Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing
Adaptation of the islet β-cell insulin secretory response to changing insulin demand is critical for blood glucose homeostasis, yet the mechanisms underlying this adaptation are unknown. Here, we show that nutrient cues adapt insulin secretion by modulating chromatin state and transcription of genes regulating β-cell nutrient sensing and metabolism. Feeding stimulates histone acetylation at sites occupied by the chromatin-modifying enzyme Lsd1 in islets. We demonstrate that β-cell-specific deletion of Lsd1 leads to insulin hypersecretion, aberrant expression of nutrient response genes, and histone hyperacetylation, features we also observed in the db/db model of chronically increased insulin demand. Moreover, genetic variants associated with fasting glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk are enriched at LSD1-bound sites in human islets, suggesting interindividual variation in β-cell functional adaptation in humans. These findings reveal nutrient state-dependent modulation of the islet epigenome and identify Lsd1 as a regulator of feeding-stimulated chromatin modification and adaptive insulin secretion.
Human or mouse pancreatic islets were assessed for genomewide enrichment of H3K27ac under different conditions or for binding by the histone demethylase Lsd1 using ChIP-seq. mRNA-seq was used to assess transcriptional changes in islets under different nutrient states or following inactivation of the histone demethylase Lsd1.