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Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, et al., editors. Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2022.

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Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition.

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Online Appendix 1ASome Important Milestones in the History of Glycobiology

and .

Year(s)Primary Scientist(s)MilestoneChaptersa
1876J.L.W. ThudichumGlycosphingolipids (cerebrosides), sphingomyelin, and sphingosine11
1888H. StillmarkLectins as hemagglutinins28, 30, 31
1891H.E. FischerStereoisomeric structure of glucose and other monosaccharides2
1897E. BuchnerCell-free extracts carry out fermentation of carbohydrates5
1900K. LandsteinerHuman ABO blood groups as transfusion barriers6, 13
1901W. Koenigs and E. KnorrGlycosylation chemistry53
1909P.A. LeveneStructure of ribose in RNA2
1916J. MacLeanIsolation of heparin as an anticoagulant17, 38
1920O. MeyerhofConversion of glycogen to lactic acid in muscle5, 18
1925P.A. LeveneCharacterization of chondroitin sulfate and “mucoitin sulfate” (later, hyaluronan)16, 17
1929P.A. LeveneStructure of 2-deoxyribose in DNA2
1929W.N. HaworthPyranose and furanose ring structures of monosaccharides2
1934K. MeyerHyaluronan and hyaluronidase16
1934–1938G. Blix, E. KlenkSialic acids15
1936C.F. Cori, G.T. CoriGlucose-1-phosphate as an intermediate in glycogen biosynthesis18
1942–1946G.K. Hirst, F.M. BurnetHemagglutination of influenza virus and “receptor-destroying enzyme”15, 37
1942E. Klenk, G. BlixGangliosides in brain11, 15
1946Z. DischeColorimetric determination of deoxypentoses and other carbohydrates2
1948–1950E. Jorpes, S. GardellOccurrence of N-sulfates in heparin and identification of heparan sulfate17
1949L.F. LeloirNucleotide sugars and their role in the biosynthesis of glycans5
1950Karl SchmidIsolation of α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid), a major serum glycoprotein9
1952W.T. Morgan, W.M. WatkinsCarbohydrate determinants of ABO blood group types13
1952E.A. KabatRelationship of ABO to Lewis blood groups and secretor vs. nonsecretor status13
1952A. GottschalkSialic acid as the receptor for influenza virus15
1952T. YamakawaGloboside, the major glycosphingolipid of the erythrocyte membrane11
1953R. LemieuxSynthesis of sucrose53
1956–1963M.R.J. Salton, J.M. Ghuysen, R.W. Jeanloz, N. Sharon, H.M. FlowersBacterial peptidoglycan backbone structure; major structural polysaccharides in nature (chitin, cellulose, and peptidoglycan) β1-4-linked throughout21, 22, 23
1957P.W. Robbins, F. LipmannBiosynthesis and characterization of PAPS, the donor for glycan sulfation5, 17
1957H. Faillard, E. KlenkCrystallization of N-acetylneuraminic acid as product of influenza virus receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE) (“neuraminidase”)15
1957–1963J. Strominger, J.T. Park, H.R. Perkins, H.J. RogersMechanism of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and site of penicillin action21
1958H. Muir“Mucopolysaccharides” are covalently attached to proteins via serine17
1958J. BaddileyDiscovery of cell-wall teichoic acids21
1960D.C. Comb, S. RosemanStructure and enzymatic synthesis of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid5, 15
1960–1965O. Westphal, O. Lüderitz, H. Nikaido,
P.W. Robbins
Isolation of lipopolysaccharides and endotoxin glycans21
1960–1970R. Jeanloz, K. Meyer, A. DorfmanStructural studies of glycosaminoglycans16, 17
1961S. Roseman, L. WarrenBiosynthesis of sialic acid5, 15
1961–1965G.E. PaladeEndoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi pathway for glycoprotein biosynthesis and secretion4
1962A. Neuberger, R. Marshall, I. Yamashina,
L.W. Cunningham
GlcNAc-Asn as the first defined carbohydrate-peptide linkage9
1962W.M. Watkins, W.Z. HassidEnzymatic synthesis of lactose from UDP-galactose and glucose5
1962J.A. Cifonelli, J. Ludowieg, A. DorfmanIduronic acid as a constituent of heparin17
1962–1966L. Roden, U. LindahlIdentification of tetrasaccharide linking glycosaminoglycans to protein core of proteoglycans17
1962E.H. Eylar, R.W. JeanlozDemonstration of the presence of N-acetyllactosamine in α1-acid glycoprotein14
1963L. SvennerholmAnalysis and nomenclature of gangliosides11
1963D. Hamerman, J. SandsonCovalent cross-linkage between hyaluronan and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor16
1963–1964B. Anderson, K. Meyer, V.P. Bhavanandan,
A. Gottschalk
β-elimination of Ser/Thr-O-linked glycans10
1963–1965R. Kuhn, H. WiegandtStructure of GM1 and other brain gangliosides11
1963–1966M.J. Osborn, E.C. HeathDiscovery of Kdo in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)21
1963–1967B.L. Horecker, P.W. Robbins, H. Nakaido,
M.J. Osborn
Lipid-linked intermediates in bacterial lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan biosynthesis21
1964V. GinsburgGDP-fucose and its biosynthesis from GDP-mannose5
1964B. Gesner, V. GinsburgGlycans control the migration of leukocytes to target organs34
1965L.W. CunninghamMicroheterogeneity of glycoprotein glycans1, 9, 10
1965–1966R.O. BradyGlucocerebrosidase is the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease44
1965–1967M.J. Osborn, A. Wright, P.W. Robbins,
L. Rothfield, H. Nikaido, B.L. Horecker
Undecaprenol-linked intermediates in the biosynthesis of LPS O-antigens21
1965–1975J.E. Silbert, U. LindahlCell-free biosynthesis of heparin and chondroitin sulfate17
1965–1975W. PigmanTandem repeat amino acid sequences with Ser or Thr as O-glycosylation sites in mucins10
1966M. Neutra, C. LeblondRole of Golgi apparatus in protein glycosylation4
1966–1969B. Lindberg, S. HakomoriRefinement of methylation analysis for determination of glycan linkages50
1966–1976R. SchauerMultiple modifications of sialic acids in nature, their biosynthesis, and degradation15
1967L. Rodén, L.-Å. FranssonDemonstration of a copolymeric structure for dermatan sulfate17
1967R.D. MarshallN-glycosylation occurs only at asparagine residues in the motif Asn-X-Ser/Thr9
1968J.A. CifonelliDescription of the domain structure of heparan sulfate17
1968R.L. Hill, K. Brewα-lactalbumin as a modifier of galactosyltransferase specificity6
1969L. Warren, M.C. Glick, P.W. RobbinsIncreased size of N-glycans in malignantly transformed cells9, 47
1969R.J. Winzler, R. Spiro

Structures of O-glycans from erythrocyte membranes and fetuin.

1969–1974V.C. Hascall, S.W. Sajdera, H. Muir,
D. Heinegård, T. Hardingham
Hyaluronan–proteoglycan interactions in cartilage16, 17
1969H. Tuppy, P. MeindlSynthesis of 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-Neu5Ac as viral sialidase inhibitor15
1968–1970E. NeufeldIdentification of lysosomal enzyme deficiencies in the mucopolysaccharidoses44
1969G. Ashwell, A. MorellGlycans can control the lifetime of glycoproteins in blood circulation28
1970K.O. Lloyd, J. Porath, I.J. GoldsteinUse of lectins for affinity purification of glycoproteins48
1971–1973L.F. LeloirDolichylphosphosugars are intermediates in protein N-glycosylation5, 9
1971–1975P. Kraemer, J.E. SilbertHeparan sulfate as a common constituent of vertebrate cell surfaces17
1971–1980B. TooleHyaluronan in differentiation, morphogenesis, and development16
1972–1982S. HakomoriLacto- and globo-series glycosphingolipids as developmentally regulated and tumor-associated antigens11, 47
1972J.F.G. VliegenthartHigh-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for structural analysis of glycans2, 50
1973W.E. van HeyningenGlycosphingolipids are receptors for bacterial toxins37, 42
1973J. Montreuil, R.G. Spiro, R. KornfeldA common pentasaccharide core structure of all N-glycans9
1974C.E. BallouStructure of yeast mannans and generation of yeast mannan mutants23, 49
1974A.L. Tarentino, T.H. Plummer, F. Maley,
N. Koide, T. Muramatsu
Purification and characterization of Endo-b-N-acetylglucosaminidase H and D50
1975V.I. TeichbergIdentification of the first galectin36
1975V.T. MarchesiPrimary structure of glycophorin, the first known transmembrane glycoprotein4, 9, 10
1975–1976U.B. Sleytr, J.L. StromingerProtein glycosylation in thermophilic gram-positive bacteria and in Archaea21, 22
1975–1980A. KobataN- and O-glycan structural elucidation using multiple convergent techniques2, 9, 10
1975–1980P. Stanley, S. Kornfeld, R.C. HughesLectin-resistant cell lines with glycosylation defects49
1977W.J. LennarzAsn-X-Ser/Thr necessary and sufficient for lipid-mediated N-glycosylation9
1977I. Ofek, D. Mirelman, N. SharonCell-surface glycans as attachment sites for infectious bacteria37, 42
1977–1978S. Kornfeld, P.W. RobbinsBiosynthesis and processing of intermediates of N-glycans in protein glycosylation9
1977R.L. Hill, R. BarkerFirst purification of a glycosyltransferase involved in protein glycosylation6, 9
1977N. Koide, T. MuramatsuIgG Fc glycans have a role in immunologic interactions7
1978C. SvanborgGlycosphingolipids as receptors for bacterial adhesion11, 37, 42
1978D. Solter, B.B. KnowlesDiscovery of stage-specific embryonic antigens (e.g. SSEA-1 [Lewis x])41
1979R.R. SchmidtTrichloroacetimidate glycosylation method53
1979–1982E. Neufeld, S. Kornfeld, K. Von Figura, W. SlyThe mannose-6-phosphate pathway for lysosomal enzyme trafficking33
1980–1981J. Rothman, R. SchekmanCell-free analysis of ER–Golgi transport pathway for glycoconjugates4
1980–1983F.A. Troy, J. Finne, S. Inoue, Y. InoueStructure of polysialic acids in bacteria and vertebrates15
1980H. SchachterRole of glycosyltransferases in N- and O-glycan branching6, 9, 10
1980–1982V.N. Reinhold, A. Dell, A.L. BurlingameMass spectrometry for structural analysis of glycans50, 51
1980–1985S. Hakomori, Y. NagaiGlycosphingolipids as modulators of transmembrane signaling11
1981R.P. Silver, W.F. VannExpression of bacterial polysaccharide from cloned genes in a heterologous host21
1981–1985M.J. Ferguson, I. Silman, M. LowStructural definition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors12
1982J. Paulson, R. HillDifferential influenza virus binding to a2-6- and a2-3-linked sialic acids42
1982U. Lindahl, R.D. RosenbergSpecific sulfated heparin pentasaccharide sequence recognized by antithrombin17, 38
1982C. Hirschberg, R. FleischerTransport of sugar nucleotides into the Golgi apparatus4, 9, 10
1983C.R.H. RaetzDiscovery of lipid X, 2,3-diacyl-glucosamine-1-P, confirmation of lipid A structure21
1984G. HartIntracellular protein glycosylation by O-GlcNAc19
1984J. JaekenDescription of “carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes”45
1984P. Albersheim, A. DarvillFree glycans serve as specific signaling molecules in plants40
1984Y.A. KnirelDiscovery of pseudaminic acid the first prokaryotic nonulosonic acid15
1984–1990J. EskoReplica plate selection of mutants with altered glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis17
1984I. VlodavskyIsolation of heparanase17
1985R.B. Parekh, R.A. Dwek, T.W. Rademacher,
A. Kobata
Rheumatoid arthritis associated with changes in IgG glycosylation7, 46
1985S. Kusumoto, T. Shiba, C. Galanos,
O. Luderitz, E.T. Rietschel, O. Westphal,
H. Brade
Synthesis of lipid A and confirmation of endotoxic properties21
1985M. Klagsbrun, D. GospodarowiczDiscovery of heparin–FGF interactions38
1986W.J. WhelanGlycogen is a glycoprotein synthesized on a glycogenin primer18
1986J.U. BaenzigerStructures of sulfated N-glycans of pituitary hormones14, 31
1986Y. Inoue, S. InoueDiscovery of 2-keto-3-deoxynononic acid (Kdn) in rainbow trout eggs15
1986P.K. Qasba, J. Shaper, N. ShaperCloning of first animal glycosyltransferase6
1987A. Imberty, S PerezDouble helical structure of starch24
1987Y-C. LeeHigh-performance anion-exchange chromatography of oligosaccharides with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD)50
1988K. DrickamerPrediction of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) from primary structures28, 34
1989G.W. Hart, P. EnglundGlycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthetic pathway in trypanosomes43
1989M. Bevilacqua, E. Butcher, B. Furie, L. Lasky, R. McEver, S. Rosen, B. Seed, M. Siegelman, L. Stoolman, I. Weissman, J Magnani, S. Hakomori, J. Paulson, M. Tiemeyer, M. Fukuda, A. Varki, R. Cummings, M.A. Gimbrone, R.S. Cotran, J.J.WoodruffDiscovery of selectins and selectin ligands34
1990F. Yamamoto, H. Clausen, S. HakomoriMolecular genetic basis for ABO blood groups—cloning of the A/B glycosyltransferases14
1990–2005Fu-Tong Liu, G. Rabinovich, R. Cummings, G. Vasta, L. BaumDiscovery of the roles of galectins in innate and adaptive immunity.36
1990–2006P. Orlean, D.E. Levin, A. Conzelmann, H. Riezman, Y. JigamiIdentification of genes involved in GPI anchor biosynthesis and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae12
1991B. HenrissatClassification of glycoside hydrolases8
1991R. BradyEnzyme replacement therapy via mannose receptor for Gaucher disease31, 44
1991A. Varki, S. HedrickGlycosylation modification in mice by expressing a degradative enzyme6
1992–1997R. Gilmore, M. Aebi, L. Lehle, N. Dean,
W. Lennarz
Molecular identification of oligosaccharyltransferase6,9
1992–1997W. Reutter, C. BertozziMetabolic incorporation of unnatural monosaccharide precursors, bioorthogonal glycan labeling in living systems56
1993T. Kinoshita, J. TakedaSomatic mutations in PIGA gene cause paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria45, 46
1993S. van Boeckel, M. PetitouSynthesis of heparin anticoagulant pentasaccharide17, 53
1993–1999T. KinoshitaGlycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthetic genes in mammals12
1993–1998P. Crocker, A. VarkiDiscovery of and classification of Siglecs35
1993–2004F.K. Hagen, L.A. Tabak, K. G. Ten Hagen, T. A. FritzFirst cloning and crystal structure of ppGalNAcT, identification of functional subclasses10
1994P. Stanley, J. Marth, J. LoweInactivation of glycosyltransferase genes in mice9, 41
1994A. Parodi, A. Helenius, J. Bergeron, D.Y. Thomas, D.B. WilliamsCalnexin/calreticulin facilitate glycoprotein folding in ER7, 39
1995–2001N. Taniguchi, J.W. Dennis, M. DemetriouN-glycan modifications impact receptor signaling, immunity, growth, carcinogenesis and metastasis9, 47
1995L. Powell, A. VarkiDefinition of I-type lectins35
1996H. Freeze, T. MarquardtMannose corrects N-glycosylation in one type of congenital disorder of glycosylation45
1996–1998A. Polissi, C. Georgopoulos, C.R.H. RaetzDiscovery of MsbA, the lipid A transporter21
1997P.M. Rudd, R.A. DwekHigh-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based glycan analysis9, 10
1997J. EgrieEnhancement of erythropoietin activity through glycoengineering57
1997–2000F.M. Platt, T.D. Butters, A. Zimram, R.A. Dwek, J. ShaymanGlycosphingolipid synthase inhibitors for therapy of glycolipid storage diseases44, 55
1998C.M. WestDiscovery of complex cytoplasmic glycosylation in Dictyostelium18
1998B. HenrissatCAZy database available online31, 52
1998M. Aebi, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Kato, J. WeissmanGlycans regulate ER-associated degradation (ERAD)39
1998A. Suzuki, A. VarkiInactivating mutation of CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase in humans15,20
1999P. Guerry, M. Aebi, C. Szymanski, M. YoungProkaryotes make N-linked glycans21, 22
1999P. Gagneux, A. VarkiEvolutionary synthesis relating glycan diversity to intrinsic and extrinsic function20
1999C.W. von der LiethDevelopment of platforms for glycoinformatics52
2000R. Haltiwanger, K. Irvine, P. Stanley, F. Vogt, H. Clausen, S. CohenGlycosyltransferases are essential components of Notch signaling pathway13, 14, 26
2001P. Seeberger, C.-H. WongAutomated glycan synthesis53
2001P.K. QasbaCrystal structure of b1-4GalT-I in complex with a-lactalbumin6
2001J. HofsteengeDiscovery of C-mannosylation2
2001K. Campbell, T. EndoDefective synthesis of dystroglycan O-mannose glycans in muscular dystrophy45
2001T. Ju, R. CummingsCore 1 b-galactosyltransferase stability requires the unique chaperone Cosmc10
2001–2005L. Borsig, N.M. Varki, A VarkiP- and L-selectin facilitation of tumor metastasis, inhibitable by heparin34, 47
2001–2006T. Angata, N.M. Varki, A Varki,Human-specific changes in CD33-related Siglecs35
2002K.G. Ten Hagen, D.T. Tran, H. ClausenDiscovery that a ppGalNAcT is essential for viability10, 26
2002T. Feizi, D. Wang, P.H. Seeberger, C-H. Wong, R. Cummings, J. Paulson, O. BlixtInvention of natural and synthetic glycan microarrays52
2002C. Costello, A. DellMatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry of glycans50, 51
2005L.K. Mahal, J. HirabayashiLectin microarrays for glycomic analysis48
2006A.M. Almeida, Y. Murakami, T. Kinoshita, A. KaradimitrisDiscovery of inherited GPI deficiency12, 45, 46
2006T. Angata, T. Hayakawa, M. NakamuraDiscovery of paired Siglec receptors35

This time line of events is deliberately terminated about 15 years ago, on the assumption that it can take a long time to be certain that a particular discovery or milestone has had a major impact on the field.


Indicates main chapter(s) of this book in which the relevant topics are covered.

Copyright © 2022 by the Consortium of Glycobiology Editors, La Jolla, California. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. All rights reserved.

The content of this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported license. To view the terms and conditions of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Bookshelf ID: NBK579941


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