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Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4(FCMD; MDDGA4)

MedGen UID:
140820
Concept ID:
C0410174
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cerebromuscular dystrophy, Fukuyama type; Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies, type A4; Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy; Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy; Muscular dystrophy, congenital progressive, with mental retardation; Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with central nervous system involvement; WALKER-WARBURG SYNDROME OR MUSCLE-EYE-BRAIN DISEASE, FKTN-RELATED; Walker-Warburg Syndrome, Fktn-Related
SNOMED CT: Fukuyama muscular dystrophy (111502003); Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (111502003)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): FKTN (9q31.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009678
OMIM®: 253800
Orphanet: ORPHA272

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Kayoko Saito   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
MDDGA4 is a severe autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with characteristic brain and eye malformations, seizures, and mental retardation. Cardiac involvement in FCMD/MEB occurs in the second decade of life in those who survive. FKTN-related Walker-Warburg syndrome is a more severe manifestation of the disorder, with death usually in the first year of life. These entities are part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007; Muntoni and Voit, 2004; Muntoni et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).  http://www.omim.org/entry/253800
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy is an inherited condition that predominantly affects the muscles, brain, and eyes. Congenital muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic conditions that cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life.

Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy affects the skeletal muscles, which are muscles the body uses for movement. The first signs of the disorder appear in early infancy and include a weak cry, poor feeding, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Weakness of the facial muscles often leads to a distinctive facial appearance including droopy eyelids (ptosis) and an open mouth. In childhood, muscle weakness and joint deformities (contractures) restrict movement and interfere with the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking.

Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy also impairs brain development. People with this condition have a brain abnormality called cobblestone lissencephaly, in which the surface of the brain develops a bumpy, irregular appearance (like that of cobblestones). These changes in the structure of the brain lead to significantly delayed development of speech and motor skills and moderate to severe intellectual disability. Social skills are less severely impaired. Most children with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy are never able to stand or walk, although some can sit without support and slide across the floor in a seated position. More than half of all affected children also experience seizures.

Other signs and symptoms of Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy include impaired vision, other eye abnormalities, and slowly progressive heart problems after age 10. As the disease progresses, affected people may develop swallowing difficulties that can lead to a bacterial lung infection called aspiration pneumonia. Because of the serious medical problems associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, most people with the disorder live only into late childhood or adolescence.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/fukuyama-congenital-muscular-dystrophy

Clinical features

From HPO
Primary dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2880
Concept ID:
C0007193
Disease or Syndrome
Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. It occurs when heart (cardiac) muscle becomes thin and weakened in at least one chamber of the heart, causing the open area of the chamber to become enlarged (dilated). As a result, the heart is unable to pump blood as efficiently as usual. To compensate, the heart attempts to increase the amount of blood being pumped through the heart, leading to further thinning and weakening of the cardiac muscle. Over time, this condition results in heart failure.\n\nIt usually takes many years for symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy to cause health problems. They typically begin in mid-adulthood, but can occur at any time from infancy to late adulthood. Signs and symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy can include an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), extreme tiredness (fatigue), fainting episodes (syncope), and swelling of the legs and feet. In some cases, the first sign of the disorder is sudden cardiac death. The severity of the condition varies among affected individuals, even in members of the same family.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Transposition of the great arteries
MedGen UID:
21245
Concept ID:
C0040761
Congenital Abnormality
Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.\n\nEach of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.\n\nPeople with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.
Myocardial fibrosis
MedGen UID:
56239
Concept ID:
C0151654
Pathologic Function
Myocardial fibrosis is characterized by dysregulated collagen turnover (increased synthesis predominates over unchanged or decreased degradation) and excessive diffuse collagen accumulation in the interstitial and perivascular spaces as well as by phenotypically transformed fibroblasts, termed myofibroblasts.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Holoprosencephaly sequence
MedGen UID:
38214
Concept ID:
C0079541
Congenital Abnormality
Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development that also affects the head and face. Normally, the brain divides into two halves (hemispheres) during early development. Holoprosencephaly occurs when the brain fails to divide properly into the right and left hemispheres. This condition is called nonsyndromic to distinguish it from other types of holoprosencephaly caused by genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, or substances that cause birth defects (teratogens). The severity of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly varies widely among affected individuals, even within the same family.\n\nNonsyndromic holoprosencephaly can be grouped into four types according to the degree of brain division. From most to least severe, the types are known as alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In the most severe forms of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly, the brain does not divide at all. These affected individuals have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye. Most babies with severe nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly die before birth or soon after. In the less severe forms, the brain is partially divided and the eyes are usually set close together (hypotelorism). The life expectancy of these affected individuals varies depending on the severity of symptoms.\n\nPeople with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly often have a small head (microcephaly), although they can develop a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) that causes increased head size (macrocephaly). Other features may include an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) with or without a split in the upper lip (cleft lip), one central front tooth instead of two (a single maxillary central incisor), and a flat nasal bridge. The eyeballs may be abnormally small (microphthalmia) or absent (anophthalmia).\n\nSome individuals with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly have a distinctive pattern of facial features, including a narrowing of the head at the temples, outside corners of the eyes that point upward (upslanting palpebral fissures), large ears, a short nose with upturned nostrils, and a broad and deep space between the nose and mouth (philtrum). In general, the severity of facial features is directly related to the severity of the brain abnormalities. However, individuals with mildly affected facial features can have severe brain abnormalities. Some people do not have apparent structural brain abnormalities but have some of the facial features associated with this condition. These individuals are considered to have a form of the disorder known as microform holoprosencephaly and are typically identified after the birth of a severely affected family member.\n\nMost people with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly have developmental delay and intellectual disability. Affected individuals also frequently have a malfunctioning pituitary gland, which is a gland located at the base of the brain that produces several hormones. Because pituitary dysfunction leads to the partial or complete absence of these hormones, it can cause a variety of disorders. Most commonly, people with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly and pituitary dysfunction develop diabetes insipidus, a condition that disrupts the balance between fluid intake and urine excretion. Dysfunction in other parts of the brain can cause seizures, feeding difficulties, and problems regulating body temperature, heart rate, and breathing. The sense of smell may be diminished (hyposmia) or completely absent (anosmia) if the part of the brain that processes smells is underdeveloped or missing.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
78604
Concept ID:
C0266463
Finding
A spectrum of malformations of cortical development caused by insufficient neuronal migration that subsumes the terms agyria, pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia. See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Macrogyria
MedGen UID:
120579
Concept ID:
C0266483
Congenital Abnormality
Pachygyria is a malformation of cortical development with abnormally wide gyri with sulci 1,5-3 cm apart and abnormally thick cortex measuring more than 5 mm (radiological definition). See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Cobblestone lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
96562
Concept ID:
C0431376
Congenital Abnormality
A form of lissencephaly characterized by an uneven cortical surface with a so called 'cobblestone' appearace. There are no distinguishable cortical layers.
Exaggerated startle response
MedGen UID:
329357
Concept ID:
C1740801
Finding
An exaggerated startle reaction in response to a sudden unexpected visual or acoustic stimulus, or a quick movement near the face.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Cerebellar cyst
MedGen UID:
339835
Concept ID:
C1847762
Finding
Hypoplasia of the pyramidal tract
MedGen UID:
342610
Concept ID:
C1850871
Finding
Agyria
MedGen UID:
361827
Concept ID:
C1879312
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cerebral hemisphere characterized by lack of gyrations (convolutions) of the cerebral cortex. Agyria is defined as cortical regions lacking gyration with sulci great than 3 cm apart and cerebral cortex thicker than 5 mm.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Encephalocele
MedGen UID:
1646412
Concept ID:
C4551722
Congenital Abnormality
A neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
44527
Concept ID:
C0026850
Disease or Syndrome
The term dystrophy means abnormal growth. However, muscular dystrophy is used to describe primary myopathies with a genetic basis and a progressive course characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, defects in muscle proteins, and histological features of muscle fiber degeneration (necrosis) and regeneration. If possible, it is preferred to use other HPO terms to describe the precise phenotypic abnormalities.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Calf muscle hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
335868
Concept ID:
C1843057
Finding
Muscle hypertrophy affecting the calf muscles.
Spinal rigidity
MedGen UID:
346721
Concept ID:
C1858025
Finding
Reduced ability to move the vertebral column with a resulting limitation of neck and trunk flexion.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Respiratory insufficiency
MedGen UID:
11197
Concept ID:
C0035229
Pathologic Function
Impairment of gas exchange within the lungs secondary to a disease process, neoplasm, or trauma, possibly resulting in hypoxia, hypercarbia, or both, but not requiring intubation or mechanical ventilation. Patients are normally managed with pharmaceutical therapy, supplemental oxygen, or both.
Elevated circulating creatine kinase concentration
MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
An elevation of the level of the enzyme creatine kinase (also known as creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in the blood. CK levels can be elevated in a number of clinical disorders such as myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, and muscular dystrophy.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
Retinal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
48433
Concept ID:
C0035313
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the retina.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Abnormality of eye movement
MedGen UID:
99227
Concept ID:
C0497202
Finding
An abnormality in voluntary or involuntary eye movements or their control.

Term Hierarchy

Follow this link to review classifications for Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4 in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Varagur K, Sanka SA, Strahle JM
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):67-79. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.006. PMID: 34801143Free PMC Article
Zaum AK, Kolokotronis K, Kress W, Goebel HH, Rost S, Seeger J
Neuromuscul Disord 2018 Aug;28(8):671-674. Epub 2018 Jun 20 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2018.06.006. PMID: 30017359
Falsaperla R, Praticò AD, Ruggieri M, Parano E, Rizzo R, Corsello G, Vitaliti G, Pavone P
Ital J Pediatr 2016 Aug 31;42(1):78. doi: 10.1186/s13052-016-0289-9. PMID: 27576556Free PMC Article
Cylwik B, Lipartowska K, Chrostek L, Gruszewska E
Acta Biochim Pol 2013;60(3):361-8. Epub 2013 Sep 19 PMID: 24051442
Muntoni F, Torelli S, Brockington M
Neurotherapeutics 2008 Oct;5(4):627-32. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2008.08.005. PMID: 19019316Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Suthar R, Angurana SK, Singh U, Singh P
Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1849-1850. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.246262. PMID: 30504606
Zaum AK, Kolokotronis K, Kress W, Goebel HH, Rost S, Seeger J
Neuromuscul Disord 2018 Aug;28(8):671-674. Epub 2018 Jun 20 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2018.06.006. PMID: 30017359
Falsaperla R, Praticò AD, Ruggieri M, Parano E, Rizzo R, Corsello G, Vitaliti G, Pavone P
Ital J Pediatr 2016 Aug 31;42(1):78. doi: 10.1186/s13052-016-0289-9. PMID: 27576556Free PMC Article
Cylwik B, Lipartowska K, Chrostek L, Gruszewska E
Acta Biochim Pol 2013;60(3):361-8. Epub 2013 Sep 19 PMID: 24051442
Vajsar J, Schachter H
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Aug 3;1:29. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-29. PMID: 16887026Free PMC Article

Therapy

Murakami T, Sato T, Adachi M, Ishiguro K, Shichiji M, Tachimori H, Nagata S, Ishigaki K
Sci Rep 2021 Dec 20;11(1):24229. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03781-z. PMID: 34930981Free PMC Article
Ishigaki K, Kato I, Murakami T, Sato T, Shichiji M, Ishiguro K, Ishizuka K, Funatsuka M, Saito K, Osawa M, Nagata S
Brain Dev 2019 Jan;41(1):43-49. Epub 2018 Aug 1 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.07.012. PMID: 30077507
Fecarotta S, Gragnaniello V, Della Casa R, Romano A, Raiano E, Torella A, Savarese M, Nigro V, Strisciuglio P, Andria G, Parenti G
Neuromuscul Disord 2018 Nov;28(11):956-960. Epub 2018 Jul 19 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2018.07.001. PMID: 30126629
Peiris TJ, Indaram M, Koo E, Soul JS, Hunter DG
J AAPOS 2018 Jun;22(3):242-244.e1. Epub 2018 Mar 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.12.011. PMID: 29555514
Touznik A, Lee JJ, Yokota T
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2014 Jun;14(6):809-19. Epub 2014 Mar 12 doi: 10.1517/14712598.2014.896335. PMID: 24620745

Prognosis

Kuwayama R, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa M, Kimizu T, Nakajima K, Ikeda T, Mogami Y, Yanagihara K
Brain Dev 2021 Jan;43(1):106-110. Epub 2020 Jul 25 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.06.017. PMID: 32723526
Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM), Monteagudo A
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Dec;223(6):B38-B41. Epub 2020 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.08.184. PMID: 33168220
Zaum AK, Kolokotronis K, Kress W, Goebel HH, Rost S, Seeger J
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