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other behavioral abnormalities (=50%). To date more than 50 individuals with SYNGAP1-ID have been reported. In the majority DD/ID was moderate to severe; in some it was mild. The epilepsy is generalized; a subset of individuals with epilepsy have myoclonic astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome) or epilepsy with myoclonic absences. Behavioral abnormalities can include stereotypic behaviors (e.g., hand flapping, obsessions with certain objects) as well as poor social development. Feeding difficulties can be significant in some.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 4
MedGen UID:
436917
Concept ID:
C2677326
Disease or Syndrome
STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy is characterized by early-onset encephalopathy with epilepsy (i.e., moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, refractory seizures, and ongoing epileptiform activity). The median age of onset of seizures is six weeks (range 1 day to 13 years). Seizure types can include infantile spasms; generalized tonic-clonic, clonic, or tonic seizures; and myoclonic, focal, atonic, and absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome, and Dravet syndrome (not SCN1A-related), classic Rett syndrome (not MECP2-related), and atypical Rett syndrome (not CDKL5-related). The EEG is characterized by focal epileptic activity, burst suppression, hypsarrhythmia, or generalized spike-and-slow waves. Other findings can include abnormal tone, movement disorders (especially ataxia and dystonia), and behavior disorders (including autism spectrum disorder). Feeding difficulties are common.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 39
MedGen UID:
414492
Concept ID:
C2751855
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-39 with leukodystrophy (DEE39) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized clinically by global developmental delay apparent in early infancy, early-onset seizures, hypotonia with poor motor function, and hypomyelination on brain imaging. Other features include absent speech and inability to walk; spasticity and hyperreflexia has also been reported. Although there is significant hypomyelination on brain imaging, the disorder was not classified as a primary leukodystrophy. The myelination defect was thought to stem from primary neuronal dysfunction due to impaired mitochondrial transport activity (summary by Wibom et al., 2009 and Falk et al., 2014). However, serial brain imaging in a patient with DEE39 by Kavanaugh et al. (2019) suggested that the mechanism of disease is consistent with a leukoaxonopathy type of leukodystrophy. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443955
Concept ID:
C2931006
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 20
MedGen UID:
462050
Concept ID:
C3150700
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, stereotypic hand movements, and impaired language (NEDHSIL) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, poor motor development with limited walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities. Almost all affected individuals demonstrate repetitive stereotypic hand movements that can be categorized as hyperkinetic and resembling those of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750). About 80% of patients develop various types of seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features, particularly dysplastic ears, poor eye contact, episodic hyperventilation, tendency to infection, and abnormalities on brain imaging, such as enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Vrecar et al., 2017, Paciorkowski et al., 2013).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 5
MedGen UID:
462081
Concept ID:
C3150731
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-5 (DEE5) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and the onset of tonic seizures or infantile spasms in the first months of life. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, and EEG shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with lack of visual attention, poor head control, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, and spastic quadriplegia. Brain imaging may show cerebral atrophy and hypomyelination (summary by Saitsu et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 7
MedGen UID:
462336
Concept ID:
C3150986
Disease or Syndrome
KCNQ2-related disorders represent a continuum of overlapping neonatal epileptic phenotypes ranging from self-limited familial neonatal epilepsy (SLFNE) at the mild end to neonatal-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (NEO-DEE) at the severe end. Additional, less common phenotypes consisting of neonatal encephalopathy with non-epileptic myoclonus, infantile or childhood-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE), and isolated intellectual disability (ID) without epilepsy have also been described. KCNQ2-SLFNE is characterized by seizures that start in otherwise healthy infants between two and eight days after term birth and spontaneously disappear between the first and the sixth to 12th month of life. There is always a seizure-free interval between birth and the onset of seizures. Seizures are characterized by sudden onset with prominent motor involvement, often accompanied by apnea and cyanosis; video EEG identifies seizures as focal onset with tonic stiffening of limb(s) and some migration during each seizure's evolution. About 30% of individuals with KCNQ2-SLFNE develop epileptic seizures later in life. KCNQ2-NEO-DEE is characterized by multiple daily seizures beginning in the first week of life that are mostly tonic, with associated focal motor and autonomic features. Seizures generally cease between ages nine months and four years. At onset, EEG shows a burst-suppression pattern or multifocal epileptiform activity; early brain MRI can show basal ganglia hyperdensities and later MRIs may show white matter or general volume loss. Moderate-to-profound developmental impairment is present.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 11
MedGen UID:
462337
Concept ID:
C3150987
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-11 (DEE11) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first days, weeks, or months of life. Some patients may have later onset. Seizures comprise multiple types, including tonic, generalized, and myoclonic, and tend to be refractory to medication. However, some patients with onset of seizures before 3 months of age may respond to sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin. About half of patients become seizure-free in childhood. Affected individuals have global developmental delay, usually with severely impaired intellectual development, although some may be less severely affected and show autism spectrum disorder. Additional common features include microcephaly, hypotonia, and abnormal movements, such as dystonia, dyskinesias, and choreoathetotic movements. Brain imaging may show white matter defects. The phenotype is highly variable, even in patients with the same mutation (summary by Ogiwara et al., 2009; Howell et al., 2015; Wolff et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 12
MedGen UID:
462338
Concept ID:
C3150988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-12 (DEE12) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show severe developmental regression and stagnation. Seizure types vary: focal seizures, infantile spasms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur, even within the same patient. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with West syndrome, or a pattern consistent with 'malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy' (MMPSI). Patients have little or no developmental progress: there is absent speech, hypotonia, poor motor skills, peripheral spasticity, and impaired visual fixation (summary by Kurian et al., 2010 and Poduri et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482008
Concept ID:
C3280378
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-2 (MMDS2) with hyperglycinemia is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental regression in infancy. Affected children have an encephalopathic disease course with seizures, spasticity, loss of head control, and abnormal movement. Additional more variable features include optic atrophy, cardiomyopathy, and leukodystrophy. Laboratory studies show increased serum glycine and lactate. Most patients die in childhood. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including MMDS2, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482109
Concept ID:
C3280479
Disease or Syndrome
Any Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NRXN1 gene.
Encephalopathy, lethal, due to defective mitochondrial peroxisomal fission 1
MedGen UID:
482290
Concept ID:
C3280660
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission-1 (EMPF1) is characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia that may lead to death in childhood. Many patients develop refractory seizures, consistent with an epileptic encephalopathy, and thereafter show neurologic decline. The age at onset, features, and severity are variable, and some patients may not have clinical evidence of mitochondrial or peroxisomal dysfunction (summary by Sheffer et al., 2016; Fahrner et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Encephalopathy Due to Defective Mitochondrial And Peroxisomal Fission See also EMPF2 (617086), caused by mutation in the MFF gene (614785) on chromosome 2q36.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 13
MedGen UID:
482821
Concept ID:
C3281191
Disease or Syndrome
SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy is characterized by developmental delay, seizure onset in the first 18 months of life (mean 4 months), and intractable epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, infantile spasms, and absence and focal seizures). Epilepsy syndromes can include Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, West syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathies (e.g., Dravet syndrome). Hypotonia and movement disorders including dystonia, ataxia, and choreoathetosis are common. Psychomotor development varies from normal prior to seizure onset (with subsequent slowing or regression after seizure onset) to abnormal from birth. Intellectual disability, present in all, ranges from mild to severe (in ~50% of affected individuals). Autistic features are noted in some. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) of unknown cause has been reported in approximately 10% of published cases. To date SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy has been reported in the literature in about 50 individuals.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
483052
Concept ID:
C3463992
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-1 (DEE1) is a severe form of epilepsy characterized by frequent tonic seizures or spasms beginning in infancy with a specific EEG finding of suppression-burst patterns, characterized by high-voltage bursts alternating with almost flat suppression phases. Approximately 75% of DEE1 patients progress to tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on EEG (Kato et al., 2007). DEE1 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation. Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). Reviews Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Also see DEE2 (300672), caused by mutation in the CDKL5 gene (300203); DEE3 (609304), caused by mutation in the SLC25A22 gene (609302); DEE4 (612164), caused by mutation in the STXBP1 gene (602926); DEE5 (613477), caused by mutation in the SPTAN1 gene (182810); DEE6A (607208), also known as Dravet syndrome, caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389); DEE6B (619317), also caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene; DEE7 (613720), caused by mutation in the KCNQ2 gene (602235); DEE8 (300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429); DEE9 (300088), caused by mutation in the PCDH19 gene (300460); DEE10 (613402), caused by mutation in the PNKP gene (605610); DEE11 (613721), caused by mutation in the SCN2A gene (182390); DEE12 (613722), caused by mutation in the PLCB1 gene (607120); DEE13 (614558), caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702); DEE14 (614959), caused by mutation in the KCNT1 gene (608167); DEE15 (615006), caused by mutation in the ST3GAL3 gene (606494); DEE16 (615338), caused by mutation in the TBC1D24 gene (613577); DEE17 (615473), caused by mutation in the GNAO1 gene (139311); DEE18 (615476), caused by mutation in the SZT2 gene (615463); DEE19 (615744), caused by mutation in the GABRA1 gene (137160); DEE20 (300868), caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770); DEE21 (615833), caused by mutation in the NECAP1 gene (611623); DEE22 (300896), caused by mutation in the SLC35A2 gene (314375); DEE23 (615859), caused by mutation in the DOCK7 gene (615730); DEE24 (615871), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780); DEE25 (615905), caused by mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (608305); DEE26 (616056), caused by mutation in the KCNB1 gene (600397); DEE27 (616139), caused by mutation in the GRIN2B gene (138252); DEE28 (616211), caused by mutation in the WWOX gene (605131); DEE29 (616339), caused by mutation in the AARS gene (601065); DEE30 (616341), caused by mutation in the SIK1 gene (605705); DEE31A (616346) and DEE31B (620352), caused by mutation in the DNM1 gene (602377); DEE32 (616366), caused by mutation in the KCNA2 gene (176262); DEE33 (616409), caused by mutation in the EEF1A2 gene (602959); DEE34 (616645), caused by mutation in the SLC12A5 gene (606726); DEE35 (616647), caused by mutation in the ITPA gene (147520); DEE36 (300884), caused by mutation in the ALG13 gene (300776); DEE37 (616981), caused by mutation in the FRRS1L gene (604574); DEE38 (617020), caused by mutation in the ARV1 gene (611647); DEE39 (612949), caused by mutation in the SLC25A12 gene (603667); DEE40 (617065), caused by mutation in the GUF1 gene (617064); DEE41 (617105), caused by mutation in the SLC1A2 gene (600300); DEE42 (617106), caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011); DEE43 (617113), caused by mutation in the GABRB3 gene (137192); DEE44 (617132), caused by mutation in the UBA5 gene (610552); DEE45 (617153), caused by mutation in the GABRB1 gene (137190); DEE46 (617162), caused by mutation in the GRIN2D gene (602717); DEE47 (617166), caused by mutation in the FGF12 gene (601513); DEE48 (617276), caused by mutation in the AP3B2 gene (602166); DEE49 (617281), caused by mutation in the DENND5A gene (617278); DEE50 (616457) caused by mutation in the CAD gene (114010); DEE51 (617339), caused by mutation in the MDH2 gene (154100); DEE52 (617350), caused by mutation in the SCN1B gene (600235); DEE53 (617389), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (604297); DEE54 (617391), caused by mutation in the HNRNPU gene (602869); DEE55 (617599), caused by mutation in the PIGP gene (605938); DEE56 (617665), caused by mutation in the YWHAG gene (605356); DEE57 (617771), caused by mutation in the KCNT2 gene (610044); DEE58 (617830), caused by mutation in the NTRK2 gene (600456); DEE59 (617904), caused by mutation in the GABBR2 gene (607340); DEE60 (617929), caused by mutation in the CNPY3 gene (610774); DEE61 (617933), caused by mutation in the ADAM22 gene (603709); DEE62 (617938), caused by mutation in the SCN3A gene (182391); DEE63 (617976), caused by mutation in the CPLX1 gene (605032); DEE64 (618004), caused by mutation in the RHOBTB2 gene (607352); DEE65 (618008), caused by mutation in the CYFIP2 gene (606323); DEE66 (618067), caused by mutation in the PACS2 gene (610423); DEE67 (618141), caused by mutation in the CUX2 gene (610648); DEE68 (618201), caused by mutation in the TRAK1 gene (608112); DEE69 (618285), caused by mutation in the CACNA1E gene (601013); DEE70 (618298) caused by mutation in the PHACTR1 gene (608723); DEE71 (618328), caused by mutation in the GLS gene (138280); DEE72 (618374), caused by mutation in the NEUROD2 gene (601725); DEE73 (618379), caused by mutation in the RNF13 gene (609247); DEE74 (618396), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164); DEE75 (618437), caused by mutation in the PARS2 gene (612036); DEE76 (618468), caused by mutation in the ACTL6B gene (612458); DEE77 (618548), caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754); DEE78 (618557), caused by mutation in the GABRA2 gene (137140); DEE79 (618559), caused by mutation in the GABRA5 gene (137142); DEE80 (618580), caused by mutation in the PIGB gene (604122); DEE81 (618663), caused by mutation in the DMXL2 gene (612186); DEE82 (618721), caused by mutation in the GOT2 gene (138150); DEE83 (618744), caused by mutation in the UGP2 gene (191760); DEE84 (618792), caused by mutation in the UGDH gene (603370); DEE85 (301044), caused by mutation in the SMC1A gene (300040); DEE86 (618910), caused by mutation in the DALRD3 gene (618904); DEE87 (618916), caused by mutation in the CDK19 gene (614720); DEE88 (618959), caused by mutation in the MDH1 gene (152400); DEE89 (619124), caused by mutation in the GAD1 gene (605363); DEE90 (301058), caused by mutation in the FGF13 gene (300070); DEE91 (617711), caused by mutation in the PPP3CA gene (114105); DEE92 (617829), caused by mutation in the GABRB2 gene (600232); DEE93 (618012), caused by mutation in the ATP6V1A gene (607027); DEE94 (615369), caused by mutation in the CHD2 gene (602119); DEE95 (618143), caused by mutation in the PIGS gene (610271); DEE96 (619340), caused by mutation in the NSF gene (601633); DEE97 (619561), caused by mutation in the iCELF2 gene (602538); DEE98 (619605), caused by mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (182340); DEE99 (619606), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (182350); DEE100 (619777), caused by mutation in the FBXO28 gene (609100); DEE101 (619814), caused by mutation in the GRIN1 gene (138249); DEE102 (619881), caused by mutation in the SLC38A3 gene (604437); DEE103 (619913), caused by mutation in the KCNC2 gene (176256); DEE104 (619970), caused by mutation in the ATP6V0A1 gene (192130); DEE105 (619983), caused by mutation in the HID1 gene (605752); DEE106 (620028), caused by mutation in the UFSP2 gene (611482); DEE107 (620033), caused by mutation in the NAPB gene (
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 14
MedGen UID:
767109
Concept ID:
C3554195
Disease or Syndrome
KCNT1-related epilepsy is most often associated with two phenotypes: epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). EIMFS is characterized by seizures, typically focal and asynchronous, beginning in the first six months of life with associated developmental plateau or regression. Autonomic manifestations (e.g., perioral cyanosis, flushing, apnea) are common. Seizures are intractable to multiple anticonvulsants and progress to become nearly continuous by age six to nine months. ADNFLE is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures that vary from simple arousals to hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Individuals with KCNT1-related ADNFLE are more likely to develop seizures at a younger age, have cognitive comorbidity, and display psychiatric and behavioral problems than individuals with ADNFLE resulting from other causes. Less common seizure phenotypes in individuals with KCNT1-related epilepsy include West syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, leukodystrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy, focal epilepsy, and multifocal epilepsy. Additional neurologic features include hypotonia, microcephaly developing by age 12 months, strabismus, profound developmental delay, and additional movement disorders. Other systemic manifestations including pulmonary hemorrhage caused by prominent systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries or cardiac arrhythmia have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 15
MedGen UID:
767230
Concept ID:
C3554316
Disease or Syndrome
SLC35A2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
813018
Concept ID:
C3806688
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIm, or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-22 (DEE22), is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by infantile-onset seizures, hypsarrhythmia on EEG, hypotonia, and developmental delay associated with severe intellectual disability and lack of speech. These features are consistent with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Brain malformations usually include cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Additionally, some patients may have dysmorphic features or coarse facies (Ng et al., 2013; Kodera et al., 2013). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 16
MedGen UID:
815503
Concept ID:
C3809173
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 94
MedGen UID:
815608
Concept ID:
C3809278
Disease or Syndrome
CHD2-related neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (i.e., refractory seizures and cognitive slowing or regression associated with frequent ongoing epileptiform activity). Seizure onset is typically between ages six months and four years. Seizure types typically include drop attacks, myoclonus, and rapid onset of multiple seizure types associated with generalized spike-wave on EEG, atonic-myoclonic-absence seizures, and clinical photosensitivity. Intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorders are common.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 17
MedGen UID:
815936
Concept ID:
C3809606
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-17 (DEE17) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in the first weeks or months of life. EEG often shows a burst-suppression pattern consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome. Affected infants have very poor psychomotor development and may have brain abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy or thin corpus callosum. Some patients may show involuntary movements (summary by Nakamura et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 18
MedGen UID:
815954
Concept ID:
C3809624
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-18 (DEE18) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by lack of psychomotor development apparent from birth, dysmorphic facial features, and early onset of refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows a thick corpus callosum and persistent cavum septum pellucidum on brain imaging (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 19
MedGen UID:
816730
Concept ID:
C3810400
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-19 (DEE19) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, usually between 8 and 12 months of age. Seizures are often triggered by fever, and status epilepticus may occur. Affected individuals subsequently show mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging is typically normal. The clinical phenotype is similar to that of Dravet syndrome (DRVT; 607208) (summary by Carvill et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 21
MedGen UID:
862867
Concept ID:
C4014430
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-21 (DEE21) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with poor head control and inability to fix and follow visually. Other features may include axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, and cerebral atrophy or delayed myelination on brain imaging (summary by Alazami et al., 2014 and Alsahli et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 23
MedGen UID:
862929
Concept ID:
C4014492
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-23 (DEE23) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures in the first months of life (range, 2-6 months). Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, cortical blindness, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Perrault et al., 2014).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 24
MedGen UID:
862968
Concept ID:
C4014531
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-24 (DEE24) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in infancy, severely impaired global development, intellectual disability, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have onset of variable types of seizures between 4 and 13 months of age, but earlier onset in the first days of life has also been reported. Seizures are often triggered by fever, at least initially; status epilepticus may occur (summary by Nava et al., 2014 and Marini et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 25
MedGen UID:
863058
Concept ID:
C4014621
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-25 with amelogenesis imperfecta (DEE25) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in early infancy. Most patients present with seizures in the neonatal period, which is often associated with status epilepticus. However, there is phenotypic variability, and some patients have onset of seizures later in infancy. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with intellectual disability and poor speech and communication. The seizures may remit somewhat with age, but there are persistent neurologic symptoms, including ataxia, spasticity, and abnormal involuntary movements. In addition to neurologic deficits, patients also have dental anomalies with amelogenesis imperfecta (summary by Thevenon et al., 2014 and Schossig et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 26
MedGen UID:
863556
Concept ID:
C4015119
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-26 (DEE26) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of variable types of seizures late in infancy or in the first years of life. Affected children show developmental delay with intellectual disability, poor speech, and behavioral abnormalities. EEG shows multifocal epileptic discharges, and may show hypsarrhythmia (summary by Torkamani et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 27
MedGen UID:
863753
Concept ID:
C4015316
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by mild to profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Muscle tone abnormalities (spasticity and/or hypotonia, occasionally associated with feeding difficulties), as well as epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) / behavioral issues, are common. Other infantile- or childhood-onset findings include microcephaly; dystonic, dyskinetic, or choreiform movement disorder; and/or cortical visual impairment. Brain MRI reveals a malformation of cortical development in a minority of affected individuals. To date, fewer than 100 individuals with GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 28
MedGen UID:
863956
Concept ID:
C4015519
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-28 (DEE28) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia and profoundly impaired psychomotor development. More severely affected patients have acquired microcephaly, poor or absent visual contact, and retinal degeneration; early death may occur (summary by Mignot et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Acrofacial dysostosis Cincinnati type
MedGen UID:
903483
Concept ID:
C4225317
Disease or Syndrome
The Cincinnati type of acrofacial dysostosis is a ribosomopathy characterized by a spectrum of mandibulofacial dysostosis phenotypes, with or without extrafacial skeletal defects (Weaver et al., 2015). In addition, a significant number of neurologic abnormalities have been reported, ranging from mild delays to refractory epilepsy, as well as an increased incidence of congenital heart defects, primarily septal in nature (Smallwood et al., 2023).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 50
MedGen UID:
904125
Concept ID:
C4225320
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-50 (DEE50) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative neurometabolic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, severe developmental regression, and normocytic anemia. Onset is within the first months or years of life. Evidence suggests that affected children can have a favorable response to treatment with uridine (summary by Koch et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 33
MedGen UID:
897930
Concept ID:
C4225337
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-33 (DEE33) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals show severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech (summary by de Ligt et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 32
MedGen UID:
909501
Concept ID:
C4225350
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-32 (DEE32) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various seizure types, including febrile and myoclonic seizures, between about 5 and 17 months of age after normal early development. Thereafter, patients manifest global developmental delay or developmental regression with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Some may be able to attend special schools. Other features include ataxia with difficulty walking, deficient fine motor skills, tremor, and dysarthria. The seizures are initially refractory in some cases, but may remit later during childhood; however, neurologic deficits persist (summary by Syrbe et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 31
MedGen UID:
894942
Concept ID:
C4225357
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31A (DEE31A) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by the global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Most individuals have onset of various types of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life, which exacerbates the psychomotor deficits. Patients have hypotonia and profound intellectual disability with absent speech and inability to walk or ataxic gait. Some patients may have additional features, including dysmorphic features or cortical visual impairment (summary by the EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium et al., 2014 and Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 30
MedGen UID:
898954
Concept ID:
C4225360
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-30 (DEE30) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures soon after birth or in the first months of life. Seizure types include early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), Ohtahara syndrome, and infantile spasms; most are refractory to treatment. Patients with earlier seizure onset make essentially no developmental progress and may die in infancy. Those with later onset show profoundly impaired global development with absent speech, poor eye contact, inability to walk, behavioral abnormalities, and feeding difficulties that may require a feeding tube (summary by Hansen et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 29
MedGen UID:
908570
Concept ID:
C4225361
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-29 (DEE29) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory myoclonic seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have poor overall growth, congenital microcephaly with cerebral atrophy and impaired myelination on brain imaging, spasticity with abnormal movements, peripheral neuropathy, and poor visual fixation (summary by Simons et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 49
MedGen UID:
934602
Concept ID:
C4310635
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-49 (DEE49) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period, global developmental delay with intellectual disability and lack of speech, hypotonia, spasticity, and coarse facial features. Some patients may have brain calcifications on imaging (summary by Han et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 48
MedGen UID:
934604
Concept ID:
C4310637
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-48 (DEE48) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and absent speech; poor, if any, motor development; and onset of seizures usually in the first year of life, although later onset has been reported. Affected individuals have poor eye contact and may develop microcephaly and abnormal movements (summary by Assoum et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 47
MedGen UID:
934652
Concept ID:
C4310685
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-47 (DEE47) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in the first days or weeks of life. EEG shows background slowing and multifocal epileptic spikes, and may show hypsarrhythmia. Most patients have developmental regression after seizure onset and show persistent intellectual disability and neurologic impairment, although the severity is variable. Treatment with phenytoin, a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, may be beneficial (summary by Guella et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 46
MedGen UID:
934654
Concept ID:
C4310687
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2D-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (GRIN2D-related DEE) is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay or intellectual disability, epilepsy, abnormal muscle tone (hypotonia and spasticity), movement disorders (dystonia, dyskinesia, chorea), autism spectrum disorder, and cortical visual impairment. Additional findings can include sleep disorders and feeding difficulties. To date 22 individuals with GRIN2D-related DEE have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 45
MedGen UID:
934658
Concept ID:
C4310691
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-45 (DEE45) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy or early childhood and onset of seizures within the first 12 months of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and other persistent neurologic deficits (summary by Burgess et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 44
MedGen UID:
934667
Concept ID:
C4310700
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-44 (DEE44) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory infantile spasms or myoclonus usually in the first weeks or months of life, up to about 12 months of age. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show developmental stagnation and severe neurologic impairment. EEG in some patients shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Additional features include poor feeding and poor overall growth with microcephaly, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia or spasticity, abnormal movements, limited eye contact, and profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent language. Many patients require tube feeding, and some die in childhood (summary by Muona et al., 2016; Colin et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 43
MedGen UID:
934679
Concept ID:
C4310712
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-43 (DEE43) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures usually in the first year of life. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the neonatal period to about 12 months of age. Later onset may rarely occur. Seizure types include febrile, infantile spasms, focal, tonic-clonic, and myoclonic; they tend to be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with mild to moderate intellectual disability, although some may have normal early development before the onset of seizures. EEG shows focal, multifocal, or generalized sharp waves associated with seizures, sometimes with hypsarrhythmia. Additional more variable features include tube feeding, hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, ataxia, dyskinesia, and behavioral difficulties, including aggression, ADHD, stereotypic, and impulsive behavior (summary by the Epi4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 42
MedGen UID:
934683
Concept ID:
C4310716
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-42 (DEE42) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first hours or days of life, although rare patients may have onset in the first weeks of life. The seizures tend to be refractory and associated with EEG abnormalities, including multifocal spikes and generalized spike-wave complexes. Affected infants show global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Other features may include axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia with hyperreflexia, tremor, ataxia, and abnormal eye movements (summary by the Epi4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 41
MedGen UID:
934684
Concept ID:
C4310717
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-41 (DEE41) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Affected infants show severely impaired psychomotor development with hypotonia, spasticity, lack of speech, poor visual fixation, feeding difficulties sometimes necessitating tube feeding, poor overall growth and microcephaly, and contractures. Brain imaging may show delayed myelination, thin corpus callosum, and cerebral atrophy (summary by the EPI4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 40
MedGen UID:
934704
Concept ID:
C4310737
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-40 (DEE40) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory infantile spasms within the first 6 months of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show developmental stagnation and severe neurologic impairment. EEG typically shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Additional features include poor feeding, axial hypotonia with peripheral spasticity, limited eye contact, profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent language, and poor fine motor skills (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 38
MedGen UID:
934729
Concept ID:
C4310762
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-38 (DEE38) is an autosomal recessive neurologic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset of various type of seizures usually between about 4 and 7 months of age. Prior to the onset of seizures, most infants show severely impaired global development, hypotonia with poor head control, and visual inattention with roving eye movements and nystagmus. Seizures are usually refractory to treatment and associated with status epilepticus. Patients have little or no development with inability to walk or speak, spasticity or abnormal movements, and often cortical blindness. There is failure to thrive, and many require tube-feeding. Death in early childhood due to aspiration or intractable epilepsy may occur. The disorder is associated with a defect in GPI-anchoring of membrane-bound proteins (summary by Palmer et al., 2016; Davids et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 37
MedGen UID:
934737
Concept ID:
C4310770
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-37 (DEE37) is an autosomal recessive epileptic-dyskinetic neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures or abnormal movements in the first months or years of life. Patients typically have normal or only mildly delayed development in early infancy, but then show developmental regression and stagnation after the onset of seizures, which can occur between about 6 months to 2 years of age. In addition to epileptic encephalopathy, affected individuals also manifest a hyperkinetic movement disorder with choreoathetosis, spasticity, and rigidity. There is severely impaired intellectual development and function, loss of verbal skills with absent speech, and impaired volitional movements (summary by Madeo et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 51
MedGen UID:
1372686
Concept ID:
C4479208
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-51 (DEE51) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures and hypotonia in the first days or weeks of life. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development and may show abnormal movements. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination. Laboratory studies showed increased lactate, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Ait-El-Mkadem et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 52
MedGen UID:
1376462
Concept ID:
C4479236
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-52 (DEE52) is a severe autosomal recessive seizure disorder characterized by infantile onset of refractory seizures with resultant delayed global neurologic development. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development and may have other persistent neurologic abnormalities, including axial hypotonia and spasticity; death in childhood may occur (summary by Patino et al., 2009 and Ramadan et al., 2017). Some patients with DEE52 may have a clinical diagnosis of Dravet syndrome (607208), which is characterized by the onset of seizures in the first year or 2 of life after normal early development. Developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities usually become apparent later between 1 and 4 years of age. Dravet syndrome may also include 'severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy' (SMEI) (summary by Patino et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 53
MedGen UID:
1374886
Concept ID:
C4479313
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-53 (DEE53) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia and very poor or absent global development, resulting in severe intellectual disability and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may die in childhood (summary by Hardies et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 54
MedGen UID:
1392637
Concept ID:
C4479319
Disease or Syndrome
HNRNPU-related neurodevelopmental disorder (HNRNPU-NDD) is characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability – typically moderate to severe – with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be feeding difficulties during the neonatal period as well as hypotonia, which often remains lifelong. Dysmorphic features have been described but they are nonspecific. Affected individuals are likely to experience seizures (most commonly tonic-clonic or absence) that may be refractory to treatment. Nonspecific brain MRI findings include ventriculomegaly and thinning of the corpus callosum. Less common findings include cardiac abnormalities, strabismus, undescended testes in males, renal anomalies, and skeletal features, including joint laxity, polydactyly, and scoliosis. Rarely, abnormal breathing patterns, including hyperventilation and apnea, may be present and can lead to sleep disturbance.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with involuntary movements
MedGen UID:
1374697
Concept ID:
C4479569
Disease or Syndrome
NEDIM is a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and infantile or childhood onset of hyperkinetic involuntary movements, including chorea and athetosis. The abnormal movements can be severe, sometimes resulting in inability to sit, walk, speak, or eat. Hyperkinetic movements can be exacerbated by specific triggers, such as stress, illness, or high temperature. Some patients have brain abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy or thin corpus callosum, and some patients may develop seizures (summary by Ananth et al., 2016 and Danti et al., 2017).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 55
MedGen UID:
1622363
Concept ID:
C4539843
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-55 (DEE55) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have an extremely poor outcome, with profoundly impaired intellectual development, absent speech, spastic quadriplegia, and dyskinetic movements. Most have cortical visual impairment and require a feeding tube. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, including cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and abnormal signals in the white matter. Death in childhood may occur. Biochemically, the disorder is associated with impaired synthesis of GPI-anchored proteins (summary by Vetro et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 46
MedGen UID:
1618560
Concept ID:
C4539851
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 1
MedGen UID:
1626137
Concept ID:
C4540199
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-91 (DEE91) is characterized by delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy and resulting in severely to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Most patients never achieve independent walking. Patients typically have onset of refractory multifocal seizures between the first weeks and years of life, and some may show developmental regression. Additional features, such as hypotonia and cortical visual impairment, are more variable (summary by Myers et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 57
MedGen UID:
1621769
Concept ID:
C4540411
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-57 (DEE57) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent language. Affected individuals have onset of refractory multifocal seizures in the first days or months of life, and may show developmental regression. EEG patterns include hypsarrhythmia, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome, background slowing, and epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Some patients may have mild dysmorphic features (summary by Ambrosino et al., 2018 and Mao et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without hyperkinetic movements and seizures, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1646665
Concept ID:
C4693325
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (GRIN1-NDD) is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Other common manifestations are epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, movement disorders, spasticity, feeding difficulties, and behavior problems. A subset of individuals show a malformation of cortical development consisting of extensive and diffuse bilateral polymicrogyria. To date, 72 individuals with GRIN1-NDD have been reported.
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 2
MedGen UID:
1638319
Concept ID:
C4693362
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-92 (DEE92) is characterized in most patients by onset of seizures in infancy or childhood and associated with global developmental delay and variable impairment of intellectual development. The seizure type and severity varies, and seizures may be intractable in some patients. Some patients are severely affected, unable to walk or speak, whereas others show some development. Additional neurologic features, including cortical blindness, dystonia, and spasticity, may occur. Mutations occur de novo (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 58
MedGen UID:
1646861
Concept ID:
C4693367
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-58 (DEE58) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms and refractory seizures in the first days or months of life. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, usually with absent speech and inability to walk. Additional features include optic atrophy with poor or absent visual fixation, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and spasticity (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 55, with seizures
MedGen UID:
1635938
Concept ID:
C4693371
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay and seizures with or without movement abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1641343
Concept ID:
C4693376
Disease or Syndrome
DEDSM is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variable intellectual disability, and early-onset seizures with a myoclonic component. Most patients have delayed motor development and show abnormal movements, including ataxia, dystonia, and tremor (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 35
MedGen UID:
1639653
Concept ID:
C4693466
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-35 (COXPD35) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by global developmental delay with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and early-onset myoclonic and other types of seizures. Affected individuals have variable deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes resulting from a defect in mitochondrial metabolism (summary by Kernohan et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 59
MedGen UID:
1633749
Concept ID:
C4693550
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-59 (DEE59) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy with onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life (range 3 to 11 months). The seizures are usually refractory and are often associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, although brain imaging is usually normal. More severely affected individuals may be unable to speak or walk, have poor interaction, and require a feeding tube (summary by the EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 60
MedGen UID:
1638894
Concept ID:
C4693663
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-60 (DEE60) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms, seizures, or myoclonus in the first months of life. EEG typically shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with inability to sit, walk, or speak. Brain imaging may show brain atrophy and hippocampal malrotation (summary by Mutoh et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 61
MedGen UID:
1639392
Concept ID:
C4693688
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-61 (DEE61) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. There is profound global developmental delay with intellectual disability, inability to walk, poor voluntary movements, spasticity, microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Muona et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 62
MedGen UID:
1631233
Concept ID:
C4693699
Disease or Syndrome
SCN3A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (SCN3A-ND) encompasses a spectrum of clinical severity associated with epilepsy and/or brain malformation. Affected individuals may have (a) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (i.e., intractable seizures with developmental delays associated with ongoing epileptiform EEG activity) with or without malformations of cortical development; or (b) malformations of cortical development with or without mild focal epilepsy. Some degree of early childhood developmental delay is seen in all affected individuals; the severity varies widely, ranging from isolated speech delay to severe developmental delay. Infantile hypotonia is common but may be mild or absent in those without DEE. In those with DEE, seizure onset is typically in the first six to 12 months of life. A variety of seizure types have been described. Seizures remain intractable to multiple anti-seizure medications in approximately 50% of individuals with DEE without malformations of cortical development (MCD) and in 90% of individuals with DEE and MCD. Seizures may be absent or infrequent in those without DEE. Brain MRI findings range from normal to showing thinning or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, to various malformations of cortical development. Autonomic dysregulation, oromotor dysfunction leading to the need for gastrostomy tube placement, progressive microcephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and cortical visual impairment can also be seen in those with DEE.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1643082
Concept ID:
C4693741
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-6 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder with onset in early childhood. Affected individuals may have initial normal development, but show neurologic regression in the first year of life. They have hypotonia, inability to walk, poor speech, intellectual disability, and motor abnormalities, such as ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity. Some patients may die in childhood. Laboratory evidence indicates that the disorder results from mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Vogtle et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 63
MedGen UID:
1646846
Concept ID:
C4693810
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-63 (DEE63) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory infantile spasms and myoclonic seizures in the first months to years of life. Affected individuals have severe to profound developmental delay, often with hypotonia and inability to sit or speak (summary by Redler et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 65
MedGen UID:
1634676
Concept ID:
C4693925
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-65 (DEE65) is characterized by onset of intractable seizures of various types usually within the first months or years of life, severe to profound psychomotor developmental delay, and mild facial dysmorphism (summary by Nakashima et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 66
MedGen UID:
1648486
Concept ID:
C4748070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-66 (DEE66) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Most seizures have focal origins; secondary generalization is common. Seizure control is difficult at first, but may become easier with time. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features or ophthalmologic defects. Brain imaging often shows cerebellar dysgenesis. A subset of patients have extraneurologic manifestations, including hematologic and distal limb abnormalities (summary by Olson et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 67
MedGen UID:
1648285
Concept ID:
C4748341
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-67 (DEE67) is characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life, although later onset may occur in milder cases. The seizures tend to be resistant to treatment. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with impaired motor and intellectual development, poor or absent speech, movement disorders, and stereotypic or autistic behavior (summary by Chatron et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 69
MedGen UID:
1648381
Concept ID:
C4748988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-69 (DEE69) is an autosomal dominant severe neurodevelopmental encephalopathic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profoundly impaired development often associated with macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movements, and contractures. The disorder can sometimes result in early death. Some patients may have a favorable seizure response to topiramate medication (summary by Helbig et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 70
MedGen UID:
1648407
Concept ID:
C4749023
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-70 (DEE70) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of epileptic spasms or seizures in the first months of life. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills; intellectual impairment ranges from moderate to severe (summary by Hamada et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 2
MedGen UID:
1663579
Concept ID:
C4750718
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-2 (DEE2) is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life and severe global developmental delay resulting in impaired intellectual development and poor motor control. Other features include lack of speech development, subtle dysmorphic facial features, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, and stereotypic hand movements. There is some phenotypic overlap with Rett syndrome (312750), but DEE2 is considered to be a distinct entity (summary by Fehr et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation with defective fucosylation 2
MedGen UID:
1676187
Concept ID:
C5193028
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 71
MedGen UID:
1680812
Concept ID:
C5193030
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-71 (DEE71) is characterized by early neonatal refractory seizures, respiratory failure, structural brain abnormalities and cerebral edema, with death within weeks after birth. Glutamine levels are significantly increased (z score 3.2-11.7). Three patients have been described (summary by Rumping et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 72
MedGen UID:
1681879
Concept ID:
C5193063
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-72 (DEE72) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms around 5 months of age. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills. Additional more variable features include hyperkinetic movements and cortical visual impairment (summary by Sega et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 73
MedGen UID:
1681654
Concept ID:
C5193065
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-73 (DEE73) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals meet almost no developmental milestones: they have hypotonia and are unable to walk, speak, or feed properly. They have poor overall growth with small head circumference and dysmorphic facial features. Additional manifestations include cortical visual impairment with roving eye movements and variable hearing loss (summary by Edvardson et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 74
MedGen UID:
1680535
Concept ID:
C5193074
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-74 (DEE74) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Seizure types are variable and include infantile spasms, myoclonic, tonic, atonic, and absence, often with secondary generalization. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with hypotonia, severe motor impairment, roving eye movements, and absent language (summary by Shen et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 75
MedGen UID:
1684253
Concept ID:
C5193099
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-75 (DEE75) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first months of life. Patients often have global developmental delay before the onset of seizures, and thereafter achieve few milestones. EEG usually shows multifocal spikes and hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. They have severely impaired intellectual development with inability to walk, absent speech, and hypotonia with axial hyperreflexia. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy, frontal lobe atrophy, white matter abnormalities, and delayed myelination. Since the disorder is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, some patients may develop other organ involvement, including cardiomyopathy or liver and renal dysfunction. Death may occur in childhood (summary by Yin et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movements
MedGen UID:
1678038
Concept ID:
C5193128
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movements (NEDNEH) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development with inability to walk or speak, early-onset refractory seizures, and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movement disorders, including myoclonus dystonia and dyskinesias. Patients require tube feeding and may die of respiratory failure in childhood or in the second decade (summary by Gorman et al., 2019).
Cerebellar atrophy with seizures and variable developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1683734
Concept ID:
C5193132
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy with seizures and variable developmental delay (CASVDD) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia associated with atrophy of the cerebellar vermis on brain imaging. Most patients also have onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life and show global developmental delay, compatible with epileptic encephalopathy (summary by Edvardson et al., 2013). However, at least 1 patient with normal cognitive development and only 1 febrile seizure has been reported (Valence et al., 2019), suggesting significant clinical variability of this disorder.
O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677602
Concept ID:
C5193138
Disease or Syndrome
O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome (ODLURO) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, speech delay, variably delayed intellectual development, and subtle dysmorphic features. Some patients may have autism, seizures, hypotonia, and/or feeding difficulties (summary by O'Donnell-Luria et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 88
MedGen UID:
1712195
Concept ID:
C5394553
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-88 (DEE88) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy, and progressive microcephaly. Brain MRI findings may include corpus callosum abnormalities, prominent ventricles, and mild hypoplasia of the inferior vermis and pons (Broeks et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 96
MedGen UID:
1780167
Concept ID:
C5543446
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-96 (DEE96) is characterized by onset of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Affected infants have tonic or myoclonic seizures associated with burst-suppression pattern on EEG. They also have hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency that may result in premature death. Those that survive have profound developmental delay and persistent seizures (summary by Suzuki et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 97
MedGen UID:
1794209
Concept ID:
C5561999
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-97 (DEE97) is characterized by developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and impaired intellectual development. Other clinical features may include autistic features and hypotonia. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 27
MedGen UID:
1799031
Concept ID:
C5567608
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-27 (COXPD27) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized mainly by neurologic features, including delayed development, seizures, abnormal movements, and neurologic regression. Age at onset, ranging from infancy to late childhood, and severity are variable. Other features include hypotonia, myoclonus, brain imaging abnormalities, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Liver dysfunction has also been reported (summary by Samanta et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Neonatal encephalomyopathy-cardiomyopathy-respiratory distress syndrome
MedGen UID:
1799985
Concept ID:
C5568562
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 3
MedGen UID:
1801135
Concept ID:
C5574665
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-3 (DEE3) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first weeks to months of life. The prognosis is poor, and affected children either may die within 1 to 2 years after birth or survive in a persistent vegetative state. The EEG pattern often shows a suppression-burst pattern with high-voltage bursts of slow waves mixed with multifocal spikes alternating with isoelectric suppression phases; these features are reminiscent of a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome. Some patients may have hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome (summary by Molinari et al., 2005, Molinari et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 101
MedGen UID:
1805172
Concept ID:
C5676955
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-101 (DEE101) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and severe global developmental delay (summary by Blakes et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 102
MedGen UID:
1812769
Concept ID:
C5676991
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-102 (DEE102) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severe to profoundly impaired intellectual development with inability to walk or speak. Most patients have onset of variable types of seizures within the first year of life, and the seizures tend to be refractory. Additional features include progressive microcephaly, visual impairment, axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Marafi et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 103
MedGen UID:
1809962
Concept ID:
C5677002
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-103 (DEE103) is characterized by onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, most of which are refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe. Additional features may include hypotonia, ataxia, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism and hyperactivity (Schwarz et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1823981
Concept ID:
C5774208
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures (NEDMIMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development, progressive microcephaly, and early-onset seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals have poor overall growth and may have various movement abnormalities, including hypo- and hypertonia. Behavioral problems may also be observed (Klockner et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-107
MedGen UID:
1823988
Concept ID:
C5774215
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-107 (DEE107) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life and severe global developmental delay, profound intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly, and hypotonia (Conroy et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824004
Concept ID:
C5774231
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities (NEDDFSB) is a multisystemic developmental disorder characterized by feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with moderate to severely impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features and skeletal defects, mainly affecting the distal extremities. More variable additional findings include hypotonia, seizures, and ocular defects. Brain imaging tends to show structural defects of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia (Duijkers et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 108
MedGen UID:
1824026
Concept ID:
C5774253
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-108 (DEE108) is characterized by the onset of multiple types of seizures in the first 2 years of life. Affected individuals often have normal early development before the onset of seizures, after which they show developmental regression with loss of skills, particularly language; most are nonverbal or speak only a few words. Other features included mildly delayed walking, unsteady gait, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, such as ADHD or autism (Spinelli et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 57
MedGen UID:
1824048
Concept ID:
C5774275
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-57 (COXPD57) is an autosomal recessive multisystem mitochondrial disease with varying degrees of severity from premature death in infancy to permanent disability in young adulthood (Lee et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth, large ears, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1824061
Concept ID:
C5774288
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth, large ears, and dysmorphic facies (NEDGEF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these features as well as hypotonia and global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. The severity is variable, even within families. Death in early childhood has been reported in 1 family (Alsaif et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 112
MedGen UID:
1845523
Concept ID:
C5882700
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-112 (DEE112) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a wide range of seizure types, including focal and generalized seizures. Cognitive outcomes range from normal intellect to profound impairment (summary by Happ et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Leonard H, Downs J, Benke TA, Swanson L, Olson H, Demarest S
Lancet Neurol 2022 Jun;21(6):563-576. Epub 2022 Apr 25 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00035-7. PMID: 35483386Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Strzelczyk A, Zuberi SM, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Mar 1;18(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02626-4. PMID: 36859290Free PMC Article
Roliz AH, Kothare S
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2022 Sep;22(9):551-563. Epub 2022 Jul 8 doi: 10.1007/s11910-022-01219-1. PMID: 35802300
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wheless JW, Fulton SP, Mudigoudar BD
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jun;107:28-40. Epub 2020 Jan 31 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.005. PMID: 32165031
Asadi-Pooya AA
Neurol Sci 2018 Mar;39(3):403-414. Epub 2017 Nov 9 doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-3188-y. PMID: 29124439

Diagnosis

Raga S, Specchio N, Rheims S, Wilmshurst JM
Epileptic Disord 2021 Feb 1;23(1):40-52. doi: 10.1684/epd.2021.1244. PMID: 33632673
Specchio N, Curatolo P
Brain 2021 Feb 12;144(1):32-43. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa371. PMID: 33279965
Scheffer IE, Liao J
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:11-14. Epub 2019 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.023. PMID: 31926847
Sculier C, Gaspard N
Seizure 2019 May;68:72-78. Epub 2018 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.09.018. PMID: 30482654
Guerrini R
Lancet 2006 Feb 11;367(9509):499-524. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68182-8. PMID: 16473127

Therapy

Elkommos S, Mula M
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 Dec;23(18):2023-2034. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1080/14656566.2022.2128670. PMID: 36154780
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Montouris G, Aboumatar S, Burdette D, Kothare S, Kuzniecky R, Rosenfeld W, Chung S
Epilepsy Behav 2020 Sep;110:107146. Epub 2020 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107146. PMID: 32563898
Wheless JW, Fulton SP, Mudigoudar BD
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jun;107:28-40. Epub 2020 Jan 31 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.005. PMID: 32165031

Prognosis

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Hebbar M, Mefford HC
F1000Res 2020;9 Epub 2020 Mar 12 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21366.1. PMID: 32201576Free PMC Article
Wheless JW, Fulton SP, Mudigoudar BD
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jun;107:28-40. Epub 2020 Jan 31 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.005. PMID: 32165031
Sculier C, Gaspard N
Seizure 2019 May;68:72-78. Epub 2018 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.09.018. PMID: 30482654
Guerrini R
Lancet 2006 Feb 11;367(9509):499-524. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68182-8. PMID: 16473127

Clinical prediction guides

Strzelczyk A, Lagae L, Wilmshurst JM, Brunklaus A, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1256-1270. Epub 2023 Oct 11 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12832. PMID: 37750463Free PMC Article
Balestrini S, Barba C, Thom M, Guerrini R
Pract Neurol 2023 Aug;23(4):293-302. Epub 2023 Feb 23 doi: 10.1136/pn-2022-003404. PMID: 36823117
Talwar D, Hammer MF
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Sep;122:76-83. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.06.011. PMID: 34353676
Vetro A, Nielsen HN, Holm R, Hevner RF, Parrini E, Powis Z, Møller RS, Bellan C, Simonati A, Lesca G, Helbig KL, Palmer EE, Mei D, Ballardini E, Van Haeringen A, Syrbe S, Leuzzi V, Cioni G, Curry CJ, Costain G, Santucci M, Chong K, Mancini GMS, Clayton-Smith J, Bigoni S, Scheffer IE, Dobyns WB, Vilsen B, Guerrini R; ATP1A2/A3-collaborators
Brain 2021 Jun 22;144(5):1435-1450. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab052. PMID: 33880529
Leitinger M, Beniczky S, Rohracher A, Gardella E, Kalss G, Qerama E, Höfler J, Hess Lindberg-Larsen A, Kuchukhidze G, Dobesberger J, Langthaler PB, Trinka E
Epilepsy Behav 2015 Aug;49:158-63. Epub 2015 Jun 17 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.05.007. PMID: 26092326

Recent systematic reviews

Zhang MW, Liang XY, Wang J, Gao LD, Liao HJ, He YH, Yi YH, He N, Liao WP; China Epilepsy Gene 1.0 Project
Seizure 2024 Mar;116:4-13. Epub 2023 Sep 23 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.09.021. PMID: 37777370
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Russo E, Del Giovane C, Matricardi S, Meletti S, Striano P, Damavandi PT, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
Drugs 2023 Oct;83(15):1409-1424. Epub 2023 Sep 11 doi: 10.1007/s40265-023-01936-y. PMID: 37695433Free PMC Article
Strzelczyk A, Zuberi SM, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
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