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Inborn error of immunity

MedGen UID:
585013
Concept ID:
C0398686
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Inborn errors of immunity; Primary immunodeficiency
SNOMED CT: Primary immunodeficiency (58606001); Primary immune deficiency disorder (58606001)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0003778
Orphanet: ORPHA101997

Definition

Immunodeficiency disease that arises independent of another pathologic process, disease, or injury. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVInborn error of immunity

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Fischer M, Olbrich P, Hadjadj J, Aumann V, Bakhtiar S, Barlogis V, von Bismarck P, Bloomfield M, Booth C, Buddingh EP, Cagdas D, Castelle M, Chan AY, Chandrakasan S, Chetty K, Cougoul P, Crickx E, Dara J, Deyà-Martínez A, Farmand S, Formankova R, Gennery AR, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Hagin D, Hanitsch LG, Hanzlikovà J, Hauck F, Ivorra-Cortés J, Kisand K, Kiykim A, Körholz J, Leahy TR, van Montfrans J, Nademi Z, Nelken B, Parikh S, Plado S, Ramakers J, Redlich A, Rieux-Laucat F, Rivière JG, Rodina Y, Júnior PR, Salou S, Schuetz C, Shcherbina A, Slatter MA, Touzot F, Unal E, Lankester AC, Burns S, Seppänen MRJ, Neth O, Albert MH, Ehl S, Neven B, Speckmann C
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2024 Jan;153(1):275-286.e18. Epub 2023 Nov 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.10.018. PMID: 37935260
Biggs SE, Gilchrist B, May KR
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2023 Apr;23(4):213-222. Epub 2023 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s11882-023-01071-4. PMID: 36897497Free PMC Article
Lorenzini T, Fliegauf M, Klammer N, Frede N, Proietti M, Bulashevska A, Camacho-Ordonez N, Varjosalo M, Kinnunen M, de Vries E, van der Meer JWM, Ameratunga R, Roifman CM, Schejter YD, Kobbe R, Hautala T, Atschekzei F, Schmidt RE, Schröder C, Stepensky P, Shadur B, Pedroza LA, van der Flier M, Martínez-Gallo M, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Allende LM, Shcherbina A, Kuzmenko N, Zakharova V, Neves JF, Svec P, Fischer U, Ip W, Bartsch O, Barış S, Klein C, Geha R, Chou J, Alosaimi M, Weintraub L, Boztug K, Hirschmugl T, Dos Santos Vilela MM, Holzinger D, Seidl M, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Alsina L, Piquer-Gibert M, Deyà-Martínez A, Slade CA, Aghamohammadi A, Abolhassani H, Hammarström L, Kuismin O, Helminen M, Allen HL, Thaventhiran JE, Freeman AF, Cook M, Bakhtiar S, Christiansen M, Cunningham-Rundles C, Patel NC, Rae W, Niehues T, Brauer N, Syrjänen J, Seppänen MRJ, Burns SO, Tuijnenburg P, Kuijpers TW; NIHR BioResource, Warnatz K, Grimbacher B; NIHR BioResource
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Oct;146(4):901-911. Epub 2020 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.051. PMID: 32278790Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Fischer M, Olbrich P, Hadjadj J, Aumann V, Bakhtiar S, Barlogis V, von Bismarck P, Bloomfield M, Booth C, Buddingh EP, Cagdas D, Castelle M, Chan AY, Chandrakasan S, Chetty K, Cougoul P, Crickx E, Dara J, Deyà-Martínez A, Farmand S, Formankova R, Gennery AR, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Hagin D, Hanitsch LG, Hanzlikovà J, Hauck F, Ivorra-Cortés J, Kisand K, Kiykim A, Körholz J, Leahy TR, van Montfrans J, Nademi Z, Nelken B, Parikh S, Plado S, Ramakers J, Redlich A, Rieux-Laucat F, Rivière JG, Rodina Y, Júnior PR, Salou S, Schuetz C, Shcherbina A, Slatter MA, Touzot F, Unal E, Lankester AC, Burns S, Seppänen MRJ, Neth O, Albert MH, Ehl S, Neven B, Speckmann C
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2024 Jan;153(1):275-286.e18. Epub 2023 Nov 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.10.018. PMID: 37935260
Phuong LK, Cheung A, Agrawal R, Butters C, Buttery J, Clark J, Connell T, Curtis N, Daley AJ, Dobinson HC, Frith C, Hameed NS, Hernstadt H, Krieser DM, Loke P, Ojaimi S, McMullan B, Pinzon-Charry A, Sharp EG, Sinnappurajar P, Templeton T, Wen S, Cole T, Gwee A
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2023 Oct 1;42(10):908-913. Epub 2023 Jul 7 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000004004. PMID: 37463351
Maccari ME, Wolkewitz M, Schwab C, Lorenzini T, Leiding JW, Aladjdi N, Abolhassani H, Abou-Chahla W, Aiuti A, Azarnoush S, Baris S, Barlogis V, Barzaghi F, Baumann U, Bloomfield M, Bohynikova N, Bodet D, Boutboul D, Bucciol G, Buckland MS, Burns SO, Cancrini C, Cathébras P, Cavazzana M, Cheminant M, Chinello M, Ciznar P, Coulter TI, D'Aveni M, Ekwall O, Eric Z, Eren E, Fasth A, Frange P, Fournier B, Garcia-Prat M, Gardembas M, Geier C, Ghosh S, Goda V, Hammarström L, Hauck F, Heeg M, Heropolitanska-Pliszka E, Hilfanova A, Jolles S, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Kindle GR, Kiykim A, Klemann C, Koletsi P, Koltan S, Kondratenko I, Körholz J, Krüger R, Jeziorski E, Levy R, Le Guenno G, Lefevre G, Lougaris V, Marzollo A, Mahlaoui N, Malphettes M, Meinhardt A, Merlin E, Meyts I, Milota T, Moreira F, Moshous D, Mukhina A, Neth O, Neubert J, Neven B, Nieters A, Nove-Josserand R, Oksenhendler E, Ozen A, Olbrich P, Perlat A, Pac M, Schmid JP, Pacillo L, Parra-Martinez A, Paschenko O, Pellier I, Sefer AP, Plebani A, Plantaz D, Prader S, Raffray L, Ritterbusch H, Riviere JG, Rivalta B, Rusch S, Sakovich I, Savic S, Scheible R, Schleinitz N, Schuetz C, Schulz A, Sediva A, Semeraro M, Sharapova SO, Shcherbina A, Slatter MA, Sogkas G, Soler-Palacin P, Speckmann C, Stephan JL, Suarez F, Tommasini A, Trück J, Uhlmann A, van Aerde KJ, van Montfrans J, von Bernuth H, Warnatz K, Williams T, Worth AJJ, Ip W, Picard C, Catherinot E, Nademi Z, Grimbacher B, Forbes Satter LR, Kracker S, Chandra A, Condliffe AM, Ehl S; European Society for Immunodeficiencies Registry Working Party
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023 Oct;152(4):984-996.e10. Epub 2023 Jun 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.06.015. PMID: 37390899
Li Y, Yu Z, Schenk M, Lagovsky I, Illig D, Walz C, Rohlfs M, Conca R, Muise AM, Snapper SB, Uhlig HH, Garty BZ, Klein C, Kotlarz D
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023 Mar;151(3):791-796.e7. Epub 2022 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.09.033. PMID: 36462957
Rao VK, Webster S, Šedivá A, Plebani A, Schuetz C, Shcherbina A, Conlon N, Coulter T, Dalm VA, Trizzino A, Zharankova Y, Kulm E, Körholz J, Lougaris V, Rodina Y, Radford K, Bradt J, Kucher K, Relan A, Holland SM, Lenardo MJ, Uzel G
Blood 2023 Mar 2;141(9):971-983. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022018546. PMID: 36399712Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Phuong LK, Cheung A, Agrawal R, Butters C, Buttery J, Clark J, Connell T, Curtis N, Daley AJ, Dobinson HC, Frith C, Hameed NS, Hernstadt H, Krieser DM, Loke P, Ojaimi S, McMullan B, Pinzon-Charry A, Sharp EG, Sinnappurajar P, Templeton T, Wen S, Cole T, Gwee A
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2023 Oct 1;42(10):908-913. Epub 2023 Jul 7 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000004004. PMID: 37463351
Biggs SE, Gilchrist B, May KR
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2023 Apr;23(4):213-222. Epub 2023 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s11882-023-01071-4. PMID: 36897497Free PMC Article
Barmettler S, Sharapova SO, Milota T, Greif PA, Magg T, Hauck F
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2022 Jul;10(7):1725-1736.e2. Epub 2022 Mar 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.03.012. PMID: 35364342
Smith KL, Dai D, Modi BP, Sara R, Garabedian E, Marsh RA, Puck J, Secord E, Sullivan KE, Turvey SE, Biggs CM; USIDNET Consortium
Front Immunol 2022;13:831279. Epub 2022 Feb 22 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.831279. PMID: 35273610Free PMC Article
Leite LFB, Máximo TA, Mosca T, Forte WCN
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2020 Jul-Aug;48(4):409-413. Epub 2019 Dec 9 doi: 10.1016/j.aller.2019.08.005. PMID: 31831191

Therapy

Fischer M, Olbrich P, Hadjadj J, Aumann V, Bakhtiar S, Barlogis V, von Bismarck P, Bloomfield M, Booth C, Buddingh EP, Cagdas D, Castelle M, Chan AY, Chandrakasan S, Chetty K, Cougoul P, Crickx E, Dara J, Deyà-Martínez A, Farmand S, Formankova R, Gennery AR, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Hagin D, Hanitsch LG, Hanzlikovà J, Hauck F, Ivorra-Cortés J, Kisand K, Kiykim A, Körholz J, Leahy TR, van Montfrans J, Nademi Z, Nelken B, Parikh S, Plado S, Ramakers J, Redlich A, Rieux-Laucat F, Rivière JG, Rodina Y, Júnior PR, Salou S, Schuetz C, Shcherbina A, Slatter MA, Touzot F, Unal E, Lankester AC, Burns S, Seppänen MRJ, Neth O, Albert MH, Ehl S, Neven B, Speckmann C
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2024 Jan;153(1):275-286.e18. Epub 2023 Nov 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.10.018. PMID: 37935260
Yang AH, Sullivan B, Zerbe CS, De Ravin SS, Blakely AM, Quezado MM, Marciano BE, Marko J, Ling A, Kleiner DE, Gallin JI, Malech HL, Holland SM, Heller T
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2023 May;11(5):1401-1416. Epub 2023 Jan 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.12.039. PMID: 36646382
Rao VK, Webster S, Šedivá A, Plebani A, Schuetz C, Shcherbina A, Conlon N, Coulter T, Dalm VA, Trizzino A, Zharankova Y, Kulm E, Körholz J, Lougaris V, Rodina Y, Radford K, Bradt J, Kucher K, Relan A, Holland SM, Lenardo MJ, Uzel G
Blood 2023 Mar 2;141(9):971-983. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022018546. PMID: 36399712Free PMC Article
Chiang SCC, Owsley E, Panchal N, Chaturvedi V, Terrell CE, Jordan MB, Mehta PA, Davies SM, Akeno N, Booth C, Marsh RA
Blood 2022 Aug 18;140(7):706-715. doi: 10.1182/blood.2021014335. PMID: 35687753
Mogensen TH
Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 Nov;28(11):1411-1416. Epub 2022 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2022.02.023. PMID: 35218976

Prognosis

Phuong LK, Cheung A, Agrawal R, Butters C, Buttery J, Clark J, Connell T, Curtis N, Daley AJ, Dobinson HC, Frith C, Hameed NS, Hernstadt H, Krieser DM, Loke P, Ojaimi S, McMullan B, Pinzon-Charry A, Sharp EG, Sinnappurajar P, Templeton T, Wen S, Cole T, Gwee A
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2023 Oct 1;42(10):908-913. Epub 2023 Jul 7 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000004004. PMID: 37463351
Maccari ME, Wolkewitz M, Schwab C, Lorenzini T, Leiding JW, Aladjdi N, Abolhassani H, Abou-Chahla W, Aiuti A, Azarnoush S, Baris S, Barlogis V, Barzaghi F, Baumann U, Bloomfield M, Bohynikova N, Bodet D, Boutboul D, Bucciol G, Buckland MS, Burns SO, Cancrini C, Cathébras P, Cavazzana M, Cheminant M, Chinello M, Ciznar P, Coulter TI, D'Aveni M, Ekwall O, Eric Z, Eren E, Fasth A, Frange P, Fournier B, Garcia-Prat M, Gardembas M, Geier C, Ghosh S, Goda V, Hammarström L, Hauck F, Heeg M, Heropolitanska-Pliszka E, Hilfanova A, Jolles S, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Kindle GR, Kiykim A, Klemann C, Koletsi P, Koltan S, Kondratenko I, Körholz J, Krüger R, Jeziorski E, Levy R, Le Guenno G, Lefevre G, Lougaris V, Marzollo A, Mahlaoui N, Malphettes M, Meinhardt A, Merlin E, Meyts I, Milota T, Moreira F, Moshous D, Mukhina A, Neth O, Neubert J, Neven B, Nieters A, Nove-Josserand R, Oksenhendler E, Ozen A, Olbrich P, Perlat A, Pac M, Schmid JP, Pacillo L, Parra-Martinez A, Paschenko O, Pellier I, Sefer AP, Plebani A, Plantaz D, Prader S, Raffray L, Ritterbusch H, Riviere JG, Rivalta B, Rusch S, Sakovich I, Savic S, Scheible R, Schleinitz N, Schuetz C, Schulz A, Sediva A, Semeraro M, Sharapova SO, Shcherbina A, Slatter MA, Sogkas G, Soler-Palacin P, Speckmann C, Stephan JL, Suarez F, Tommasini A, Trück J, Uhlmann A, van Aerde KJ, van Montfrans J, von Bernuth H, Warnatz K, Williams T, Worth AJJ, Ip W, Picard C, Catherinot E, Nademi Z, Grimbacher B, Forbes Satter LR, Kracker S, Chandra A, Condliffe AM, Ehl S; European Society for Immunodeficiencies Registry Working Party
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023 Oct;152(4):984-996.e10. Epub 2023 Jun 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.06.015. PMID: 37390899
Cortesi M, Soresina A, Dotta L, Gorio C, Cattalini M, Lougaris V, Porta F, Badolato R
Front Immunol 2022;13:846660. Epub 2022 Apr 6 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.846660. PMID: 35464467Free PMC Article
Stadler PC, Renner ED, Milner J, Wollenberg A
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Apr;9(4):1501-1507. Epub 2021 Feb 3 doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.01.037. PMID: 33548520
Lorenzini T, Fliegauf M, Klammer N, Frede N, Proietti M, Bulashevska A, Camacho-Ordonez N, Varjosalo M, Kinnunen M, de Vries E, van der Meer JWM, Ameratunga R, Roifman CM, Schejter YD, Kobbe R, Hautala T, Atschekzei F, Schmidt RE, Schröder C, Stepensky P, Shadur B, Pedroza LA, van der Flier M, Martínez-Gallo M, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Allende LM, Shcherbina A, Kuzmenko N, Zakharova V, Neves JF, Svec P, Fischer U, Ip W, Bartsch O, Barış S, Klein C, Geha R, Chou J, Alosaimi M, Weintraub L, Boztug K, Hirschmugl T, Dos Santos Vilela MM, Holzinger D, Seidl M, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Alsina L, Piquer-Gibert M, Deyà-Martínez A, Slade CA, Aghamohammadi A, Abolhassani H, Hammarström L, Kuismin O, Helminen M, Allen HL, Thaventhiran JE, Freeman AF, Cook M, Bakhtiar S, Christiansen M, Cunningham-Rundles C, Patel NC, Rae W, Niehues T, Brauer N, Syrjänen J, Seppänen MRJ, Burns SO, Tuijnenburg P, Kuijpers TW; NIHR BioResource, Warnatz K, Grimbacher B; NIHR BioResource
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Oct;146(4):901-911. Epub 2020 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.051. PMID: 32278790Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Vanselow S, Wahn V, Schuetz C
Front Immunol 2023;14:1208567. Epub 2023 Jul 20 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1208567. PMID: 37600808Free PMC Article
Maccari ME, Wolkewitz M, Schwab C, Lorenzini T, Leiding JW, Aladjdi N, Abolhassani H, Abou-Chahla W, Aiuti A, Azarnoush S, Baris S, Barlogis V, Barzaghi F, Baumann U, Bloomfield M, Bohynikova N, Bodet D, Boutboul D, Bucciol G, Buckland MS, Burns SO, Cancrini C, Cathébras P, Cavazzana M, Cheminant M, Chinello M, Ciznar P, Coulter TI, D'Aveni M, Ekwall O, Eric Z, Eren E, Fasth A, Frange P, Fournier B, Garcia-Prat M, Gardembas M, Geier C, Ghosh S, Goda V, Hammarström L, Hauck F, Heeg M, Heropolitanska-Pliszka E, Hilfanova A, Jolles S, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Kindle GR, Kiykim A, Klemann C, Koletsi P, Koltan S, Kondratenko I, Körholz J, Krüger R, Jeziorski E, Levy R, Le Guenno G, Lefevre G, Lougaris V, Marzollo A, Mahlaoui N, Malphettes M, Meinhardt A, Merlin E, Meyts I, Milota T, Moreira F, Moshous D, Mukhina A, Neth O, Neubert J, Neven B, Nieters A, Nove-Josserand R, Oksenhendler E, Ozen A, Olbrich P, Perlat A, Pac M, Schmid JP, Pacillo L, Parra-Martinez A, Paschenko O, Pellier I, Sefer AP, Plebani A, Plantaz D, Prader S, Raffray L, Ritterbusch H, Riviere JG, Rivalta B, Rusch S, Sakovich I, Savic S, Scheible R, Schleinitz N, Schuetz C, Schulz A, Sediva A, Semeraro M, Sharapova SO, Shcherbina A, Slatter MA, Sogkas G, Soler-Palacin P, Speckmann C, Stephan JL, Suarez F, Tommasini A, Trück J, Uhlmann A, van Aerde KJ, van Montfrans J, von Bernuth H, Warnatz K, Williams T, Worth AJJ, Ip W, Picard C, Catherinot E, Nademi Z, Grimbacher B, Forbes Satter LR, Kracker S, Chandra A, Condliffe AM, Ehl S; European Society for Immunodeficiencies Registry Working Party
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023 Oct;152(4):984-996.e10. Epub 2023 Jun 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.06.015. PMID: 37390899
Kostel Bal S, Giuliani S, Block J, Repiscak P, Hafemeister C, Shahin T, Kasap N, Ransmayr B, Miao Y, van de Wetering C, Frohne A, Jimenez Heredia R, Schuster M, Zoghi S, Hertlein V, Thian M, Bykov A, Babayeva R, Bilgic Eltan S, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Shaw LE, Chowdhury I, Varjosalo M, Argüello RJ, Farlik M, Ozen A, Serfling E, Dupré L, Bock C, Halbritter F, Hannich JT, Castanon I, Kraakman MJ, Baris S, Boztug K
Blood 2023 Aug 31;142(9):827-845. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022018303. PMID: 37249233
Lodi L, Faletti LE, Maccari ME, Consonni F, Groß M, Pagnini I, Ricci S, Heeg M, Simonini G, Azzari C, Ehl S
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 Nov;150(5):1237-1241.e3. Epub 2022 Jun 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.06.007. PMID: 35750105
Lorenzini T, Fliegauf M, Klammer N, Frede N, Proietti M, Bulashevska A, Camacho-Ordonez N, Varjosalo M, Kinnunen M, de Vries E, van der Meer JWM, Ameratunga R, Roifman CM, Schejter YD, Kobbe R, Hautala T, Atschekzei F, Schmidt RE, Schröder C, Stepensky P, Shadur B, Pedroza LA, van der Flier M, Martínez-Gallo M, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Allende LM, Shcherbina A, Kuzmenko N, Zakharova V, Neves JF, Svec P, Fischer U, Ip W, Bartsch O, Barış S, Klein C, Geha R, Chou J, Alosaimi M, Weintraub L, Boztug K, Hirschmugl T, Dos Santos Vilela MM, Holzinger D, Seidl M, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Alsina L, Piquer-Gibert M, Deyà-Martínez A, Slade CA, Aghamohammadi A, Abolhassani H, Hammarström L, Kuismin O, Helminen M, Allen HL, Thaventhiran JE, Freeman AF, Cook M, Bakhtiar S, Christiansen M, Cunningham-Rundles C, Patel NC, Rae W, Niehues T, Brauer N, Syrjänen J, Seppänen MRJ, Burns SO, Tuijnenburg P, Kuijpers TW; NIHR BioResource, Warnatz K, Grimbacher B; NIHR BioResource
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Oct;146(4):901-911. Epub 2020 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.051. PMID: 32278790Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Khavandegar A, Mahdaviani SA, Zaki-Dizaji M, Khalili-Moghaddam F, Ansari S, Alijani S, Taherzadeh-Ghahfarrokhi N, Mansouri D, Casanova JL, Bustamante J, Jamee M
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2024 May;153(5):1432-1444. Epub 2024 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2024.01.021. PMID: 38341181
Sharifinejad N, Zaki-Dizaji M, Tebyanian S, Zainaldain H, Jamee M, Rizvi FS, Hosseinzadeh S, Fayyaz F, Hamedifar H, Sabzevari A, Matloubi M, Heropolitańska-Pliszka E, Aghamahdi F, Abolhassani H, Azizi G
Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 Aug;17(8):807-817. Epub 2021 Jun 3 doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1925543. PMID: 33957837
Rizvi FS, Zainaldain H, Rafiemanesh H, Jamee M, Hossein-Khannazer N, Hamedifar H, Sabzevari A, Yazdani R, Abolhassani H, Aghamohammadi A, Azizi G
Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2020 Dec;16(12):1227-1235. Epub 2020 Dec 7 doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1850272. PMID: 33203275
Abd Hamid IJ, Azman NA, Gennery AR, Mangantig E, Hashim IF, Zainudeen ZT
Front Immunol 2020;11:1923. Epub 2020 Aug 26 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01923. PMID: 32983118Free PMC Article
Jamee M, Zaki-Dizaji M, Lo B, Abolhassani H, Aghamahdi F, Mosavian M, Nademi Z, Mohammadi H, Jadidi-Niaragh F, Rojas M, Anaya JM, Azizi G
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Sep;8(8):2747-2760.e7. Epub 2020 May 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.070. PMID: 32428713

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