TABLE 26.1.

Genes that affect the synthesis or function of Drosophila glycans

GeneProteinFunctionMutant phenotype
N-linked or O-linked pathways
PMM2 phosphomannomutase 2 generation of Man-6-P for GDP-Man biosynthesisdecreased viability, locomotion, NMJ defects
wollknäuel (wol)Drosophila alg-5, glucosyltransferaseglucosylation of dolichol phosphate to generate Dol-P-Glcdecreased protein secretion, altered extracellular matrix deposition
tumorous imaginal discs (tid) Drosophila alg-3, mannosyltransferaseaddition of α1-3 Man to Man5GlcNAc2-P-P-Dol precursorneoplastic imaginal disc overgrowth
xiantuan Drosophila alg-8, glucosyltransferaseaddition of α1-3 Glc to Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-Dol precursordefective gastrulation
mas1 α1-2-mannosidase Iremoval of mannose to generate Man5GlcNAc2-Nperipheral nervous system, wing, and eye morphology
fused lobes (fdl)glycoprotein glycan processing β-hexosaminidaseremoval of GlcNAc to generate Man3GlcNAc2-Nlarval and adult brain lobe morphology
Mgat1 GlcNAcT-Igeneration of GlcNAc1Man5GlcNAc2-Nreduced viability and locomotor activity
Tollo/toll-8 Toll-like receptor 8decreased α1-3 core fucosylation (HRP-epitope)altered glycosylation in embryonic central nervous system
neurally altered carbohydrate/GFR (nac/GFR) GDP-Fuc transporter in the Golgiinvolved in formation of fucosylated glycans (HRP-epitope)altered glycosylation in larval, pupal, and adult central nervous system
FucTA α3-fucosyltransferasedecreased α1-3 core fucosylation (HRP-epitope)altered glycosylation in larval, pupal, and adult central nervous system
sugar-free frosting (sff) Sff/SAD serine/threonine protein kinasedecreased α1-3 core fucosylation (HRP-epitope) and increased glycan complexityaltered glycosylation in embryonic nervous system, adult locomotor defects, and Golgi organization defects
SiaT α6-sialyltransferaseN-linked glycan sialylationadult locomotor defects, temperature-sensitive seizures, altered neuronal membrane excitability
Csas CMP-sialic acid synthaseCMP-Sia productionadult locomotor defects, temperature-sensitive seizures, NMJ defects
pgant3 polypeptide GalNAcTformation of GalNAc linked to Ser/Thrextracellular matrix secretion and cell adhesion deficits
pgant4 polypeptide GalNAcTformation of GalNAc linked to Ser/Thrlethality; disrupted secretory granule formation, Golgi structure, and secretion
pgant5 polypeptide GalNAcTformation of GalNAc linked to Ser/Thrlethality; digestive system defects
pgant7 polypeptide GalNAcTformation of GalNAc linked to Ser/Thrlethality
pgant9 polypeptide GalNAcTformation of GalNAc linked to Ser/Thraltered secretory granule morphology
pgant35A polypeptide GalNAcTformation of GalNAc linked to Ser/Thrlethality; altered trachea formation
C1GalTA galactosyltransferaseaddition of Gal to GalNAc-Ser/Thrnervous system/NMJ defects
GlcAT-P glucuronic acid transferaseformation of GlcA linked to Galnervous system/NMJ defects
rotated abdomen (rt)protein-O-mannosyltransferase Iformation of Man linked to Ser/Thrabnormal abdominal morphology
twisted (tw)protein-O-mannosyltransferase IIformation of Man linked to Ser/Thrabnormal abdominal morphology
O-fut1 O-fucosyltransferase Iformation of Fuc linked to Ser/ThrNotch-like defects in cellular differentiation
Efr GDP-Fuc transporter in the ER, UDP-Xyl and UDP-GlcNAc transport also reportedrequired for protein O-fucosylationNotch-like defects in cellular differentiation
fringe (fng)Fuc-specific β3GlcNAcTaddition of N-acetylglucosamine to O-linked Fucpattern formation defects resulting from altered Notch activation
rumi protein O-glucosyl and O-xylosyltransferaseaddition of O-Glc and O-Xyl to Notch EGF repeatsNotch-like defects in cellular differentiation
shams glucoside xylosyltransferaseaddition of Xyl to Glc-OIncreased Notch signaling in some contexts
xxylt xyloside xylosyltransferaseaddition of Xyl to Xyl-Glc-OIncreased Notch signaling in sensitized genetic backgrounds
super sex combs (sxc) O-GlcNAc transferaseaddition of O-GlcNAc to nuclear and cytoplasmic proteinsdefects in gene silencing
Eogt O-GlcNAc transferaseaddition of O-GlcNAc to extracellular proteinslarval lethality
Cog7 Cog7, member of COG retrograde trafficking complexN-glycan processinglarval and adult locomotion defects, abnormal NMJ morphology
GAG/PG pathways
sugarless UDP glucose dehydrogenaseinvolved in chondroitin and heparan sulfate synthesisWg, Hh, Dpp signaling defects
slalom PAPS transporterinvolved in synthesis of all sulfated glycansWg, Hh signaling defects
fringe connection (frc) UDP-sugar transporterinvolved in synthesis of GAGs and O-linked glycansWg, Hh, FGF, Notch signaling defects
sauron (also called rotini)Drosophila GOLPH3involved in heparan sulfate, perhaps other glycans as wellmislocalization of Ttv, Botv, Sotv resulting in altered HS synthesis and Hh signaling
tout-velu (ttv) heparan sulfate polymerase (Ext1)synthesis of heparan sulfateWg, Hh, Dpp signaling defects
brother of tout-velu (botv) N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferaseinitiation of heparan sulfate synthesisWg, Hh, Dpp signaling defects
sister of tout-velu (sotv) heparan sulfate polymerase (Ext2)synthesis of heparan sulfateWg, Hh, Dpp signaling defects
sulfateless (sfl) N-deacetylase–N-sulfotransferasesulfation of heparan sulfateWg, Hh, Dpp, FGF signaling defects
Hs2st heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferasesynthesis of heparan sulfateFGF signaling defects
Hs6st heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferasesynthesis of heparan sulfateFGF signaling defects
Hs3st-A heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferasesynthesis of heparan sulfateimpaired adult midgut homeostasis
Hs3st-B heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferasesynthesis of heparan sulfateimpaired adult midgut homeostasis
Sulf1/Sulfated heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatasesynthesis of heparan sulfateWg, Hh, EGFR signaling defects
dally glypican-related proteoglycanGAG core protein involved in signalingDpp, Wg, Upd signaling defects
dally-like protein (dlp) glypican-related proteoglycanGAG core protein involved in signalingWg, Hh, D-LAR, Upd signaling defects
Syndecan syndecan orthologGAG core protein involved in signalingSlit-Robo, D-LAR signaling defects
terribly reduced optic lobes (trol) perlecan orthologGAG core protein involved in signalingHh, FGF signaling defects
Carrier of Wingless (Cow) testican orthologGAG core protein involved in signalingWg signaling defects
kon-tiki/perdido (kon/perd) neuron-glial antigen 2, CSPG4 orthologGAG core protein involved in extracellular matrix organizationdefects in extracellular matrix organization and glial proliferation
Multiplexin (Mp) collagen XV/XVIII orthologGAG core protein involved in signalingdefects in heart morphogenesis, motor axon pathfinding, and Slit/Robo, Wg signaling
windpipe (wdp) transmembrane protein with Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifsGAG core protein involved in signalingHh, Upd signaling defects
Chitin pathways
cystic/mummy (cyst/mmy)UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylaseinvolved in chitin synthesistracheal morphology and axon guidance defects
krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv)chitin synthasechitin synthesistracheal morphology defects
serpentine (serp) and vermiform (verm)multidomain proteins possessing chitin N-deacetylase domainschitin synthesistracheal morphology defects
Glycosphingolipid pathways
egghead (egh)GlcCer-specific β4ManTformation of Manβ1,4Glcβ1-CerNotch-like defects in cellular differentiation
brainiac (brn)mactosylceramide-specific β3GlcNAcTformation of GlcNAcβ3Manβ4Glcβ-CerNotch-like defects in cellular differentiation
β4GalNAcTA β4GalNAcT, homology with vertebrate β4GalTaddition of GalNAc to arthroseries triaosyl glycosphingolipidlocomotor behavioral deficits
α4GT1 α4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase 1addition of GalNAc to arthroseries tetraosyl glycosphingolipidregulates Notch signaling by interaction with Serrate
Lectins
Hemolectin (Hml) chitin binding domainchitin bindinghemolymph clotting
furrowed (fw)furrowed, a C-type lectinunknown binding preferencebristle and eye morphology defects, planar polarity defects
gliolectin (glec)gliolectin, an unclassified carbohydrate-binding proteinbinding preference for GlcNAc-terminated glycosphingolipidsaxon pathfinding abnormalities, Notch-like phenotypes in wing
Imaginal disc growth factor 1-5 (Idgf1-5) chitinase homology lacking key catalytic residuesunknown binding preferencecell proliferation and migration defects in imaginal tissues, impaired wound healing
mind the gap (mtg) MTG, an unclassified carbohydrate-binding proteinbinding preference for GlcNAcdisorganization of larval synaptomatrix at neuromuscular junction

From: Chapter 26, Arthropoda

Cover of Essentials of Glycobiology
Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition.
Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, et al., editors.
Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2022.
Copyright © 2022 The Consortium of Glycobiology Editors, La Jolla, California; published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; doi:10.1101/glycobiology.4e.26. All rights reserved.

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