Box 17.1Examples of Pandemic Preparedness and Response Activities, by Time Period

Prepandemic period (before a pandemic starts)

  • Stockpile building
  • Continuity planning
  • Public health workforce training
  • Simulation exercises
  • Risk transfer mechanism set-up
  • Situational awarenessa

Spark period (as a pandemic starts)

  • Initial outbreak detection
  • Pathogen characterization or laboratory confirmation
  • Risk communication and community engagement
  • Animal disease control
  • Contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation
  • Situational awarenessa

Spread period (after a pandemic starts)

  • Global pandemic declaration
  • Risk communications
  • Contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation
  • Social distancing
  • Stockpile deployment
  • Vaccine or antiviral administration
  • Care and treatment
  • Situational awarenessa

Situational awareness includes passive and active animal and human disease surveillance and monitoring of public health facilities and resources.

From: Chapter 17, Pandemics: Risks, Impacts, and Mitigation

Cover of Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty
Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty. 3rd edition.
Jamison DT, Gelband H, Horton S, et al., editors.
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