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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; 2006-.

Cover of Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®)

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet].

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Last Revision: August 15, 2023.

Estimated reading time: 1 minute

CASRN: 34031-32-8

image 134999267 in the ncbi pubchem database

Drug Levels and Effects

Summary of Use during Lactation

Excretion of gold into milk after auranofen has not been studied. Case reports with other gold salts indicate that gold appears in milk in small quantities and at least a little of it is absorbed because it is detectable in the infant's urine. No convincing cases of toxicity have been reported. Opinions of authors of review articles vary from recommending avoidance to allowing use.[1-5] Monitoring for possible adverse effects in the breastfed infant would seem prudent.

Drug Levels

Maternal Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Infant Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Effects in Breastfed Infants

Four infants reportedly have been breastfed during maternal gold therapy (including gold sodium thiomalate and gold aurothioglucose).[6-9] Transient facial edema occurred in an 18-month-old infant, 3 months after the mother's treatment stopped.[6] The reaction was possibly due to gold in the mother's milk ingested by the infant.

Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.


Østensen M. Treatment with immunosuppressive and disease modifying drugs during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Reprod Immunol 1992;28:148-52. [PubMed: 1285866]
Rayburn WF. Connective tissue disorders and pregnancy. Recommendations for prescribing. J Reprod Med 1998;43:341-9. [PubMed: 9583066]
Janssen NM, Genta MS. The effects of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory medications on fertility, pregnancy and lactation. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:610-9. [PubMed: 10724046]
Ramsey-Goldman R, Schilling E. Optimum use of disease-modifying and immunosuppressive antirheumatic agents during pregnancy and lactation. Clin Immunother 1996;5:40-58. doi:10.1007/BF03259314 [CrossRef]
Brooks PM, Needs CJ. Antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1990;4:157-71. [PubMed: 2282661]
Bell RA, Dale IM. Gold secretion in maternal milk. Arthritis Rheum 1976;19:1374. [PubMed: 826260]
Sørensen SS. [Pharmacodynamic examination of patients treated with gold preparations]. Nord Med 1970;84:1508. [PubMed: 5494985]
Bennett PN, Humphries SJ, Osborne JP, et al. Use of sodium aurothiomalate during lactation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1990;29:777-9. [PMC free article: PMC1380184] [PubMed: 2116162]
Blau SP. Metabolism of gold during lactation. Arthritis Rheum 1973;16:777-8. [PubMed: 4757877]

Substance Identification

Substance Name


CAS Registry Number


Drug Class

Breast Feeding


Milk, Human

Antirheumatic Agents

Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. You should consult your healthcare provider for breastfeeding advice related to your particular situation. The U.S. government does not warrant or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information on this Site.

Copyright Notice

Attribution Statement: LactMed is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Bookshelf ID: NBK501027PMID: 30000086


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