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Series GSE81345 Query DataSets for GSE81345
Status Public on Jun 29, 2017
Title Sensing self and nonself circular RNAs
Organism Homo sapiens
Experiment type Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing
Summary Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that are joined head to tail. Initially discovered as pathogen genomes such as hepatitis D virus (HDV) and plant viroids, circRNAs are recently recognized as a pervasive class of noncoding RNAs in eukaryotic cells, generated through back splicing. circRNAs have been postulated to function in cell-to-cell information transfer or memory due to their extraordinary stability. Whether and how circRNAs trigger immune recognition is not known. Here we show that exogenous circular RNAs potently stimulate immune signaling, and mammalian cells sense self vs. nonself circRNAs via circRNA biogenesis. Transfection of purified in vitro spliced circRNA into mammalian cells led to potent induction of innate immunity genes. The nucleic acid sensor RIG-I is necessary and sufficient to sense foreign circRNA, and RIG-I and foreign circRNA co-aggregate in cytoplasmic foci. CircRNA activation of innate immunity is independent of 5’ triphosphate, double-stranded RNA structure, or primary sequence of the foreign circRNA. Instead, self-nonself discrimination depends on the intron that programs the circRNA. Use of a human intron to express a foreign circRNA sequence abrogates immune activation, and the mature human circRNA is associated with diverse RNA binding proteins reflecting its endogenous splicing and biogenesis. These results reveal innate immune sensing of circRNA, a prevalent class of host and pathogen RNAs, and highlight introns—the predominant output of mammalian transcription—as unexpected arbiters of self-nonself identity in the RNA world.
Overall design 3 samples of RNA from Hela cells with mock or exogenous RNA transfected, 2 biological replicates each
Contributor(s) Chen YG, Chang HY
Citation(s) 28625551
Submission date May 11, 2016
Last update date Apr 21, 2024
Contact name Howard Y Chang
Organization name Stanford University
Department Dermatology
Lab Chang lab
Street address CCSR 2130, 269 Campus Drive
City Stanford
State/province CA
ZIP/Postal code 94305
Country USA
Platforms (1)
GPL18573 Illumina NextSeq 500 (Homo sapiens)
Samples (6)
GSM2150846 Untreated replicate 1
GSM2150847 Untreated replicate 2
GSM2150848 Linear RNA replicate 1
BioProject PRJNA321330
SRA SRP074851

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Series Matrix File(s) TXTHelp

Supplementary file Size Download File type/resource
GSE81345_DGE.txt.gz 558.3 Kb (ftp)(http) TXT
GSE81345_MolCell2017_DNA_plasmidseq.docx.gz 15.7 Kb (ftp)(http) DOCX
GSE81345_RAW.tar 570.0 Kb (http)(custom) TAR (of TXT)
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Raw data are available in SRA
Processed data provided as supplementary file
Processed data are available on Series record

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