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Septo-optic dysplasia sequence(SOD)

MedGen UID:
90926
Concept ID:
C0338503
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: De morsier syndrome; HESX1-Related Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency; Hypopituitarism and septooptic 'dysplasia'; Septo-optic dysplasia; Septo-optic dysplasia with growth hormone deficiency; Septooptic Dysplasia; SOD
SNOMED CT: Septo-optic dysplasia sequence (7611002); Septo optic dysplasia (7611002); De Morsier syndrome (7611002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Non-Mendelian inheritance
MedGen UID:
109109
Concept ID:
C0600599
Genetic Function
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that depends on genetic determinants in more than one gene.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Gene (location): HESX1 (3p14.3)
 
HPO: HP:0100842
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008428
OMIM®: 182230
Orphanet: ORPHA3157

Definition

Septooptic dysplasia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder loosely defined by any combination of optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary gland hypoplasia, and midline abnormalities of the brain, including absence of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum (Dattani et al., 1998). The diagnosis of this rare congenital anomaly is made when 2 or more features of the classic triad are present. Approximately 30% of patients have complete manifestations, 62% display hypopituitarism, and 60% have an absent septum pellucidum. The disorder is equally prevalent in males and females and is more common in infants born to younger mothers, with a reported incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births (summary by Webb and Dattani, 2010). Also see 516020.0012 for a form of septooptic dysplasia associated with cardiomyopathy and exercise intolerance. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Septo-optic dysplasia is a disorder of early brain development. Although its signs and symptoms vary, this condition is traditionally defined by three characteristic features: underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the optic nerves, abnormal formation of structures along the midline of the brain, and pituitary hypoplasia.

The first major feature, optic nerve hypoplasia, is the underdevelopment of the optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eyes to the brain. In affected individuals, the optic nerves are abnormally small and make fewer connections than usual between the eyes and the brain. As a result, people with optic nerve hypoplasia have impaired vision in one or both eyes. Optic nerve hypoplasia can also be associated with unusual side-to-side eye movements (nystagmus) and other eye abnormalities.

The second characteristic feature of septo-optic dysplasia is the abnormal development of structures separating the right and left halves of the brain. These structures include the corpus callosum, which is a band of tissue that connects the two halves of the brain, and the septum pellucidum, which separates the fluid-filled spaces called ventricles in the brain. In the early stages of brain development, these structures may form abnormally or fail to develop at all. Depending on which structures are affected, abnormal brain development can lead to intellectual disability and other neurological problems.

The third major feature of this disorder is pituitary hypoplasia. The pituitary is a gland at the base of the brain that produces several hormones. These hormones help control growth, reproduction, and other critical body functions. Underdevelopment of the pituitary can lead to a shortage (deficiency) of many essential hormones. Most commonly, pituitary hypoplasia causes growth hormone deficiency, which results in slow growth and unusually short stature. Severe cases cause panhypopituitarism, a condition in which the pituitary produces no hormones. Panhypopituitarism is associated with slow growth, low blood glucose (hypoglycemia), genital abnormalities, and problems with sexual development.

The signs and symptoms of septo-optic dysplasia can vary significantly. Some researchers suggest that septo-optic dysplasia should actually be considered a group of related conditions rather than a single disorder. About one-third of people diagnosed with septo-optic dysplasia have all three major features; most affected individuals have two of the major features. In rare cases, septo-optic dysplasia is associated with additional signs and symptoms, including recurrent seizures (epilepsy), delayed development, and abnormal movements.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/septo-optic-dysplasia

Clinical features

From HPO
Polydactyly
MedGen UID:
57774
Concept ID:
C0152427
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary fingers or toes.
Short finger
MedGen UID:
334977
Concept ID:
C1844548
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Absent septum pellucidum
MedGen UID:
96561
Concept ID:
C0431371
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius. The septum pellucidum is a thin, triangular double membrane separating the frontal horns of the right and left lateral ventricles of the brain. It extends between the anterior portion of the corpus callosum, and the body of the fornix and its width varies from 1.5 to 3.0 mm.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Anterior pituitary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
347950
Concept ID:
C1859775
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the anterior pituitary gland.
Diabetes insipidus
MedGen UID:
8349
Concept ID:
C0011848
Disease or Syndrome
A state of excessive water intake and hypotonic (dilute) polyuria. Diabetes insipidus may be due to failure of vasopressin (AVP) release (central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus) or to a failure of the kidney to respond to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).
Decreased response to growth hormone stimulation test
MedGen UID:
1784655
Concept ID:
C5539399
Finding
Insufficient responses to growth hormone (GH) provocation tests. GH deficiency is defined as a serum peak GH concentration less than 10 ng/mL on provocation with a combination of at least two separate stimulation tests.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Optic disc hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
224879
Concept ID:
C1298695
Finding
Underdevelopment of the optic disc, that is of the optic nerve head, where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSepto-optic dysplasia sequence
Follow this link to review classifications for Septo-optic dysplasia sequence in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Holoprosencephaly 13, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1714826
Concept ID:
C5393308
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked holoprosencephaly-13 (HPE13) is a neurologic disorder characterized by midline developmental defects that mainly affect the brain and craniofacial structure. The severity and manifestations are variable: some patients may have full alobar HPE with cyclopia, whereas others have semilobar HPE or septooptic dysplasia. Dysmorphic features include microcephaly, hypotelorism, low-set ears, micrognathia, and cleft lip/palate. Patients with a more severe phenotype may die in the newborn period, whereas those with a less severe phenotype show global developmental delay. Additional variable features include congenital heart defects and vertebral anomalies. Phenotypic variability may be related to the type of mutation, X-inactivation status, and possible incomplete penetrance. The STAG2 protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; HPE13 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Kruszka et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Nordenström A, Ahmed SF, van den Akker E, Blair J, Bonomi M, Brachet C, Broersen LHA, Claahsen-van der Grinten HL, Dessens AB, Gawlik A, Gravholt CH, Juul A, Krausz C, Raivio T, Smyth A, Touraine P, Vitali D, Dekkers OM
Eur J Endocrinol 2022 Apr 21;186(6):G9-G49. doi: 10.1530/EJE-22-0073. PMID: 35353710Free PMC Article
Di Pasquo E, Kuleva M, Arthuis C, Morganelli G, Ormitti F, Millischer AE, Grevent D, Ville Y, Ghi T, Salomon LJ
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Feb;59(2):153-161. Epub 2022 Jan 18 doi: 10.1002/uog.23759. PMID: 34396620
Dattani MT
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005 Aug;63(2):121-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02289.x. PMID: 16060904

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